Faculty of Human, Social and Political Sciences hsps part II b tripos

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Faculty of Human, Social and Political Sciences


Part II 2016-17
Paper SOC11: Racism, ‘Race’ and Ethnicity
Course Organiser Monica Moreno Figueroa, mm2051@cam.ac.uk.
Lecturers Monica Moreno Figueroa (MMF), mm2051@cam.ac.uk

Manali Desai (MD), md644@cam.ac.uk

Antonio Sergio Guimaraes (ASG), asguima@usp.br

Ali Menghji (AG), am2059@cam.ac.uk

Peter R. Gardener (PRG), prg41@cam.ac.uk

Philip Luther-Davies (PLD), pl359@cam.ac.uk


Supervision will be organised centrally by Dr. Moreno Figueroa in the first lecture. Students and Directors of Studies may make their own independent arrangements, but should inform Dr. Moreno Figueroa before the first lecture, and at the latest by mid October.

Outline of the Paper
Aims and Objectives

  • To introduce the key theoretical debates and analytical approaches to the study of racism, ‘race’ and ethnicity.

  • To develop a critical understanding of the historical development and transformations of forms of racism and processes of racialization alongside ideas of ‘race’ and ethnicity.

  • To provide knowledge and understanding of the racial and ethnic divisions that are prevalent in Britain and beyond.

  • To develop an understanding of the interplay between key cultural, social and political forces and the rise of racism, racialization, ethnic division and violence.

  • To develop key intellectual and analytical skills in exploring issues of racism, ‘race’, and ethnicity in different areas of the world and with reference to their intersection with gender and class.

Brief description of the paper

This paper explores the emergence of contemporary forms of racism, modern notions of ‘race’ and ethnicity and the social and political forces that have shaped them. A critical approach to the understanding of ‘race’ will be developed and you will be encouraged to assess the social implications of contemporary practices of racism and persistent racial and racist ideas. As well as examining theoretical approaches to notions of ‘race’, the module will explore empirical analyses of the impact of racism in contemporary society. Key questions will include: How are racial ideas conceptualized and justified through a variety of biological, social and cultural discourses? How did ‘race’ and ethnicity come to be defined and embedded in the context of colonial and post-colonial rule? What are the, often complex, relations between ideas of ‘race’, the production of difference and identity, and the pervasiveness of social exclusion? Why does ‘race’ remain such a powerful determinant of individual and collective identities? What is the specificity of ethnicity in contemporary society? Why and how does ‘race’ and ethnicity matter?

Mode of teaching

The course is taught by means of 16 two-hour lectures, supervisions and classes. Lectures are central to this paper and students are strongly advised to attend all of them. Students are advised to write at least six short essays over the year addressing the supervision questions listed in this paper guide. The reading lists and essay questions below are meant to provide guidance for students and supervisors. Students are not expected to cover all of the topics, but to make a balanced selection in consultation with their supervisors. In general, lecturers will give supervisions on their course; but students should consult their College Director of Studies and the Course Organizer.

Mode of assessment

The paper will be examined by a three-hour paper at the end of the year. Students taking the examination must answer three questions from an undivided paper.

Outline of Lectures
The paper is taught in 2-hour lecture blocks.

Racism, ‘Race’ and Ethnicity – Lectures Schedule

Michaelmas (8 Lectures: Weeks 1-8) Lecturer: Monica Moreno Figueroa (MMF) and Philip Luther-Davies (PLD)
1. Histories of Race 1: The Emergence of 'Race' and Racism, Enlightenment and the Colonial Enterprise (MMF)
2. Histories of Race 2: The Science Fiction of 'Race' (MMF)
3. Histories of Race 3: Rethinking 'Race' and the move to Ethnicity (MMF)
4. Problematising Whiteness (MMF)
5. Orientalism and Islamophobia (MMF)
6.Anti-Semitism: its history, politics and the genocide of European Jews (PLD)
7. The Racialised Body I: Seeing 'Race', Visibilising Otherness (MMF)
8. The Racialised Body II: 'Race' And The Lure Of Beauty (MMF)
Lent (8 Lectures: Weeks 1-8) Lecturer: Ali Menghji (AM), Monica Moreno Figueroa (MMF); Antonio Sergio Guimaraes, Manali Desai and Peter Gardner
9. Post-racialism and anti anti-racism in Britain (AM)
10. Mixedness And Mixed-Race Identities (MMF)
11. Race in Latin America – Contemporary identity politics (ASG)
12. Racial quotas in Brazil (in higher education, and in the labor market) (ASG)
13. Ethnicity: Contemporary Debates (MD)
14. Diversity, Education and “Ethnic” Conflict (PRG)
15.  Caste in India  (MD)
16. Ethnic Violence in the Post-Colonial World (MD)

17. Revision Session MMF, PLD, SAG
18. Revision Session MD, AM, PRG


1. Histories of Race 1: The Emergence of ‘Race’, Enlightenment and the Colonial Enterprise (MMF)

After an introduction to the course, this lecture considers the emergence and development of modern ideas of race within a period of developing capitalism, slavery, and scientific and social fascination with classification, explanation and description of human difference. Such ideas created opportunities for Europeans to appear superior to others, opportunities which were particularly poignant in colonial enterprises.

David Brion, D. (1997) ‘Constructing Race: A Reflection’, The William and Mary Quarterly, 54 (1); 7-18.

*Eze, E. C. (Ed.) (1997) Race and the Enlightenment: A Reader, Oxford: Blackwell.

*Hall, S. (1996) ‘The West and the Rest’ in Hall, S. & Gieben, B. (Eds.), Formations of Modernity, Cambridge: Polity Press.

Hartman, Saidiya V. (1997) Scenes of Subjection: Terror, Slavery, and Self-Making in Nineteenth-Century America. (New York ; Oxford: Oxford University Press).

Hartman, Saidiya V. (2007) Lose Your Mother: A Journey Along the Atlantic Slave Route. (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux). (Chapters 2 and 3, pp. 49-83)

*Malik, K. (1996) The Meaning of Race: Race, History and Culture in Western Society, Basingstoke: Macmillan. (Mainly chapters 2 and 3)

McClintock, A. (1995) Imperial Leather: Race, Gender and Sexuality in the Colonial Context. New York: Routledge.

Miles, R. (2003) Racism, 2nd Edition, London: Routledge. (Chapter 1 – Representations of the Other)

Stoler, A. L. (2002) Carnal Knowledge and Imperial Power: Race and the Intimate in Colonial Rule, Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.

Supervision topic: What, if any, is the relationship between Enlightenment philosophy and the emergence of notions of race?

2. Histories of Race 2: The Science Fiction of ‘Race’ (MMF)

This lecture will explore the nineteenth century project of racial understanding that developed into what has been called scientific racism, involving forms of racial measurement and taxonomy. It will examine how historically specific ideas of race became ‘scientific truths’, and the implications of having the ‘respectability’ of science behind racist beliefs.
Banton, M. (1998) Racial Theories, (2nd Ed.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Dubow, S. (1995) Scientific Racism in Modern South Africa. (Cambridge England; New York, NY, USA: Cambridge university Press).

Farber, P. L. (2011) Mixing Races : From Scientific Racism to Modern Evolutionary Ideas. (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press).

*Lorimer, D.A. (1978) Colour, Class, and the Victorians: English Attitudes to the Negro in the Mid-Nineteenth Century, Leicester: Leicester University Press. (Chapter 7)

Somerville, S. (1997) ‘Scientific Racism and the Invention of the Homosexual Body’ in Lancaster, R.N. & Di Leonardo, M. (eds.) The Gender/Sexuality Reader. London: Routledge, pp 37-52.

*St. Louis, B. (2003) ‘Sport, Genetics, and the “Natural Athlete”: The Resurgence of Racial Science,’ Body and Society, 9(2): 75-95.

Stepan, N. (1982) The Idea of Race in Science: Great Britain 1800-1960, London: Macmillan (Introduction and chapters 1 to 3)

Tucker, W. H. (2002) The Funding of Scientific Racism: Wickliffe Draper and the Pioneer Fund. (Urbana: University of Illinois Press).

*Wade, P., C. López Beltrán, E. Restrepo, and R. Ventura Campos. Mestizo Genomics: Race Mixture, Nation, and Science in Latin America. (Mainly introduction and chapters 1-3)
Supervision topic: To what extent do debates around genomics reinvigorate scientific racism?

3. Histories of Race 3: Rethinking ‘Race’ and the Move to Ethnicity (MMF)

Alongside the strengthening of the scientific validation of race, unease with the concept also developed. This lecture will consider some of the scientific, moral and political bases of objections to the concept of race. It examines the challenges that arose when race was replaced with ‘ethnicity’, and their overlapping affective and symbolic foundations.
*Barkan, E. (1992) The Retreat of Scientific Racism: Changing Concepts of Race in Britain and the United States Between the World Wars, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Fenton, S. (2003) Ethnicity, Cambridge: Polity

Grosfoguel, R. (2004) ‘Race and Ethnicity or Racialized Ethnicities?: Identities within Global Coloniality’, Ethnicities, 4 (3); 315-336.

Huxley, J.S. & Haddon, A.C. (1938) We Europeans: A Survey of ‘Racial’ Problems, London: Jonathan Cape.

Jenkins, R. (1997) Rethinking Ethnicity, London: Sage.

Jiménez, Tomás R. (2010) 'Affiliative Ethnic Identity: A More Elastic Link between Ethnic Ancestry and Culture', Ethnic and Racial Studies, 33 (10); 1756-1775.

Karner, C. (2007) Ethnicity and Everyday Life, Oxon and New York: Routledge.

*Montagu, A. (1972) Statement on Race: An Annotated Elaboration and Exposition of the Four Statements on Race Issued By UNESCO, New York: Oxford University Press.

*Montagu, A. (1974) Man’s Most Dangerous Myth: The Fallacy of Race (5th Edition) London: Oxford University Press. (Chapter 1: ‘The Origin of the Concept of Race’)

Rex, J. (1986) Race and Ethnicity, Milton Keynes, England; Philadelphia: Open University Press.

Wade, P. (1997) Race and Ethnicity in Latin America, London: Pluto Press. (Chapter 1. The meaning of race and ethnicity).

Weber, M. (1978) ‘Ethnic Groups’ in Economy and Society, Volume 1, Berkeley: University of California Press.

Supervision topic: How is Ashley Montagu’s work relevant for understanding contemporary anti-racist activism and sociological thinking on race?

4. Problematising Whiteness (MMF)

To what extent is whiteness the social location of privilege? Whiteness has often been treated as a norm against which ‘abnormal’ races/ethnicities are measured. This lecture will consider ideas and depictions of whiteness as invisible, ‘normal’, ‘human’ and ‘universal’. It will assess critiques of attaching whiteness to the white body, and the implications this has for understanding privilege and racism.
*Back, L. and Ware, V. (Eds.) (2002) Out of Whiteness: Colour, Politics, and Culture, Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press. (introduction and chapter 2)

Bonnett, Alastair (2000) White Identities: Historical and International Perspectives. Harlow: Prentice Hall.

*Ferber, A. L. (2007) ‘Whiteness Studies and the Erasure of Gender’, Sociology Compass, 1 (1); 265-282.

*Frankenberg, R. (1993) White Women, Race Matters: The Social Construction of Whiteness, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. (Introduction, chapter 3 and Epilogue).

Gallagher, C. A. & F. W. Twine (2012) Retheorizing Race and Whiteness in the 21st Century: Changes and Challenges, London; New York: Routledge.

Garner, S. (2007) Whiteness: An Introduction, London and New York: Routledge.

Hughey, M. W. (2009) 'The (Dis)Similarities of White Racial Identities: The Conceptual Framework of 'Hegemonic Whiteness'', Ethnic and Racial Studies, 33 (8); 1289-1309.

Knowles, C. (2007) ‘The Landscape of Post-Imperial Whiteness in Rural Britain’, Ethnic and Racial Studies, 31 (1); 167-184.

Lipsitz, G. (1998) The Possessive Investment in Whiteness: How White People Profit from Identity Politics, Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.

Moreno Figueroa, Mónica G. (2010) 'Distributed Intensities: Whiteness, Mestizaje and the Logics of Mexican Racism', Ethnicities, 10 (3); 387–401.

*Nayak, A. (2007) ‘Critical Whiteness Studies’, Sociology Compass, 1 (2); 737–7 55.
Supervision topic: To what extent is whiteness an organising principle of late modernity?

5. Orientalism and Islamophobia (MMF)

In this session, we examine Edward Said’s influential notion of Orientalism and explore the invention and fixity of ‘the Orient’ and the consequences this has had for ‘West-East’ relations in terms of culture and power. We will consider the ways in which the construction of knowledge about the East contributed to the development of Western imperial ideologies and colonial expansion. We will then link this to the notion and phenomena of Islamophobia as a contemporary form of racism in relation to the notion of ‘the Orient’ and ‘West-East’ power relations. It will assess ways in which the construction of knowledge about the East contributed to the development of Western imperial ideologies and colonial expansion.

Ahmed, Sara (2006) Queer Phenomenology: Orientations, Objects, Others (Durham: Duke University Press). Chapter 3: The Orient and Other Others

*Allen, C. (2010) Islamophobia. Farnham, (Surrey: Ashgate). (Chapter 1, The First Decade of Islamophobia, and Chapter 6, ‘They’re All the Same’: Islamophobia in the Context of the UK)

*Allen, C., Isakjee, A. and Ögtem Young, Ö. (2013) "Maybe We Are Hated" The Exprience and Impact of Anti-Muslim Hate on British Muslim Women. [pdf] University of Birmingham: Institute of Applied Social Studies, School of Social Policy. Available at: http://tellmamauk.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/11/maybewearehated.pdf

Bravo López, Fernando (2011) ‘Towards a Definition of Islamophobia: Approximations of the Early Twentieth Century’, Ethnic and Racial Studies, 34 (4); 556-573.

Elouafi, Amy Aisen (2010) 'The Colour of Orientalism: Race and Narratives of Discovery in Tunisia', Ethnic and Racial Studies, 33 (2); 253-271.

Esposito, J.L. and Kalin, I., eds. (2011) Islamophobia: The Challenge of Pluralism in the 21st Century. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Fekete, L. (2009) A Suitable Enemy: Racism, Migration and Islamophobia in Europe. London: Pluto Press.

Kabbani, Rana & Rana Kabbani (1994) Imperial Fictions: Europe's Myths of Orient (London: Pandora).

Klug, B. (2012) 'Islamophobia: A Concept Comes of Age', Ethnicities, 12, 5: 665-681.

Lowe, Lisa (1991) Critical Terrain: French and British Orientalisms (Ithaca: Cornell University Press).

Macfie, A. L. (2000) Orientalism: A Reader. (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press).

Morey, P. and Yaqin, A. (2011) Framing Muslims: Stereotyping and Representation after 9/11. London: Harvard University Press.

Runnymede Trust: Commission on British Muslims and Islamophobia. (1997) Islamophobia: a challenge for us all. London: Runnymede Trust.

*Said, E. (1985) 'Orientalism Reconsidered', in Cultural Critique, No. 1. (Autumn, 1985), pp. 89-107.

*Said, Edward W. (2003) Orientalism, London: Penguin.

Said, E. (1989) 'Representing the Colonized: Anthropology's Interlocutors', in Critical Inquiry, Vol. 15, No. 2, (Winter, 1989), pp. 205-225

Sharma S and Sharma A (2003) 'White Paranoia: Orientalism in the age of Empire', Fashion Theory, 7(4): 301-318.

*Werbner, P. (2013) 'Folk Devils and Racist Imaginaries in a Global Prism: Islamophobia and Anti-Semitism in the Twenty-First Century', Ethnic and Racial Studies, 36, 3: 450-67.

*Yegenoglu, M. (1998) Colonial Fantasies: Towards a Feminist Reading of Orientalism, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (Chapter 2: Veiled Fantasies: Cultural and Sexual Difference in the Discourse of Orientalism)

Supervision topic: How can religion become a source for racism? Answer with reference to two examples relating to Islam.

Supervision topic: What is the Orient? How it is actively produced? Answer with reference to specific cases.

6. Anti-Semitism: its history, politics and the genocide of European Jews (PLD)

This topic will outline the history of European anti-Semitism from the modern period into the 20th Century and how the racialisation of Jewish people in Europe was tied into European modernity. We will examine both non-Jewish and Jewish responses to anti-Semitism from the 19th Century onwards with an emphasis on Jewish and non-Jewish streams of Zionism and anti-Zionism. This topic will try to merge the history with some of the pressing theoretical questions at hand in the academy and wider world.

Anti-Semitism & The Holocaust

Almog, S. 1991. ‘Judaism as Illness, Antisemitic Stereotype and Self-Image', in: History of European Ideas, 13:6, pp. 793-804

Boyarin, D. 1997. Unheroic Conduct: The Rise of Heterosexuality and the Invention of the Jewish Man.

Katz, J. From Prejudice to Destruction: Anti-Semitism, 1700 – 1933. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press

*Kenez, P. 2013. The Coming of the Holocaust: From Antisemitism to Genocide. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press [CH 4 – 6] http://search.lib.cam.ac.uk/?itemid=|eresources|579853

*Langmuir, G. 1996. Toward a Definition of Antisemitism. Berkeley: University of California Press [CH 3, 4] (http://search.lib.cam.ac.uk/?itemid=|eresources|6537)

*Marcus, K. 2015. The Definition of Anti-Semitism [CH 1 – 2, 5] (http://search.lib.cam.ac.uk/?itemid=|eresources|555737)

Sartre, JP. 1995 [1948]. Anti-Semite and Jew. New York: Schocken Books

Responses to Anti-Semitism

*Butler, J. 2012. Parting Ways: Jewishness and the Critique of Zionism. New York: Columbia University Press

Byrne, R. 2011. ‘Re-Masculinizing the Jew: Gender and Zionism Until the First World War’, http://www.gnovisjournal.org/2011/04/04/re-masculinizing-the-jew-gender-and-zionism-until-the-first-world-war/

*Chetrit, S.S. 2010. Intra-Jewish Conflict in Israel: White Jews, Black Jews. London: Routledge [Intro & CH 1] http://search.lib.cam.ac.uk/?itemid=|eresources|325305

Klaar, H. ‘The “Never Again” State of Israel: The Emergence of the Holocaust as a Core Feature of Israeli Identity and Its Four Incongruent Voices’, in Journal of Social Sciences, 69:1, pp. 125 – 143

Pappe, I. 2014. The Idea of Israel: A History of Power and Knowledge. London: Verso Publishers

Supervision topic: Compare and contrast how anti-Semitism, Zionism and anti-Zionism are similar, dissimilar or both?

7. The Racialised Body I: Seeing ‘Race’, Visibilising Otherness (MMF)

Is race marked on the body in the form of physical and visible characteristics? This lecture will interrogate relationships between visibility and racial identification. It will explore the relationship of the emergence of photography and visual culture to racist thinking, and reflect on how constructions of ‘otherness’ affect how bodies are inhabited as well as represented. Since ‘race’ and ethnicity are open to visual exploration we will draw on the history and social theories of photography to consider its development alongside racist thinking.

*Apel, D. (2003) ‘On Looking: Lynching Photographs and Legacies of Lynching After 9/11’, American Quarterly, 55 (3); 457-478.

Bhabha, H. K. (2005) The Location of Culture, London: Routledge.

*Frantz, F. (1986) Black Skins, White Masks. London: Paladin (Chapter 5: ‘The Fact of Blackness’).

*Hall, S. (1997) ‘The Spectacle of the “Other”’ in Hall, S., Representation: Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices, (Milton Keynes: Open University Press). Pp. 223-290

Hall, S. (1999) ‘Introduction: Looking and Subjectivity’ in J. Evans & Hall, S. (eds.) Visual Culture: The Reader, (Great Britain: Sage Publications and The Open University), pp. 309-314.

Knowles, C. (2006) ‘Seeing Race through the Lens’, Ethnic and Racial Studies 29 (3): 512-529.

*Moreno Figueroa, M. G. (2008) 'Looking Emotionally: Photography, Racism and Intimacy in Research', History of the Human Sciences, 21 (4); 66-83.

*Poole, D. (1997) Vision, Race, and Modernity: A Visual Economy of the Andean Image World. (Princeton: Princeton University Press). (Introduction)

Ryan, J. (1997) Picturing Empire: Photography and the Visualization of the British Empire, (Chicago: University of Chicago Press).

Williams, C., J. (2003) Framing the West. Race, Gender, and the Photographic Frontier in the Pacific Northwest (New York: Oxford University Press).

Supervision topic: “The visual field is not neutral to the question of race: it is itself a racial formation, a system of understanding, hegemonic and forceful” (Butler 2005, 141-142). Discuss with reference to TWO case studies.

8. The Racialised Body II: ‘Race’ and the Lure of Beauty (MMF)

In this lecture we will continue with the exploration of how ‘race’ is often considered to be ‘marked’ on the body in the form of physical characteristics. Now we will focus on the relation between parameters of beauty, appearance, physical features and racialised perceptions of skin colour. We will reflect on beauty and its impact and materialisation in female and male racialised bodies, bodies where the skin is both witness and bearer of history.
Ahmed, S. (1998) ‘Animated Borders: Skin, Colour and Tanning’ in Shildrick, M. & Price, J. (eds.) Vital signs: Feminist Reconfigurations of the Bio/logical Body, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 45-65.

*Craig, M. L. (2006) ‘Race, Beauty, and the Tangled Knot of a Guilty Pleasure’, Feminist Theory, 7 (2); 159-177.

*Edmonds, Alexander (2007) 'Triumphant Miscegenation: Reflections on Beauty and Race in Brazil' in Journal of Intercultural Studies 28:1, 83-97.

Felski, Rita (2006) ‘“Because It Is Beautiful”: New Feminist Perspectives on Beauty’, Feminist Theory, 7 (2); 273-282.

Gordon, D. (2013) 'A Beleza Abre Portas: Beauty and the Racialised Body among Black Middle-Class Women in Salvador, Brazil', Feminist Theory, 14 (2); 203-218.

Hobson, J. (2005) Venus in the dark: blackness and beauty in popular culture. London: Routledge.

*Holliday, R. & Sanchez Taylor, J. (2006) ‘Aesthetic Surgery as False Beauty’, Feminist Theory, 7 (2); 179-195.

Mitter, P. (2000) ‘The Hottentot Venus and the Western Man: Reflections on the Construction of Beauty in the West’ in Hallem, E. and B. V. Street (Eds.) Cultural Encounters: Representing ‘Otherness’, London: Routledge.

*Moreno Figueroa, M. G. (2013) 'Displaced Looks: The Lived Experience of Beauty and Racism', Feminist Theory, 14 (2); 137-151.

Nichols, E. G. (2013) '‘Decent Girls with Good Hair’: Beauty, Morality and Race in Venezuela', Feminist Theory, 14 (2); 171-185.

Rivers-Moore, M. (2013) 'Affective Sex: Beauty, Race and Nation in the Sex Industry', Feminist Theory, 14 (2); 153-169.

Tate, S. (2013) 'The Performativity of Black Beauty Shame in Jamaica and Its Diaspora: Problematising and Transforming Beauty Iconicities', Feminist Theory, 14 (2); 219-235.

Supervision topic: ‘Beauty is a gendered, racialised and contested symbolic resource’ (Craig 2007:160) Discuss with reference to specific case studies.
9. Post-racialism and anti anti-racism in Britain (AM)
This lecture will be composed of two parts. Firstly, we will explore the emergence and development of critical race theory as a theoretical framework for analysing racism. This will involve discussing the benefits of both micro and macro approaches to racism, and how various critical race scholars have sought to bring these different levels together in a single theory of racism. We will then examine how critical race theory can be used to better understandings of race, racialisation and racism in contemporary Britain. The focus on the contemporary racial climate will require us to engage with the emergence of post-racial ideology, and the idea of ‘reverse racism’ (racism towards white people).
On critical race theory:

*Bonilla-Silva, Eduardo. 2010. Racism without Racists: Color-Blind Racism and the Persistence of Racial Inequality in the United States. 3rd ed. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield [Esp. chapters 1,2,4, 10]

*Bonilla-Silva, Eduardo. 2015. “More than Prejudice: Restatement, Reflections, and New Directions in Critical Race Theory.” Sociology of Race and Ethnicity 1 (1): 73–87.

*Delgado, Richard, and Jean Stefencic. 2001. Critical Race Theory: An Introduction. New York: New York University Press [Esp. chapter 1 A-H, chapter 2 A-C].

Bonilla-Silva, Eduardo. 1997. “Rethinking Racism: Toward a Structural Interpretation.” American Sociological Review 62 (3): 465–80.

Costa, Alexandre Da. 2014. “Confounding Anti-Racism: Mixture, Racial Democracy, and Post-Racial Politics in Brazil.” Critical Sociology: 1-19.

Golash-Boza, Tanya. 2016. “A Critical and Comprehensive Sociological Theory of Race and Racism.” Sociology of Race and Ethnicity 2 (2): 129–41.

Ladson-Billings, Gloria. 1999. “Just What Is Critical Race Theory, and What’s It Doing in a Nice Field like Education?” In Race Is... Race Isn’t: Critical Race Theory and Qualitative Studies in Education, edited by Laurence Parker, Donna Deyhle, and Sofia Villenas, 7–30. Westview, CO: Westview Press.

Valdes, Francisco, Jerome McCristal Culp, and Angela Harris. 2002. Crossroads, Directions and A New Critical Race Theory. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.
Applying critical race theory to Britain:

*Kapoor, Nisha. 2011. “The Advancement of Racial Neoliberalism in Britain.” Ethnic and Racial Studies 36 (6): 1028–46.

*Gillborn, David. 2010. “The White Working Class, Racism and Respectability: Victims, Degenerates and Interest-Convergence.” British Journal of Educational Studies 58 (1): 3–25.

*Gillborn, David. 2015. “The Monsterisation of Race Equality: How Hate Became Honourable.” The Runnymede School Report Race, Education and Inequality in Contemporary Britain. London: Runnymede Trust. http://www.runnymedetrust.org/uploads/The%20School%20Report.pdf

Ambikaipaker, Mohan. 2015. “Liberal Exceptions: Violent Racism and Routine Anti-Racist Failure in Britain.” Ethnic and Racial Studies 38 (12): 2055–70.

Gillborn, David. 2006. “Rethinking White Supremacy Who Counts in ‘WhiteWorld.’” Ethnicities 6 (3): 318–40.

Gillborn, David. 2013. “Racism as Policy: A Critical Race Analysis of Education Reforms in the United States and England.” The Educational Forum 78 (1): 26–41.

Paul, Joshua. 2014. “Post-Racial Futures: Imagining Post-Racialist Anti-Racism(s).” Ethnic and Racial Studies 37 (4): 702–18.

[For historical reference]:

Solomos, John. 2003. Race and Racism in Britain. 3rd ed. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Mason, David. 2000. Race and Ethnicity in Modern Britain. 2nd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Supervision Topic 1: To what extent is critical race theory useful in understanding contemporary racism in Britain?

Supervision Topic 2: Is Britain post-racial?
10. Mixedness and Mixed-Race Identities (MMF)
How do mixed-race identities dislocate and rupture notions of race and ethnicity? While challenging hybrid degenerative theories, individuals who place themselves as mixed-race offer other perspectives on the lived experiences of racism, as well as new insights into prejudice and discrimination.

Ali, S. (2003) Mixed-Race, Post-Race: Gender, New Ethnicities, and Cultural Practices (Oxford, UK, New York: Berg).

Aspinall, P. J. & M. Song (2013) Mixed Race Identities, New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Farber, P. L. (2011) Mixing Races: From Scientific Racism to Modern Evolutionary Ideas, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

*Gilbert, D. (2005) ‘Interrogating Mixed-Race: A Crisis of Ambiguity?’ in Social Identities, 11, (1); 55-74.

Harman, V. (2009). "Experiences of racism and the changing nature of white privilege among lone white mothers of mixed-parentage children in the UK." Ethnic and Racial Studies 33(2): 176-194.

Hodes, M. (ed.), (1999), White women, black men: illicit sex in the nineteenth-century South, London: Yale University Press.

*Ifekwunigwe, J. O. (1999) Scattered Belongings, London: Routledge. (Chapter 1).

Ifekwunigwe, J. O. (2004) Mixed Race Studies: A Reader, London: Routledge.

Parker, D. and Song, M. (2001) Rethinking mixed race. London: Pluto Press.

Sexton, J. (2003) ‘The Consequence of Race Mixture: Racialised Barriers and the Politics of Desire’, Social Identities, 9, (2), pp. 241-275.

Stoler, A. (1992) 'Sexual Affronts and Racial Frontiers: European Identities and the Cultural Politics of Exclusion in Colonial Southeast Asia', Comparative Studies in Society and History, 34 (3); 514-551.

*Thompson, D. (2011) ‘Making (Mixed-)Race: Census Politics and the Emergence of Multiracial Multiculturalism in the United States, Great Britain and Canada’, Ethnic and Racial Studies, 35 (8); 1409-1426.

*Twine, F. W. (2010) A White Side of Black Britain: Interracial Intimacy and Racial Literacy, Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press. (Introduction)
Supervision topic: What are the implications for the UK that the ‘mixed’ population is now one of the fastest growing?
11.     Race in Latin America – Contemporary identity politics
The discourse on racial democracy created by modernist Latin American intellectuals of the 1930s became in the 1980s the biggest obstacle to the construction of ethnic and racial identities sustaining the political struggle against racial inequality and racism. Blacks and indigenous people of Latin America counterpoised to the state discourse of racial democracy, denouncing the whitening and destruction of African and indigenous cultural heritage. Theoretically, the ethnic-racial organizations unmasked the prevalence of the idea of race in social practices and, in the political arena, advocated by measures to combat prejudice and discrimination and to the adoption of public policies of affirmative action.
Elena, Eduardo. (2016) Argentina in Black and white IN Paulina Alberto and Eduardo Elena Rethinking race in modern Argentina, Cambridge University Press, 184-212.

*Fry, Peter. (2000) Politics, nationality, and the meanings of ‘race’ in Brazil, Daedalus, Spring, pp. 83-118.

Fuente, Alejandro de la (1999) Myths of Racial Democracy: Cuba, 1900-1912. Latin American Research Review, Vol. 34, No. 3 (1999), pp. 39-73

Guimaraes, Antonio S. A. (2007) After racial democracy. Translated by Renato Rezende. Tempo social. [online]., vol.3

* Guimaraes, Antonio S. A. (2013) Black identities in Brazil: ideologies and rethoric. http://www.desigualdades.net/Resources/Working_Paper/52_WP_AS_Guimaraes_Online.pdf?1378981903

Hanchard, Michael.  (1994) Movements and moments IN Orpheus and Power. The Movimento Negro of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, Brazil, 1945-1988 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1994) pp. 99-141.

Wade, Peter (2010). The presence and absence of race, Patterns of Prejudice, 44:1, 43-60, DOI: 10.1080/00313220903507628

Wade, Peter (2013). Blackness, Indigeneity, Multiculturalism and Genomics in Brazil, Colombia and Mexico. Journal Latin American Studies. pp. 205-233.


Supervision topic: The idea of racial democracy was harshly criticized in the 1980s and 1990s. Evaluate the debate.



12. Racial quotas in Brazil (in higher education, and in the labor market)
My lecture will highlight three main points: first, the historical mobilization in favor of quotas in public higher education from 1996 onwards, its political momentum with the Durban Conference of 2001, and the political alliance constructed in favor of it; second, the changes in racial classification preceding and following this political struggle; and finally, I will expose the current structure of affirmative action policies in place both in higher education and in the public sector.
Francis-Tan, A. and M. Tannuri-Pianto (2015). "Inside the black box: affirmative action and the social construction of race in Brazil." Ethnic and Racial Studies 38(15): 2771-2790.

* Htun, Mala. 2004.From “Racial Democracy” to Affirmative Action: Changing State Policy on Race in Brazil”, Latin American Research Review, Vol. 39, No. 1, February 2004.

Santos, Sales Augusto dos. 2006. “Who Is Black in Brazil? A Timely or a False Question in Brazilian Race Relations in the Era of Affirmative Action?”. Latin American Perspectives, Volume 33, Number 4 (July 2006)  

Schwartzman, Luisa Farah & Paiva, Angela Randolpho. Not just racial quotas: affirmative action in Brazilian higher education 10 years later, British Journal of Sociology of Education, Vol. 37, Iss. 4, 2016.


Supervision topic: Racial quotas can really work in mixed-race society? Why?

13. Ethnicity: contemporary debates (MD)


14. Diversity, Education and “Ethnic” Conflict (PRG)

This lecture will discuss the approaches to national, racial and ethnic diversity within education systems: the ways in which notions of difference are constructed, organised and positioned within the school. Initially we will look at various theories and mechanisms for disrupting monocultural and assimilatory pedagogies, focusing upon forms of multiculturalism. We then move on to discuss education in societies which have experienced intercommunal conflict. Taking Northern Ireland, Bosnia i Herzegovina and Sri Lanka as examples, we assess the school as a peace-building or conflict-perpetuating space.
*Banks, James A., ed. 2009. The Routledge International Companion to Multicultural Education. London: Routledge. (Chapters 1 & 2).

Garvey, John. 1996. “My Problem with Multi-Cultural Education.” in Race Traitor, edited by J. Garvey and N. Ignatiev. London: Routledge.

*Bush, Kenneth and Diana Saltarelli. 2000. The Two Faces of Education in Ethnic Conflict. Florence: UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre. (available online)

*Kilpatrick, Rosemary and Ruth Leitch. 2004. “Teachers’ and Pupils’ Educational Experiences and School-Based Responses to the Conflict in Northern Ireland.” Journal of Social Issues 60(3):563–86.

Dunn, Seamus and Valerie Morgan. 1999. “‘A Fraught Path’: Education as a Basis for Developing Improved Community Relations in Northern Ireland.” Oxford Review of Education 25(1&2):141–53.

Murray, Dominic. 1985. Worlds Apart: Segregated Schools in Northern Ireland. Belfast: Appletree Press.

Hill, Kelly. 2011. “Possibilities for Social Cohesion in Education: Bosnia-Herzegovina.” Peabody Journal of Education 86(2):155–70.

Torsti, Pilvi. 2009. “Segregated Education and Texts: A Challenge to Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina.” International Journal on World Peace 26(2):65–82.

Cardozo, M. T. L. (2008). Sri Lanka: In peace or in pieces? A critical approach to peace education in Sri Lanka. Research in Comparative and International Education, 3(1), 19-35.

Lopes Cardozo, M. T., & Hoeks, C. C. (2015). Losing ground: a critical analysis of teachers’ agency for peacebuilding education in Sri Lanka. Journal of Peace Education, 12(1), 56-73.

McGlynn, Claire, ed. 2009. Peace Education in Conflict and Post-Conflict Societies: Comparative Perspectives. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Korostelina, Karina V. 2013. History Education in the Formation of Social Identity: Toward a Culture of Peace. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. (Chapters 1 & 2).

Supervision Topic: Are single and dual identity work productive tools for peace-building education? Refer to one or two case studies in your answer.
15. Caste in India (MD)
This session examines how caste was formalized and institutionalized during colonial and post-colonial rule in India. We will examine the specificities of the caste system, its relationship to the social and political structures of society, and ask why it still persists.
*Cohn, B. (1989) ‘The Invention of Caste: Civil Society in Colonial India,’ Social Analysis: The International Journal of Social and Cultural Practice, No. 25, pp. 42-52.

*Deshpande, A. (2011) The Grammar of Caste: Economic Discrimination in Contemporary India. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Esp chps. 1,4,6.

Galanter, M. (1991) Competing Equalities: Law and the Backward Classes in India. Delhi, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

*Gupta, D. (ed.) (2004) Caste in Question: Identity or Hierarchy? New Delhi: Sage.

Jaffrelot, C. (2004) India’s Silent Revolution: The Rise of the Lower Castes in North India. London: Hurst.

Pandey, G. (2014) A History of Prejudice: Race, Caste and Difference in India and the United States. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Searle-Chatterjee, M. and Sharma, U. eds. (1994) Contextualizing Caste: Post-Dumontian Approaches. Oxford: Blackwell.

Srinivas, M.N. (1962) Caste in Modern India and Other Essays.

Srinivas, M.N. (1996) Caste: Its Twentieth Century Avatar. Viking: New Delhi.

*Thorat, S. and Newman, K. eds. (2012) Blocked by Caste: Economic Discrimination in Modern India. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Esp. chps 1,2,3.

Supervision topic: Why does the caste system persist in India despite rapid modernization and economic transformation?
16. Ethnic Violence in the Post-Colonial World (MD)
There has been a steady growth in ethnic violence since the 1990s, and there is much debate about the causes of this violence. How much can be attributed to globalization, and how much to the specific state-society dynamics of each case? Did colonial rule play a major role in creating the notion of ethnicity? Why do ethnic divisions result in extreme, genocidal violence in some cases?
Brass, P. (2003) The Production of Hindu-Muslim Violence in Contemporary India. Seattle: University of Washington Press.

Chua, A. (2003) World on Fire: How Exporting Free Market Democracy Breeds Ethnic Hatred and Global Instability. New York: Knopf Doubleday

Longman, T. (2001) ‘‘Identity Cards, Ethnic Self-Perception, and Genocide in Rwanda’’ in Jane Caplan and John Torpey, (eds). Documenting Individual Identity: The Development of State Practices in the Modern World.

*Uvin, P. (2002) “On Counting, Categorizing and Violence in Burundi and Rwanda” in Kertzer, David and Dominique Arel. Census and Identity: The Politics of Race, Ethnicity, and Language in National Censuses.

*Mamdani, M. (2001) When Victims Become Killers: Colonialism, Nativism, and the Genocide in Rwanda. Chp 3.

Tambiah, Stanley (1996), Levelling Crowds: Ethnonationalist Conflicts and Collective Violence in South Asia. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press. Chps 7 and 8.

Fujii, Ann Lee (2009), Killing Neighbours: Networks of Violence in Rwanda. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. Chp 5,6.

Sidel, John. 2006. Riots, Pogroms, Jihad: Religious Violence in Indonesia. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. Chps 6,7.

Mann, M. (2005) The Dark Side of Democracy: Explaining Ethnic Cleansing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Chps 14-16.

Prunier, Gerard (2008), Darfur: A 21st Century Genocide. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Straus, Scott (2006), The Order of Genocide: Race, Power, and War in Rwanda. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

*Varshney, A. (2002) Ethnic Conflict and Civic Life: Hindus and Muslims in

India. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Esp. chps 2, 5, 9, 10.

Hansen, T. B. (2002), Wages of Violence: Naming and Identity in Post-Colonial Bombay. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Supervision topic: Using one or two case studies discuss the relative role of state and social networks in producing ethnic violence.

SOC 11

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