Extended Essay Guide
Nature of the extended essay
The extended essay is an in-depth study of a focused topic chosen from the list of approved Diploma
Programme subjects—normally one of the student’s six chosen subjects for the IB diploma. It is intended to
promote high-level research and writing skills, intellectual discovery and creativity. It provides students with
an opportunity to engage in personal research in a topic of their own choice, under the guidance of a
supervisor (a teacher in the school). This leads to a major piece of formally presented, structured writing, in
which ideas and findings are communicated in a reasoned and coherent manner, appropriate to the subject
chosen. It is recommended that completion of the written essay is followed by a short, concluding interview,
or viva voce, with the supervisor.
The extended essay is assessed against common criteria, interpreted in ways appropriate to each subject.
The extended essay is:
• compulsory for all Diploma Programme students
• externally assessed and, in combination with the grade for theory of knowledge, contributes up to
three points to the total score for the IB diploma
• a piece of independent research/investigation on a topic chosen by the student in cooperation
with a supervisor in the school
• chosen from the list of approved Diploma Programme subjects, published in the Handbook of
procedures for the Diploma Programme
• presented as a formal piece of scholarship containing no more than 4,000 words
• the result of approximately 40 hours of work by the student
• concluded with a short interview, or viva voce, with the supervising teacher (recommended).
In the Diploma Programme, the extended essay is the prime example of a piece of work where the student
has the opportunity to show knowledge, understanding and enthusiasm about a topic of his or her choice. In
those countries where it is the norm for interviews to be required prior to acceptance for employment or for a
place at university, the extended essay has often proved to be a valuable stimulus for discussion.
The aims of the extended essay are to provide students with the opportunity to:
• pursue independent research on a focused topic
• develop research and communication skills
• develop the skills of creative and critical thinking
• engage in a systematic process of research appropriate to the subject
• experience the excitement of intellectual discovery.
In working on the extended essay, students are expected to:
1. plan and pursue a research project with intellectual initiative and insight
2. formulate a precise research question
3. gather and interpret material from sources appropriate to the research question
4. structure a reasoned argument in response to the research question on the basis of the material
5. present their extended essay in a format appropriate to the subject, acknowledging sources in
one of the established academic ways
6. use the terminology and language appropriate to the subject with skill and understanding
7. apply analytical and evaluative skills appropriate to the subject, with an understanding of the
implications and the context of their research.
Responsibilities of the student
It is required that students:
• choose a topic that fits into one of the subjects on the approved extended essay list (in the
Handbook of procedures for the Diploma Programme)
• observe the regulations relating to the extended essay
• meet deadlines
• acknowledge all sources of information and ideas in an approved academic manner.
It is strongly recommended that students:
• start work early
• think very carefully about the research question for their essay
• plan how, when and where they will find material for their essay
• plan a schedule for both researching and writing the essay, including extra time for delays and
• record sources as their research progresses (rather than trying to reconstruct a list at the end)
• have a clear structure for the essay itself before beginning to write
• check and proofread the final version carefully
• make sure that all basic requirements are met (for example, all students should get full marks for
Advice to students from examiners
Recommended: things to do
Examiners’ reports frequently emphasize the following positive steps.
Before starting work on the extended essay, students should:
• read the assessment criteria
• read previous essays to identify strengths and possible pitfalls
• spend time working out the research question (imagine the finished essay)
• work out a structure for the essay.
During the research process, and while writing the essay, students should:
• start work early and stick to deadlines
• maintain a good working relationship with their supervisor
• construct an argument that relates to the research question
• use the library and consult librarians for advice
• record sources as they go along (rather than trying to reconstruct a list at the end)
• choose a new topic and a research question that can be answered if there is a problem with the
• use the appropriate language for the subject
• let their interest and enthusiasm show.
After completing the essay, students should:
• write the abstract
• check and proofread the final version carefully.
Recommended: things to avoid
Examiners’ reports also mention these things to be avoided at all costs.
Students should not work with a research question that is too broad or too vague, too narrow, too difficult or
inappropriate. A good research question is one that asks something worth asking and that is answerable
within 40 hours/4,000 words. It should be clear what would count as evidence in relation to the question, and
it must be possible to acquire such evidence in the course of the investigation. If a student does not know
what evidence is needed, or cannot collect such evidence, it will not be possible to answer the research
In addition, students should not:
• forget to analyse the research question
• ignore the assessment criteria
• collect material that is irrelevant to the research question
• use the internet uncritically
• merely describe or report (evidence must be used to support the argument)
• repeat the introduction in the conclusion
One further piece of advice is as follows: the more background a student has in the subject, the better the
chance he or she has of writing a good extended essay. Choosing to write the extended essay in a subject
that is not being studied as part of the Diploma Programme often leads to lower marks.
Researching and writing the extended essay
It is recommended that teachers advise their students about researching and writing the extended essay as
The research process
When researching the extended essay, students should do the following.
1. Choose the approved Diploma Programme subject for the extended essay.
• Read the assessment criteria and the relevant subject guidance.
2. Choose a topic.
3. Formulate a well-focused research question.
4. Plan the investigation and writing process.
• Identify how and where they will gather material.
• Identify which system of academic referencing they will use, appropriate to the subject of the
• Set deadlines for themselves that will allow them to meet the school’s requirements.
5. Plan a structure (outline headings) for the essay. This may change as the investigation develops
but it is useful to have a sense of direction.
6. Under take some preparatory reading.
• If students discover that it will not be possible to obtain the evidence needed in the time
available, the research question should be changed. This should be done sooner rather than
later: students should not lose time waiting and hoping that something will turn up. Students
should go back to stage 3, 2 or 1, and choose a new research question that can be answered.
7. Carry out the investigation.
• The material gathered should be assembled in a logical order, linked to the structure of the
essay. Only then will students know whether they have enough evidence for each stage of the
argument so that they can proceed to the next.
• Students should be prepared for things to go wrong. Sometimes they may discover something
later in the investigation that undermines what they thought had been established earlier on. If
that happens, the investigation plan needs to be revised.
Writing the extended essay
The structure of the essay is very important. This is what helps students to organize the argument, making
best use of the evidence gathered.
The required elements of the final work to be submitted are listed here. More details about each element are
given in the “Formal presentation of the extended essay” section. Please note that the order in which they
are presented here is not necessarily the order in which they should be written.
• Title page
• Contents page
• Body (development/methods/results)
• References and bibliography
Students should use the chosen system of academic referencing as soon as they start writing. That way,
they are less likely to forget to include a citation. It is also easier than trying to add references at a later
stage. Most modern word processors are helpful with this.
Some students draft the introduction first. If students do that, they must be prepared to revise it once the
essay is complete.
The main task is writing the body of the essay, which should be presented in the form of a reasoned
argument. The form of this varies with the subject of the essay but, as the argument develops, it should be
clear to the reader what relevant evidence has been discovered, where/how it has been discovered and how
it supports the argument. In most subjects, sub-headings within the main body of the essay will help the
reader to understand the argument (and will also help the student to keep on track).
Once the main body of the essay is complete, it is possible to finalize the introduction (which tells the reader
what to expect) and the conclusion (which says what has been achieved, including notes of any limitations
and any questions that have not been resolved).
Any information that is important to the argument should not be included in appendices or footnotes/
endnotes. The examiner is not bound to read notes or appendices, so an essay that is not complete in itself
will lose marks.
The remaining stages in writing the essay take time but are not difficult. Students need to check that they
have cited sources for all material that is not their own, and that the citations are complete and consistent
with the chosen referencing system. The bibliography should list only the sources used in the essay. The
whole essay needs to be proofread carefully (computer spelling and grammar checkers are useful but will
not do everything). Pages must be numbered and the contents page must be completed. The abstract is
normally written last.
Formal presentation of the extended essay
The extended essay should be written in a clear, correct and formal academic style, appropriate to the
subject from which the topic is drawn. The use of word processors is encouraged.
The length of the extended essay
The upper limit is 4,000 words for all extended essays. This upper limit includes the introduction, the body,
the conclusion and any quotations, but does not include:
• the abstract
• the contents page
• maps, charts, diagrams, annotated illustrations and tables
• equations, formulas and calculations
• citations/references (whether parenthetical or numbered)
• footnotes or endnotes
• the bibliography
Essays containing more than 4,000 words are subject to penalties and examiners are not required to read
material in excess of the word limit.
The title should provide a clear indication of the focus of the essay. It should be precise and not necessarily
phrased in the form of a question.
An abstract not exceeding 300 words must be included with the essay submitted. It does not serve as an
introduction, but presents an overview of the extended essay, and should, therefore, be written last.
The inclusion of an abstract is intended to encourage students to examine closely the development of an
argument within the extended essay and the pertinence of any conclusions that are reached. It is also
designed to allow readers to understand quickly the contents of the extended essay.
The minimum requirements for the abstract are for it to state clearly:
• the research question being investigated
• the scope of the investigation
• the conclusion(s) of the extended essay.
The abstract should be presented on a separate sheet of paper, and placed immediately after the title page.
A contents page must be provided at the beginning of the extended essay and all pages should be
numbered. An index is not required.
Presentation and overall neatness are important, and it is essential that illustrative material, if included, is
well set out and used effectively. Graphs, diagrams, tables and maps are effective only if they are clearly
labelled and can be interpreted with ease. All such material that is incorporated into the extended essay
must be directly related to the text and acknowledged where appropriate. The use of photographs and other
images is acceptable only if they are captioned and/or annotated and are used to illustrate a specific point
made in the extended essay.
Bibliographies, references and citations
An extended essay must reflect academic honesty in research practices and provide the reader with the
exact sources of quotations, ideas and points of view through accurate bibliographies and referencing.
Producing accurate citations, referencing and a bibliography is a skill that students should be seeking to
perfect. Documenting the research in this way is vital: it allows readers to evaluate the evidence for
themselves and it shows the student’s understanding of the importance of the sources used.
Failure to comply with this requirement will be viewed as plagiarism and will, therefore, be treated as a
case of malpractice.
What is a bibliography?
A bibliography is an alphabetical list of every source used to research and write the essay. Sources that are
not cited in the body of the essay, but were important in informing the approach taken, should be cited in the
introduction or in an acknowledgment. The bibliography should list only those sources cited.
There are a number of different documentation styles available for use when writing research papers; most
are appropriate in some academic disciplines but not others. The supervisor should help the student decide
on a style for the particular subject of the essay. It is important to remember that, whatever style is chosen, it
must be applied consistently. When choosing the documentation style, the student needs to have a clear
understanding of how it is to be used before embarking on the research task. The documentation style
should be applied in both the final draft of the essay and in the initial research stages of taking notes. This is good practice, not only for producing a high-quality final product, but also for reducing the opportunities and
temptation to plagiarize.
Major documentation styles
The following are examples of acceptable documentation styles.
• American Political Science Association (APSA)
• American Psychological Association (APA)
• Council of Biology Editors (CBE)
• Harvard citation and referencing guide
• Modern Language Association (MLA)
• Numbered references
What is a reference?
A reference is a way of indicating to the reader, in an orderly form, where information has been obtained. A
reference provides all the information needed to find the source material. References must be cited because
they acknowledge the sources used, and enable the reader to consult the work and verify the data that has
References must be given whenever someone else’s work is quoted or summarized. References can come
from many different sources, including books, magazines, journals, newspapers, emails, internet sites and
Internet references should include the title of the extract used as well as the website address, the date it was
accessed and, if possible, the author. With regard to electronic sources, the requirement of the IB for datestamping supersedes the requirements of the chosen referencing system. In other words, all electronic
sources must be date-stamped. Caution should be exercised with information on websites that do not give
references or that cannot be cross-checked against other sources. The more important a particular point is
to the essay, the more the quality of its source needs to be evaluated.
Any references to interviews should state the name of the interviewer, the name of the interviewee, the date
and the place of the interview.
What is a citation?
A citation is a shorthand method of making a reference in the body of an essay, which is then linked to the
full reference at the end of the essay. A citation provides the reader with accurate references so that he or
she can locate the source easily. How sources are cited varies with the particular documentation style that
has been chosen. Page numbers should normally be given when referencing printed material: in some
styles this will be in the citation, in others in the full reference. Once again, it is important to emphasize that
there must be consistency of method when citing sources.
Appendices, footnotes and endnotes
Appendices, footnotes and endnotes are not an essential section of the extended essay and examiners are
not required to read them, so care should be taken to include all information of direct relevance to the
analysis and argument in the main body of the essay. An essay that attempts to evade the word limit by
including important material in notes or appendices risks losing marks under several criteria.
Unless considered essential, complete lists of raw data should not be included in the extended essay.
Students should not constantly refer to material presented in an appendix as this may disrupt the continuity
of the essay.
The use of other media and materials
Apart from graphic material, materials in other media may be submitted only as supporting appendices and
should not detract from the written content of the extended essay.
The use of computers is encouraged where they are appropriate as tools for analysing data relevant to the
subject of the extended essay. Material such as a hard copy of computer output may be included in the
extended essay, but any associated program should be referred to or reproduced, if original, only as an
Computer programs may only be included (in particular circumstances) in computer science and physics
essays. (See the “Computer science” and “Physics” sections for further details.)
CDs, DVDs and audio-visual materials
The model for the extended essay is a paper in an academic journal. Hence, materials such as these should
not normally be included. They are liable to be lost or damaged and the examiner will probably not have time
to look at them.
Specimen materials used in, or produced by, investigations do not form part of the extended essay and must
not be submitted. Photographic evidence may be submitted in place of such material.
The viva voce (concluding interview)
The viva voce is a short interview between the student and the supervisor, and is a recommended
conclusion to the extended essay process. Students who do not attend the viva voce may be
The viva voce serves the following purposes.
• A check on plagiarism and malpractice in general
• An opportunity to reflect on successes and difficulties in the research process
• An opportunity to reflect on what has been learned
• An aid to the supervisor’s report
The viva voce should last between 10 and 15 minutes. This is included in the recommended amount of time
the supervisor should spend with the student. The following are examples of questions that can be asked, which should be adapted to the particular essay and student.
• “I am not clear what you mean on page XXX. You quote Y: could you explain a little more about
what this tells us?”
• “On page *** you cite Z. I couldn’t find this reference (for example, website). Could you tell me
more about it?”
• “What have been the high and low points of the research and writing processes?”
• “What were the most interesting aspects of the process? Did you discover anything that surprised
• “What have you learned through writing this essay? Is there any advice you would want to pass
on to someone just starting out on an extended essay?”
• “Is there anything else that you would particularly like me to mention in my report?”
In conducting the viva voce and writing the report, supervisors should bear in mind the following.
• Examiners want to know that students understand any material (which must be properly
referenced) that they have included in their essays. This is particularly important in subjects like
mathematics. If the way the material is used in context in the essay does not clearly establish
this, the supervisor can check the student’s understanding in the viva voce and report on it.
• Minor slips in citation and referencing may lose the odd mark. If there appear to be major
shortcomings, the supervisor should investigate thoroughly. No essay should be authenticated if
the supervisor believes it contains plagiarism.
• In assessing criterion K (holistic judgment), examiners will take into account any information
given in the report about unusual intellectual inventiveness or persistence in the face of
• The report should not attempt to do the examiner’s job. It should refer to things, largely processrelated,
that may not be obvious in the essay itself.
• Unless there are particular problems, the viva voce should end positively. Completion of a major
piece of work such as the extended essay is something for students to feel good about.
Using the assessment criteria
The method of assessment used by the IB is criterion-related. That is to say, the method of assessment
judges each student in relation to identified assessment criteria and not in relation to the work of other
• The aim is to find, for each criterion, the descriptor that conveys most adequately the
achievement level attained by the student. The process, therefore, is one of approximation. In the
light of any one criterion, a student’s work may contain features denoted by a high achievement
level descriptor combined with features appropriate to a lower one. A professional judgment
should be made in identifying the descriptor that approximates most closely to the work.
• Having scrutinized the work to be assessed, the descriptors for each criterion should be read,
starting with level 0, until one is reached that describes an achievement level that the work being
assessed does not match as well as the previous level. The work is therefore best described by
the preceding achievement level descriptor and this level should be recorded.
• Only whole numbers should be used, not partial points such as fractions or decimals.
• The highest descriptors do not imply faultless performance and assessors and teachers should
not hesitate to use the extremes, including zero, if they are appropriate descriptions of the work
• Descriptors should not be considered as marks or percentages, although the descriptor levels are
ultimately added together to obtain a total. It should not be assumed that there are other
arithmetical relationships; for example, a level 4 performance is not necessarily twice as good as
a level 2 performance.
• A student who attains a particular achievement level in relation to one criterion will not
necessarily attain similar achievement levels in relation to the others. It should not be assumed
that the overall assessment of the students will produce any particular distribution of scores.
All extended essays are externally assessed by examiners appointed by the IB, and are marked on a scale
from 0 to 36. This maximum score is made up of the total criterion levels available for each essay. The total
score obtained on the scale 0 to 36 is used to determine in which of the following bands the extended essay
is placed. This band, in conjunction with the band for theory of knowledge, determines the number of
diploma points awarded for these two requirements. See the following “Award of diploma points” section for
The band descriptors are:
A Work of an excellent standard
B Work of a good standard
C Work of a satisfactory standard
D Work of a mediocre standard
E Work of an elementary standard.
Award of diploma points
The extended essay contributes to the overall diploma score through the award of points in conjunction with
theory of knowledge. A maximum of three points are awarded according to a student’s combined
performance in both the extended essay and theory of knowledge.
Both the extended essay and theory of knowledge are measured against published assessment criteria.
According to the quality of the work, and based on the application of these assessment criteria, a student’s
performance in each of the extended essay and theory of knowledge will fall into one of the five bands
The total number of points awarded is determined by the combination of the performance levels achieved by
the student in both the extended essay and theory of knowledge according to the following matrix.
The diploma points matrix
A student who, for example, writes a good extended essay and whose performance in theory of knowledge
is judged to be satisfactory will be awarded 1 point, while a student who writes a mediocre extended essay
and whose performance in theory of knowledge is judged to be excellent will be awarded 2 points.
A student who fails to submit an extended essay will be awarded N for the extended essay, will score no
points, and will not be awarded a diploma.
Performance in both the extended essay and theory of knowledge of an elementary standard is a failing
condition for the award of the diploma.
* From 2010 onwards, 28 points overall will be required to be eligible for the diploma if a student attains an
“E” grade in either the extended essay or theory of knowledge. As previously, a grade “A” in one of the
requirements earns an extra point even if the other is a grade “E”. Attaining a grade “E” in both the extended
essay and theory of knowledge continues to represent an automatic failure.
This section provides an overview of what each criterion assesses in the extended essay. Further advice on
interpreting the assessment criteria is provided within the guidelines for each subject in the “Details—subject
specific” section. The extended essay is assessed against common assessment criteria for all extended
essays. Candidates must understand that the work submitted for assessment must address these criteria
effectively. Supervisors of extended essays should ensure that the assessment criteria are made available to
candidates and that the candidates understand these criteria.
A: research question
(Objectives 1 and 2)
This criterion assesses the extent to which the purpose of the essay is specified. In many subjects, the aim
of the essay will normally be expressed as a question and, therefore, this criterion is called the “research
question”. However, certain disciplines may permit or encourage different ways of formulating the research
0 - The research question is not stated in either the introduction or on
the title page or does not lend itself to a systematic investigation in
an extended essay in the subject in which it is registered.
1 - The research question is stated in either the introduction or on the
title page but is not clearly expressed or is too broad in scope to
be treated effectively within the word limit.
2 - The research question is clearly stated in either the introduction or
on the title page and is sharply focused, making effective
treatment possible within the word limit.
(Objectives 1 and 5)
This criterion assesses the extent to which the introduction makes clear how the research question relates to
existing knowledge on the topic and explains how the topic chosen is significant and worthy of investigation.
0 - Little or no attempt is made to set the research question into
context. There is little or no attempt to explain the significance of
1 - Some attempt is made to set the research question into context.
There is some attempt to explain the significance of the topic and
why it is worthy of investigation.
2 - The context of the research question is clearly demonstrated. The
introduction clearly explains the significance of the topic and why it
is worthy of investigation.
This criterion assesses the extent to which the investigation is planned and an appropriate range of sources
has been consulted, or data has been gathered, that is relevant to the research question. Where the
research question does not lend itself to a systematic investigation in the subject in which the essay is
registered, the maximum level that can be awarded for this criterion is 2.
0 - There is little or no evidence that sources have been consulted or
data gathered, and little or no evidence of planning in the
A range of inappropriate sources has been consulted, or
inappropriate data has been gathered, and there is little evidence
that the investigation has been planned.
2 - A limited range of appropriate sources has been consulted, or
data has been gathered, and some relevant material has been
selected. There is evidence of some planning in the investigation.
3 - A sufficient range of appropriate sources has been consulted, or
data has been gathered, and relevant material has been selected.
The investigation has been satisfactorily planned.
4- An imaginative range of appropriate sources has been consulted,
or data has been gathered, and relevant material has been
carefully selected. The investigation has been well planned.
D: knowledge and understanding of the topic studied
(Objectives 3 and 7)
Where the research question does not lend itself to a systematic investigation in the subject in which the
essay is registered, the maximum level that can be awarded for this criterion is 2. “Academic context”, as
used in this guide, can be defined as the current state of the field of study under investigation. However, this
is to be understood in relation to what can reasonably be expected of a pre-university student. For example, to obtain a level 4, it would be sufficient to relate the investigation to the principal lines of inquiry in the
relevant field; detailed, comprehensive knowledge is not required.
0 - The essay demonstrates no real knowledge or understanding of
the topic studied.
1 - The essay demonstrates some knowledge but little understanding
of the topic studied. The essay shows little awareness of an
academic context for the investigation.
2 - The essay demonstrates an adequate knowledge and some
understanding of the topic studied. The essay shows some
awareness of an academic context for the investigation.
3 - The essay demonstrates a good knowledge and understanding of
the topic studied. Where appropriate, the essay successfully
outlines an academic context for the investigation.
4 - The essay demonstrates a very good knowledge and
understanding of the topic studied. Where appropriate, the essay
clearly and precisely locates the investigation in an academic
E: reasoned argument
(Objectives 1 and 4)
This criterion assesses the extent to which the essay uses the material collected to present ideas in a logical
and coherent manner, and develops a reasoned argument in relation to the research question. Where the
research question does not lend itself to a systematic investigation in the subject in which the essay is
registered, the maximum level that can be awarded for this criterion is 2.
0 - There is no attempt to develop a reasoned argument in relation to
the research question.
1 -There is a limited or superficial attempt to present ideas in a
logical and coherent manner, and to develop a reasoned
argument in relation to the research question.
2 - There is some attempt to present ideas in a logical and coherent
manner, and to develop a reasoned argument in relation to the
research question, but this is only partially successful.
3 - Ideas are presented in a logical and coherent manner, and a
reasoned argument is developed in relation to the research
question, but with some weaknesses.
4- Ideas are presented clearly and in a logical and coherent manner.
The essay succeeds in developing a reasoned and convincing
argument in relation to the research question.
F: application of analytical and evaluative skills appropriate to the subject
0 - The essay shows no application of appropriate analytical and
1 - The essay shows little application of appropriate analytical and
2 - The essay shows some application of appropriate analytical and
evaluative skills, which may be only partially effective.
3 - The essay shows sound application of appropriate analytical and
4 - The essay shows effective and sophisticated application of
appropriate analytical and evaluative skills.
G: use of language appropriate to the subject
0 - The language used is inaccurate and unclear. There is no
effective use of terminology appropriate to the subject.
1 - The language used sometimes communicates clearly but does not
do so consistently. The use of terminology appropriate to the
subject is only partly accurate.
2 - The language used for the most part communicates clearly. The
use of terminology appropriate to the subject is usually accurate.
3 - The language used communicates clearly. The use of terminology
appropriate to the subject is accurate, although there may be
4 - The language used communicates clearly and precisely.
Terminology appropriate to the subject is used accurately, with
skill and understanding.
(Objectives 1, 4 and 5)
This criterion assesses the extent to which the essay incorporates a conclusion that is relevant to the
research question and is consistent with the evidence presented in the essay.
0 -Little or no attempt is made to provide a conclusion that is relevant
to the research question.
1 -A conclusion is attempted that is relevant to the research question
but may not be entirely consistent with the evidence presented in
2 - An effective conclusion is clearly stated; it is relevant to the
research question and consistent with the evidence presented in
the essay. It should include unresolved questions where
appropriate to the subject concerned.
I: formal presentation
This criterion assesses the extent to which the layout, organization, appearance and formal elements of the
essay consistently follow a standard format. The formal elements are: title page, table of contents, page
numbers, illustrative material, quotations, documentation (including references, citations and bibliography)
and appendices (if used).
0- The formal presentation is unacceptable, or the essay exceeds
1 -The formal presentation is poor.
2 -The formal presentation is satisfactory.
3 -The formal presentation is good.
4 -The formal presentation is excellent.
The requirements for the abstract are for it to state clearly the research question that was investigated, how
the investigation was undertaken and the conclusion(s) of the essay.
0 -The abstract exceeds 300 words or one or more of the required
elements of an abstract (listed above) is missing.
1 -The abstract contains the elements listed above but they are not
all clearly stated.
2 -The abstract clearly states all the elements listed above.
K: holistic judgment
The purpose of this criterion is to assess the qualities that distinguish an essay from the average, such as
intellectual initiative, depth of understanding and insight. While these qualities will be clearly present in the
best work, less successful essays may also show some evidence of them and should be rewarded under
- The essay shows no evidence of such qualities.
The essay shows little evidence of such qualities.
The essay shows some evidence of such qualities.
3 - The essay shows clear evidence of such qualities.
4 - The essay shows considerable evidence of such qualities