Extreme Sports Expository Reading and Writing Course Cage Fighting / mma



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Extreme Sports

Cage Fighting / MMA

  • 1

Street Luge

  • 1

Skateboarding

  • 1

X - Games

  • 1

More X Games

  • 1

X Games / Snowboarding

  • 1

Hangliding / Parasailing

  • ^^^Over Everest!!^^^

Base Jumping / Wingsuit Flying

Pair / Share

  • Why do you think people are attracted to extreme sport activities?
  • Now that you’ve discussed the whys, what are the potential outcomes to participating in extreme sports?
  • 1

Background Information

  • Look at the pictures in Claire Davidson’s article “The World’s Most Dangerous Sports.” Do they frighten you?
  • Do they motivate you to learn more about any sport?
  • 1

Let’s Read!

  • “The World’s Most Dangerous Sports” (first 9 paragraphs)
  • In groups, read your assigned section and summarize or paraphrase that section – in writing. Do a good job, because….
  • Each group will present their summaries to the rest of the class. See why I told you to do a good job? 
  • 2

What do you think?

  • Now that you’ve read it, what do you think is the purpose of Ms. Davidson’s article?
  • Is it a warning? Is it merely informative? Etc….
  • 2
  • Write a short paragraph explaining which extreme sport would be the most exciting or frightening to you.
  • Which would you be least or most likely to participate in?
  • Why or why not?
  • 2

Brainstorm!!!!

  • What are some words that you associate with extreme sports?
  • 2

Are extreme sports a good idea? Why or why not?

  • Are extreme sports a good idea? Why or why not?
  • 2

Surveying The Text

  • What does the title “Extreme Sports Not About Risk-Taking: Study” tell you about the author’s point of view on the dangers and reasons people participate in extreme sports?
  • What is the purpose of the article?
  • 2

Surveying the Text

  • What does the title “Camp For Kids With Autism Offers Extreme Therapy” suggest about the author’s position or point of view on the dangers and reasons people participate in extreme sports?
  • What is the purpose of the article?
  • 2

Surveying the Text

  • What does the title “A Solemn Warning to Wingsuit Flyers” by Lola Jones suggest about the author’s position or point of view on the dangers and reasons people participate in extreme sports?
  • What do you feel is the purpose of the article?
  • 2

Surveying the Text

  • On the basis of the title “A Solemn Warning to Wingsuit Flyers,” what do you think the author’s position will be?
  • Consider the source: is it a blog, an editorial, or an informational report?
  • 2

Surveying the Text

  • Based on the titles, in what ways do you tnink Jones’ article will be similar or different to the Donvan article, “Camp for kids with Autism Offers Extreme Therapy”?
  • In what ways will it be different?
  • 2

Making Predictions and Asking Questions

  • Considering the article “Extreme Sports Not About Risk-taking: Study,” what arguments do you think the author will make?
  • Let’s read the first four paragraphs.
  • Where does the introduction end in “Extreme Sports Not About Risk-taking: Study?
  • 3

Making Predictions and Asking Questions

  • Let’s read the first three paragraphs of “A Solemn Warning To Wingsuit Flyers.”
  • According to the text, was your original prediction about the author’s content and purpose correct?
  • Where does the introduction end in this article?
  • 3

Making Predictions and Asking Questions

  • Let’s read the first two paragraphs of ABC News’ “Camp for Kids with Autism Offers Extreme Therapy.”
  • What question would you most like to ask Donvan?
  • Maybe something like: What is autism? What does autism have to do with taking extreme risks?
  • 3

Making Predictions and Asking Questions

  • In the last paragraph of Donvan’s article, what word or phrase(s) seem to give his argument ethos, or credibility?
  • He offers proof because he states that the “…sign the camp works: Most of the campers come back.”
  • 3

Making Predictions and Asking Questions

  • Reword the titles and subtitles and turn them into questions to be answered after you read the full articles.
  • What is the solemn warning to Wingsuit Flyers?
  • Are Extreme Sports about the risk taking? How does the camp benefit kids with autism?
  • 3

Making Predictions and Asking Questions

  • Let’s read the last paragraphs of each of the articles.
  • How are they different?
  • Jones: Ends with condolences to those close to Robson.
  • Donvan: Ends with praise for the camp and it’s success.
  • Extreme Sports not about the risk ends with testimony acknowledging people for different reasons other than an adrenaline rush.
  • 3

Making Predictions and Asking Questions

  • What is the source of each article (magazine, journal, blog, newspaper, etc.) – and why does it matter?
  • 3

Introducing Key Vocabulary

  • Terms
  • Definition
  • Know it
  • Heard It
  • Don’t Know It
  • adrenaline junkies
  • syndrome
  • lose inhibitions
  • aversion to risk
  • genetic condition
  • autism
  • visceral
  • unsanctioned
  • 4
  • those addicted to the rush adrenaline produces when taking risks or facing danger
  • An idea or affliction causing suffering
  • to someone
  • ignore internal warning signs
  • Our natural resistance to risk
  • Trait linked to our DNA
  • Condition in which stimulation drastically
  • affects a person’s behavior
  • instinctive

Semantic Map

  • In groups, create a semantic map for each of the vocabulary terms on the chart.
  • For Example:
  • 4
  • Reason:
  • Thrill
  • Challenge
  • Defy death
  • Activity:
  • Base Jumping
  • Wingsuit Flying
  • Parasailing
  • adrenaline junkie
  • Result:
  • Personal Challenge
  • Bucket List
  • Live Like Larry

First Reading – “Extreme Sports Not About Risk-taking: Study

  • Let’s finally read all of these articles in their entirety, starting with “Extreme Sports Not About Risk-taking: Study”
  • Of your original predictions, which were right? Which did you have to modify as you reread the article?
  • 5

First Reading – “Extreme Sports Not About Risk-taking: Study”

  • Identify the sentence that includes the main idea of the article.
  • Paragraph 3: “Dr. Brymer found that, although the image of those who take part in extreme sports was that of risk-takers and adrenaline junkies, the opposite was true.”
  • 5

First Reading – “A Solemn Warning to Wingsuit Flyers”

  • SAY / MEAN / MATTER: What does it SAY, what does it MEAN, and why does it MATTER?
  • Complete the chart on to answer these questions: Does the Lola Jones have a position or bias on the issue? What, if anything, does Jones suggest needs to be done about the issue? What did she SAY? What did she MEAN? Why does it MATTER?
  • 5

First Reading – “Camp for Kids with Autism Offers Extreme Therapy”

  • Select one phrase, statement or fact that surprised you about kids with autism.
  • Why did it surprise you?
  • What does it SAY / MEAN / MATTER?
  • 5

First Reading: Say/Mean/Matter

  • You’ve identified some important facts or points from each of the articles. Using the chart, discuss in groups what those facts and points actually “mean” in regards to the issue, and how or why it is important.
  • What does it Say / Mean / Matter?

First Reading: Say / Mean / Matter

  • You’ve identified some important facts or points from each of the articles in the previous activity.
  • In groups, and using the following table, discuss what the facts and points actually “mean” in regards to the issue, and why or how it is important to the issue. After a bit, we’ll be sharing our findings….
  • 6

First Reading – Say / Mean / Matter

  • Source: Title & Author Location: page & paragraph
  • Excerpt / text
  • What does it SAY?
  • What does it MEAN?
  • Why does it MATTER?
  • “Solemn Warning” Jones Paragraph 9
  • “It is an inherently dangerous sport, but a sport participated in by people with huge skydiving experience…”
  • Wingsuit flying is dangerous
  • Be very experienced in a related sport before trying
  • Implies that people need to make up their own mind if this is for them or not
  • “Camp for kids with autism….”, Para. 24
  • “Gilstrap wants campers to struggle, but only so much.”
  • Doesn’t want them to struggle too much
  • He wants them to achieve difficult goals, but not push themselves too far
  • Shows he has the kids’ best interests in mind.
  • 6

Looking Closely at Language: Loaded Words

  • Does anyone remember recently talking about words that have a negative or positive connotation?
  • Anyone? Anyone?
  • “Loaded words” are words or phrases that reveal an author’s bias on an issue or point in a text.
  • 6

Looking Closely at Language Loaded Words

  • If we scan the article “Extreme Sports Not About Risk Taking” we can look for “loaded words” that clearly show that the author has an opinion or bias about a fact or piece of information.
  • 6

Looking Closely at Language Loaded Words

  • Loaded Word or Phrase
  • Literal Meaning
  • Author’s Bias Suggested
  • Article / Source
  • 6
  • Adrenaline Junkies
  • People who crave adrenaline
  • Reveals some in society may have a negative connotation towards extreme sports participation
  • “Extreme Sports…”
  • In groups, scan through the articles and see if you can find
  • more loaded words. Find at least two per article!

Rereading The Text I-Chart

  • As you reread the articles, complete the following I-Chart to help compare and contrast key ideas from the articles so each author’s position to significant issues presented and the points each author makes about the issues can be analyzed.
  • This I-Chart asks three questions that each article addresses in some way.

I-Chart

  • Article
  • How does the article characterize people that participate in Extreme Sports?
  • What is the author’s bias on Extreme Sports?
  • Effects of Extreme Sports

Rereading and Annotating the Text

  • So let’s reread Davidson’s article and make annotations to identify the following:
  • Draw a line where the Introduction ends. Where does the author stop making general statements and begin making a specific point about extreme sports?

Rereading and Annotating the Text

  • 2. What is the issue or problem being addressed?
  • Label each point or topic sentence at the beginning of each sentence in either the margin or in the space between each line.
  • Label the first point P1, the second P2 and so on.

Rereading and Annotating the Text

  • 3. Author’s supporting evidence
  • Use parenthesis { } to identify the facts, opinions and comments the text provides to support each point.
  • The { } should begin at the end of one point and include each supporting commentary until the next point begins.
  • The { } should stretch down the paper until the next point begins, where you label the second point, P2

Rereading and Annotating the Text

  • 4. Now draw a line where the Conclusion begins.
  • See how easy this can be?

Considering the Structure of the Text Organization

  • As you reread the texts, you are to evaluate the organization of each author’s argument or text.
  • Was the information presented in a plot line, like a narrative text or story?
  • Was a problem stated, then solutions discussed, or were things paired in a cause and effect organization: problem statement then results, effects or outcomes of the issue or events?

Considering the Structure of the Text Organization

  • So let’s answer the following questions:
  • How was Jones’ article “A Solemn Warning to Wingsuit Flyers,” organized?
  • Sequential – gives background information on Robson, his qualifications, then the facts behind his death.

Considering the Structure of the Text Organization

  • How was Donvan’s article organized? Is there a sequence of events or does he begin by identifying a problem and stating what the Camp does for the kids?
  • Problem/ solution – autism is defined; kids are mentioned that are diagnosed with it; how the camps benefits (effects) them is discussed.

Considering the Structure of the Text Organization

  • How was the Extreme Sports Not About Risk-taking: Study” article organized?
  • Cause and Effect. States beliefs of why people participate in extreme sports, then states results of study to prove/disprove.

Considering the Structure of the Text Organization

  • How was the Davidson article organized?

Considering the Structure of the Text

  • Look at the texts that have headings. Let’s examine how the headings work. In your notebook, answer the following:
  • Do they divide large portions of text into manageable sections?
  • Do they give a brief summary of the content in the next few paragraphs?

Considering the Structure of the Text

  • Do they provide key words for the reader?
  • Do some of the heading seem to recur, indicating the headings are used regularly by the scholars in the discipline?
  • Now that you’ve seen how headings work, we’re going to provide headings for the articles that don’t have them.

Considering the Structure of the Text

  • Let’s look at the headings you created yesterday – remember those?

Considering the Structure of the Text

  • Directions: Support at least two of the unique headings you created yesterday by completing a graphic organizer with words or phrases from the text that are the evidence on which you based your heading.
  • I didn’t make you a graphic organizer. You have to create your own – so there.
  • 10c

Considering the Structure of the Text

  • Write your heading in the center of the organizer. Let’s do a web, much like our semantic map, shall we? Remember those?
  • For the other circles, choose an active verb from the word bank that best describes what you feel to be the author’s intent; then, provide the words and phrases from the text you based your claim on. Use quotation marks to identify the author’s specific words.
  • 10c

Considering the Structure of the Text

  • This will help you to give credit to others’ words when you use them to make and support your own points in your writing later.
  • Active Verb Word Bank:
  • informs, persuades, denies, argues, justifies, elaborates, introduces, concludes…
  • 10c

Considering the Structure of the Text

  • You are to use “A Solemn Warning for Wingsuit Flyers”, however I am going to use “Extreme Sports Not About Risk-taking: Study.”
  • HEADING: Risk: Missing The Point
  • VERBS: informs
  • argues
  • concludes
  • BASIS FOR VERB: “research”
  • “different framework from traditional understanding”

Who’s On First?

Sentence Starters

  • Sometimes starting a sentence is the most difficult part of writing. Especially when you are talking about something from a source and you have to differentiate from your own “voice.”
  • You might also be in the position of comparing or contrasting different sources - so how do you get those differing “voices” to have a “conversation?”
  • 13

Sentence Starters

  • These sentence starters will help you include key facts and information from an article into your own words. This will give your writing ethos, or credibility. However, when you use the words of others, you must give them credit for their own writing and work.
  • 13

Sentence Starters

  • The following are examples of sentence starters for “Extreme Sports Not About Risk Taking: Study”..
  • • Dr. Brymer states that…
  • • He also argues that…
  • • It is also clear that Dr. Brymer believes…
  • • While Dr. Brymer found that…
  • 13

Sentence Starters

  • The following are generic sentence starters you may wish to use:
  • • The issue of ______ has several different perspectives.
  • • While some experts disagree on what to do about...
  • 13

Sentence Starters

  • These starters help you introduce ideas from particular writers:
  • • Noted researcher (author’s name here) argues that . . .
  • • In a groundbreaking article, (author’s name here) states that . . .
  • • According to (author’s name here) . . .
  • 13

Sentence Starters

  • Contrary or opposing views can be signaled by these sentence starters:
  • • However, the data presented by Dr. Phil McGraw shows . . .
  • • On the other hand, Terry T. Teacher believes . .
  • 13

Sentence Starters

  • These sentence starters help you to add your own voice to your writing:
  • • Although some argue for ______, others argue for ______. In my view . . .
  • • Though researchers disagree, clearly . . .
  • 13

Sentence Starters

  • So let’s come up with our own sentence starters! For example…
  • From Lola Jones’ article “A Solemn Warning to Wingsuit Flyers”:
  • In an article for Xtreme Sport, Lola Jones states that…
  • It is clear that Ms. Jones believes that….
  • 13

Sentence Starters

  • THINK/PAIR/SHARE
  • •Look at the article “Camp for Kids with Autism Offers Extreme Therapy.” With your elbow partner, come up with three sentence starters.
  • 13

Using the Words of Others to Create a Voice

  • You will be taking other authors’ information and using it so support your own claims There are three ways to do this:
  • Direct quotation: In “Extreme Sports Not About Risk-taking: Study” Dr. Brymer found that people who participate in extreme sports have an image of “risk takers and adrenaline junkies,” which he found really isn’t true. (Paragraph 3)
  • 13

Using the Words of Others to Create a Voice

  • Paraphrase: In “Extreme Sports Not About Risk-taking: Study”, Dr. Brymer notes that people who participate in extreme sports try to be prepared so they can decrease their risk of injury. (Paragraph 8)
  • 13

Using the Words of Others to Create a Voice

  • Summary: In “Extreme Sports Not About Risk-taking: Study”, Dr. Brymer cites study after study to show that many people who participate in extreme sports do so for reasons other than an adrenaline rush. He points out that they don’t like to be out of control and that by preparing for their sport they feel they are really in control. (Paragraph 11)
  • 13

Putting It Together

  • Look at the article “Camp for Kids with Autism Offers Extreme Therapy”
  • Choose a main point or idea from the article.
  • Use or modify the sentence starters you created previously.
  • Decide what method you’d like to use (direct quotation, paraphrase or summary) and build a sentence or statement that you might use for your essay.
  • 13
  • Want me to show you? I’d LOVE to!

Putting It Together

  • FOR EXAMPLE:
  • An ideas or point from Lola Jones’ article “A Solemn Warning to Wingsuit Flyers”:
  • “Wingsuit flying and BASE jumping probably the most dangerous of all.”
  • Choose or create a sentence starter:
  • 13
  • Lola Jones states that…

Putting It Together

  • Decide whether to use direct quotation, paraphrase and summary. Let’s choose direct quote and build the statement:
  • Lola Jones states that “wingsuit flying and BASE jumping probably the most dangerous of all.”
  • We’re not there yet – this isn’t quite right. We have to make the quote fit and create a more complete statement.
  • 13

Putting It Together

  • We can keep the quote intact and add a phrase to help complete its context, like:
  • All extreme sports carry some element of risk, however Lola Jones states that “wingsuit flying and BASE jumping probably the most dangerous of all.”
  • Or we can edit within the quote – something like: Lola Jones states that “wingsuit flying and BASE jumping [are] probably the most dangerous [extreme sports] of all.”
  • 13

Putting It Together

  • “Camp for Kids with Autism Offers Extreme Therapy”
  • Choose a main point or idea from the article.
  • Use or modify the sentence starters you created previously.
  • Decide what method you’d like to use (direct quotation, paraphrase or summary) and build a sentence or statement that you might use for your essay.
  • 13

Thinking Critically

  • What is rhetoric?
  •  noun \ˈre-tə-rik\: language that is intended to influence people and that may not be honest or reasonable
  • the art or skill of speaking or writing formally and effectively especially as a way to persuade or influence people

Thinking Critically

  • So what makes rhetoric effective? Effective rhetoric draws the reader in and help the reader connect with a point of view at two levels:
  • Emotional (pathos) – Do the author’s claims make you angry, sad, happy or concerned?
  • Logical (logos) – Do the author’s claims seem appropriate? Is what they suggest realistic or even possible, or is it silly and impossible?

Thinking Critically

  • Effective rhetoric also has credibility (ethos); you can trust what the author says because they rely on facts, studies and experts commenting on the issue they are arguing. Does their information come from reliable sources?

Thinking Critically

  • These are the basic questions that will help you to identify and analyze an author’s rhetorical appeals to emotion, logic and credibility. These questions will help you understand what an author says or claims and analyze the strength of the claim.
  • Ethos, pathos and logos are three terms that are the foundation of any rhetorical text or argument.

Answer the following questions:

  • What major claims are made in the text? Can you think of any counter arguments the author didn’t consider?
  • Does the author have the appropriate background to speak with authority on the subject?
  • Do you feel the author is trying to manipulate their readers emotionally?
  • Who does the author use as sources? Are they experts? Did the author rely too much on their opinion?

Writing Assignment

  • You will have 45 minutes to write an essay on the topic below. This is a rough draft. You will be directed to participate in several activities to revise and edit your paper before it is final.
  • Before you begin writing, read the passage carefully and plan what you will say.

Writing Assignment

  • Choose ONE of the following quotes and:
  • Explain the quotes or author’s claim or argument
  • Discuss the extent to which you agree with the claim using any or all of the articles you have read during this unit, your own experiences, and observations.
  • Be sure to use specific examples to support your claim

Writing Assignment

  • Consider the following quotes about risk and caution to complete your essay:
  • Security is a kind of death.”
  • - Tennessee Williams
  • Beware the hobby that eats.
  • - Benjamin Franklin

Yeah, No. No. Not Really.

  • Mrs. Moring and I talked it over. We didn’t like the prompt. We didn’t like the quotes. We were concerned that you would light torches and grab pitchforks. And, quite frankly, who needs that?
  • Not me. Nor Mrs. Moring. Neither do you, really. It’s the kind of thing that stays in your file.
  • Let’s move on….

Getting Ready To Write

  • So, let’s look back at the “Thinking Critically” section from last time. What were the three elements in rhetorical writing? I called them the “legs of a stool.”
  • Ethos, pathos and logos!
  • I know we worked in big groups last time, so now that we have that under our belts, let’s ask those questions one more time, about “Extreme Sports Not About Risk-taking: Study”

Answer the following questions:

  • What major claims are made in the text? Can you think of any counter arguments the author didn’t consider?
  • Does the author have the appropriate background to speak with authority on the subject?
  • Do you feel the author is trying to manipulate their readers emotionally?
  • Who does the author use as sources? Are they experts? Did the author rely too much on their opinion?

Getting Ready To Write

  • In “Extreme Sports Not About Risk-taking: Study”, what major claims are made in the text? (Hint: there are 4) Can you think of any counter arguments the author didn’t consider?
  • The article “Extreme Sports Not About Risk-taking: Study” makes four claims:
  • People who participate in extreme sports are not adrenaline junkies.

Getting Ready To Write

  • Next, it is stated that participants get a real sense of peace from the extreme activities they choose.
  • While some are attracted to the risk taking component of extreme sports, most see the risk as a negative thing.
  • Lastly, the article clarifies that most people negate the risk factor and possible harm through careful preparation.

Getting Ready To Write

  • Counter arguments:
  • A counter argument that the article “Extreme Sports Not About Risk-taking: Study” did not address is reasons why those who are addicted to risk, as stated in paragraph 12. I would like to have more information as to why they see risk as a positive thing when the majority of extreme sport participants do not.

Getting Ready To Write

  • Is the author knowledgeable on the subject?
  • The author appears to be qualified to report on the subject. He obtained his information from a highly knowledgeable source, Dr. Brymer, a doctor and lecturer from the School of Human Movement Studies in the Faculty of Health. I feel he could be more credible if the author informed us what company or university the doctor is affiliated with and how long he has been conducting his research.

Getting Ready To Write

  • Do you feel the author is trying to emotionally manipulate the reader?
  • I do not feel there is any manipulation on the part of the author. The author has a very neutral or unbiased tone throughout the article; he uses several direct quotes from Dr. Brymer without including any of his own opinions or conclusions. He even ends the article with a quote from Dr. Brymer leaving him to have the last word.

Getting Ready To Write

  • Who does the author use as sources? Are they experts? Did the author rely too much on their opinion?
  • This has been answered above. Dr. Brymer appears to be a reliable, expert source. The author did not really rely too much on his opinion because the article was primarily about Dr. Brymer’s study.

Getting Ready To Write

  • The following quote, from “Extreme Sports Not About Risk-taking: Study” is the prompt for your essay. First, you’ll create a thesis statement, based on whether or not you agree with the quote, and you will back up your thesis with evidence from the four articles, arguments and counter arguments.

Writing Prompt

  • “One thing that came up was that they realize people see them as risk-takers, but they do not see themselves that way at all, and they cited the road as a comparison, saying that crossing the road or driving was more risky.”
  • - “Extreme Sports Not About Risk-Taking: Study” (Paragraph 9)

Prompt (Continued)

  • Explain the author’s argument and discuss the extent to which you agree or disagree with their analysis. Support your position, providing reasons and examples from your own experience, observations, or reading.

Formulating a Working Thesis

  • In rhetorical writing, you must have a single point, or thesis, that ties together all of the ideas in your paper. To develop a clear thesis, consider the following questions:

Formulating a Working Thesis

  • What is the author’s claim?
  • How does it differ or how is it similar to my claim?
  • What supporting evidence do I have, and what is the source?
  • You can create a chart, if you think it might be helpful, to answer these questions.
  • 17a

Formulating a Working Thesis

  • Answer the following:
  • What is the issue or question you are addressing? (your tentative thesis)
  • What support from your notes and annotations have you found for your thesis? (these are your points)
  • What evidence have you found for this support (e.g., facts, statistics, statements from authorities, personal experience, anecdotes, scenarios, and examples)?
  • 17b

Formulating a Working Thesis

  • How much background information do your readers need to understand your topic and thesis?
  • If readers were to disagree with your thesis or the validity of your support, what would they say? How would you address their concerns (what would you say to them)?
  • 17b

Formulating a Working Thesis

  • You are to assume you are writing for an educated audience. Now brainstorm the following:
  • How much background knowledge does your audience have on the topic?
  • What questions or arguments do you think your audience might have regarding your claim and evidence?
  • 17b

Formulating a Working Thesis

  • Now that you have collected and analyzed information regarding the topic and your audience, you are ready to write your thesis.
  • A thesis, however, has to be very concise; you don’t want to confuse your reader from the start. It is the first impression you make on your reader.
  • Create your own opener that fits your thesis. The following are examples only – they may not work for you!
  • 17c

Formulating a Working Thesis

  • While the issue of ______ has several different perspectives, I have discovered …
  • Extreme sports can fascinate, thrill, or terrify us. One question, however, is why people …
  • Experts disagree on why people choose …
  • While some believe extreme sports are _____, I feel they are ____.
  • 17c


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