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EXERCISE ANSWER KEY

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CHAPTER 4 - FORM-CLASS WORDS
Exercise 4.1

This is a good exercise for small group work followed by class discussion.


androokers Noun: It has a noun-making derivational suffix {-er} and a noun inflectional suffix {-s} (formal clues). It follows a determiner, the, and by its position seems to be the subject of the verb plurked (functional clues).
plurked Verb: It has a verb-inflectional suffix {-ed} (formal clue); its position suggests that androokers is its subject (functional clue).

proiled Verb: It has a verb-inflectional suffix {-ed} (formal clue); it is joined to plurked by and, which suggests that the two words are of the same class (functional clue).
gribbly Adjective: It has an adjective- or adverb-forming suffix {-ly} (formal clue); it is preceded by the determiner, a, and it seems to be followed by a noun flubjin (functional clues).
flubjin Noun: It follows the determiner a and an apparent adjective gribbly, and it appears to be the subject of the verb broofled (functional clues).
broofled Verb: It has a verb-inflectional suffix {-ed} (formal clue); its position suggests that flubjin is its subject (functional clue).
geeshively Adverb: It has an adverb-forming suffix {-ly} (formal clue); it occurs just after broofled, an apparent verb (functional clue).
lumphet Noun: It has a noun-forming suffix {-et} as in nymphet (formal clue); it follows a preposition and determiner (beside the) (functional clues).

Exercise 4.2

1. dancer (5) Applicable: (1) Has noun-making morpheme {-er}; (2) can

NOUN occur with plural (dancers); (3) can occur with possessive (the dancer’s form); (4) can follow an article (the dancer); (5) can fit in the frame sentence (The dancer seems all right).
2. potato (4) Applicable: (2) Can occur with plural (potatoes); (3) can occur

NOUN with possessive (the potato’s taste); (4) can follow an article (the potato); (5) can fit in the frame sentence (The potato seems all right).

Not applicable: (1) Has no noun-making morpheme

3. sheep (3) Applicable: (3) Can occur with possessive (the sheep’s behavior);

NOUN (4) can follow an article (the sheep); (5) can fit in the frame sentence (The sheep seems all right).

Not applicable: (1) Has no noun-making morpheme; (2) does not occur with a plural morpheme
4. greeting (4) Applicable: (2) Can occur with plural (greetings); (3) can occur

NOUN with possessive (the greeting’s sentiments); (4) can follow an article (the greeting); (5) can fit in the frame sentence (The greeting seems all right).

Not applicable: (1) Has no noun-making morpheme
5. refusing (1) Applicable: (5) Can fit in the frame sentence: Refusing seems all right.

NOT A NOUN Not applicable: (1) Has no noun-making derivational morpheme: {-ing} is a verb inflection; (2) cannot occur with plural morpheme: *three refusings; (3) cannot occur with possessive morpheme: the difficulties of refusing, but probably not *refusing’s difficulties; (4) cannot directly follow an article without a modifier: *the refusing, *a refusing.
6. diligence(2) Applicable: (1) Has noun making morpheme {-ence}; (5)

NOUN can fit in the frame sentence: Diligence seems necessary.

Not applicable: (2) Cannot occur with plural morpheme (*three diligences); (3) cannot occur with possessive morpheme: the necessity for diligence, but probably not *diligence’s necessity; (4) cannot occur directly following an article: *A diligence is good.


7. baroness (5) Applicable: (1) Has noun-making morpheme {-ess}; (2) can

NOUN occur with plural (baronesses); (3) can occur with possessive (the baroness’s diamonds); (4) can follow an article (the baroness); (5) can fit in the frame sentence: The baroness seems all right.


8. happiness (3) Applicable: (1) Has noun-making morpheme {-ness}; (4) can

NOUN follow an article (his happiness); (5) can fit in the frame sentence: Their happiness seems all right.



Not applicable: (2) Cannot occur with plural morpheme (*happinesses); (3) cannot occur with possessive morpheme (?happiness’ survival)
9. glamorous (0) Not applicable: (1) Has adjective-making morpheme, not noun

NOT A NOUN derivational suffix; (2) does not occur with plural morpheme: *glamorouses; (3) does not occur with possessive morpheme: *glamorous's; (4) cannot follow an article: *the glamorous, *a glamorous; (5) does not fit in frame sentence: *Glamorous seems all right.


Exercise 4.3
This is a good exercise for small group work followed by class discussion.
1. dancer C (It is derived from the verb dance by the addition of the noun-making derivational suffix {-er}.)

2. potato A (It names a thing.)


3. sheep A (It names a thing.)
4. greeting C (Although it has the verb present participle suffix {-ing} and still functions as a present participle in Will was greeting his guests as they came in the door, it has also become a noun. That it is a true noun and not just a gerund is shown by the fact that it accepts both of the noun inflections and can fit in the frame sentence.)
5. refusing G (This gerund has not become a true noun, as is demonstrated by

its not accepting noun inflections.)


6. diligence B (It is derived from the adjective diligent by the addition of the noun-making derivational suffix {-ence}.)
7. baroness A (It names a person.)
8. happiness B (It is derived from the adjective happy by the addition of the noun-making derivational suffix {-ness}.)
9. glamorous (This adjective may not function like a noun at all, but if it did, it would probably then belong to category F, as in ?The philosophers discussed the theme of "The Idea of the Glamorous in Hollywood Films of the 1930s.")

Exercise 4.4
1. bacon noncount, common, inanimate

2. Senator count, proper, animate, human

3. citizen count, common, animate, human

4. gravel noncount, common, inanimate

5. coalition count, common, inanimate

6. Socialism noncount, proper, inanimate

7. elephant count, common, animate, nonhuman

8. guitarist count, common, animate, human

9. heroine count, common, animate, human, female
Exercise 4.5
1. tell (7) Applicable: (2) Can occur in present tense (tells); (3) can occur in

VERB past tense (told); (4) can occur as a present participle (telling); (5) can occur as a past participle (told); (6) can be made into a command: Tell them everything!; (7) can be made negative: He didn’t tell anyone; (8) can fit in the frame sentence: They should tell the truth.

Not applicable: (1) Has no verb-making morpheme.
2. encircle (8) Applicable: (1) Has a verb-making morpheme {en-}; (2) Can

VERB occur in present tense (encircles); (3) can occur in past tense (encircled); (4) can occur as a present participle (encircling); (5) can occur as a past participle (encircled); (6) can be made into a command: Encircle the enemy quickly!; (7) can be made negative: You didn’t encircle the correct answers; (8) can fit in the frame sentence: The students should encircle all the verbs.


3. criticize (8) Applicable: (1) Has a verb-making morpheme {-ize}; (2) Can

VERB occur in present tense (criticizes); (3) can occur in past tense (criticized); (4) can occur as a present participle (criticizing); (5) can occur as a past participle (criticized); (6) can be made into a command: Criticize that essay for us!; (7) can be made negative: The tasters didn’t criticize the wine; (8) can fit in the frame sentence: You should criticize that essay carefully.


4. strike (7) Applicable: (2) occurs in present tense (strikes); (3) can occur

VERB in past tense (struck); (4) can occur as a present participle (striking); (5) can occur as a past participle (struck); (6) can be made into a command: Strike that from the record! (7) Can be made negative: They didn’t strike. (8) can fit in the frame sentence: The airline mechanics may stike next week.

Not applicable: (1) Has no verb-making morpheme.
5. close (7) Applicable: (2) Can occur in present tense (closes); (3) can occur

VERB in past tense (closed); (4) can occur as a present participle (closing); (5) can occur as a past participle (closed); (6) can be made into a command: Close the door!; (7) can be made negative: She didn’t close the sale; (8) can fit in the frame sentence: You can close the window if you are cold.



Not applicable: (1) Has no verb-making morpheme
6. sleep (7) Applicable: (2) Can occur in present tense (sleeps); (3) can occur

VERB in past tense (slept); (4) can occur as a present participle (sleeping); (5) can occur as a past participle (slept); (6) can be made into command (Sleep well!); (7) can be made negative (I did not sleep); (8) can fit in the frame sentence (You can sleep).

Not applicable: (1) Has no verb-making morpheme.


7. cry (7) Applicable: (2) Can occur in present tense (cries); (3) can occur

VERB in past tense (cried); (4) can occur as a present participle (crying); (5) can occur as a past participle (cried); (6) can be made into a command: Cry if you want!; (7) can be made negative: She didn’t cry; (8) can fit in the frame sentence: You can cry.



Not applicable: (1) Has no verb-making morpheme.
8. be (7) Applicable: (2) Can occur in present tense (am, is, are); (3) can

VERB occur in past tense (was, were); (4) can occur as a present participle (being); (5) can occur as a past participle (been); (6) can be made into a command: Be quiet!; (7) can be made negative: She wasn’t with us; (8) can fit in the frame sentence: You can be alone.



Not applicable: (1) Has no verb-making morpheme.
9. put (5) Applicable: (2) Can occur in present tense (puts); (3) can occur

VERB in past tense (We put it there yesterday); (4) can occur as a present participle (putting); (5) can occur as a past participle (I have put the car in the garage); (6) can be made into a command: Put that away!; (7) can be made negative: I didn’t put any salt in the stew; (8) can fit in the frame sentence: You can put that table by the window.

Not applicable: (1) Has no verb-making morpheme.

Exercise 4.6
1. horizon Noun only

Can occur with plural and possessive (horizons, horizon’s); can fit in the noun frame sentence (The horizon seems near).

Cannot be used as a verb (*They must horizon it).
2. tension Noun only

Can occur with plural (tensions); can fit in the noun frame sentence (The tension seems all right); has noun derivational suffix {-ion}.

Cannot be used as a verb (*They must tension it).
3. rock Both noun and verb

Can occur with noun inflections (rocks, rock’s); can fit in the noun frame sentence (The rock seems hard). Also can occur with verb inflections (rocks, rocked, rocking); can fit in the verb frame sentence (They may rock the boat).


4. pluralize Verb only

Is formed by verb-making morpheme {-ize}; can occur with verb inflections (pluralizes, pluralized, pluralizing); can fit in the frame sentence (You should pluralize it). Cannot be used as a noun (*The pluralize seems all right).


5. book Both noun and verb

Can occur with noun inflections (books, book’s); can fit in the noun frame sentence (The book seems all right). Also can occur with verb inflections (books, booked, booking); can fit in the verb frame sentence (Someone can book seats for us).


6. treatment Noun only

Is formed by noun-making morpheme {-ment}; can occur with noun inflections (treatments, treatment’s); can fit in the frame sentence (The



treatment seems all right). Cannot be used as a verb (*They must treatment it).
7. sob Both noun and verb

Can occur with noun inflections (sobs, ?sob’s); can fit in the noun frame sentence (The sobs seem loud). Also can occur with verb inflections: (sobs, sobbed, sobbing); can fit in the verb frame sentence (They may sob all they want).


8. decide Verb only

Can occur with verb inflections (decides, decided, deciding); can fit in the frame sentence: (You should decide now). Cannot be used as a noun (*The decide seems all right).


9. sufficient Neither noun nor verb

It does not occur with noun inflections or fit in noun frame sentence, nor does it occur with verb inflections or fit in verb frame sentence.



Exercise 4.7
1. shiny (4) Applicable: (1) Has an adjective-making derivational morpheme

ADJECTIVE {-y}; (2) can take comparative and superlative (shinier, shiniest); (3) can be qualified (quite shiny); (4) can fit in the frame sentence (The shiny coin was very shiny).


2. indifferent (4) Applicable: (1) Has an adjective-making derivational morpheme

ADJECTIVE {-ent}; (2) Can be made comparative and superlative (more/most indifferent); (3) can be qualified (quite indifferent); (4) can fit in the frame sentence (The indifferent salesperson was very indifferent).
3. judicial (4) Applicable: (1) Has an adjective-making derivational morpheme

ADJECTIVE {-al}; (2) can be made comparative and superlative (more/most judicial); (3) can be qualified (quite judicial); (4) can fit in the frame sentence (The judicial decision was very judicial).


4. fluid (3) Applicable: (2) Can be made comparative and superlative

ADJECTIVE more/most fluid); (3) can be qualified (quite fluid); (4) can fit in the frame sentence (The fluid yogurt was very fluid).

Not applicable: (1) No adjective-making derivational morpheme [Fluid also can occur as a noun (The fluids seem all right).]


5. master (0) Not applicable: (1) Has no adjective-making derivational

NOT AN morpheme; (2) cannot be made comparative and superlative

ADJECTIVE (*more/most master); (3) cannot be qualified (*quite master); (4) cannot fit in the frame sentence (*The master plan was very master). [Master is a noun (can occur with possessive--his master’s voice; can directly follow an article--the master; can fit in the frame sentence for nouns--The master is all right).]
6. vigilant (4) Applicable: (1) Has an adjective-making derivational morpheme

ADJECTIVE {-ant}; (2) can be made comparative and superlative (more/most vigilant); (3) can be qualified (quite vigilant); (4) can fit in the frame sentence (The vigilant guards were very vigilant).


7. wicker (0) Not applicable: (1) has no adjective-forming morpheme; (2)

NOT AN cannot be made comparative or superlative (*more/most wicker);

ADJECTIVE (3) cannot be qualified (*quite wicker); (4) cannot fit in the frame sentence (*The wicker chair was very wicker). [Wicker is a noun (can occur with possessive--wicker's strength; can directly follow an article--the wicker; can fit in the frame sentence for nouns--The wicker seems all right).]
8. stable (3) Applicable: (2) Can be made comparative and superlative

ADJECTIVE (more/most stable); (3) can be qualified (quite stable); (4) can fit in the frame sentence (The stable market was very stable).



Not applicable: (1) No adjective-making derivational morpheme
9. calling (0) Not applicable: (1) No adjective-making derivational

NOT AN morpheme; (2) cannot be made comparative and superlative

ADJECTIVE (*more/most calling); (3) cannot be qualified (*quite calling); (4) cannot fit in the frame sentence (*The calling card was very calling). [Calling is a verb present participle (Someone is calling).]

Exercise 4.8
1. cranky (both) The cranky baby cried all night. (attributive)

The baby was very cranky last night. (predicative)


2. unfair (both) He is opposed to unfair rules. (attributive)

The rules against picketing were very unfair. (predicative)

3. utter (attributive) These lavender shorts were an utter mistake. (attributive)

*That mistake was very utter.


4. financial (attributive) Her financial advice is always reliable. (attributive)

?The topic of her conversation was very financial.


5. oval (both) Everyone wanted to visit the oval office. (attributive)

Sue’s circles are always very oval. (predicative)


6. awake (predicative) *The awake baby cried for hours.

The baby was awake until midnight. (predicative)


7. idiotic (both) His idiotic answer amused all of us. (attributive)

Sometimes her behavior is very idiotic. (predicative)


8. final (both) We are waiting for your final answer. (attributive)

Their refusal to buy seemed very final. (predicative)


9. aghast (predicative) *The aghast audience failed to applaud.

Everyone was aghast at his behavior. (predicative)



Exercise 4.9
This is a good exercise for small group work followed by class discussion.
ADJECTIVES ADVERBS

earthly [earthly reason] boldly [go boldly]

gentlemanly [gentlemanly behavior] seriously [talk seriously]

beastly [beastly weather] shortly [answer shortly]

cowardly [cowardly lion] silently [move silently]

beautifully [behave beautifully]


The adjectives are derived from the following nouns: earth, gentleman, beast, coward. The adverbs are derived from the following adjectives: bold, serious, short, silent, beautiful.

Exercise 4.10
This is a good exercise for small group work followed by class discussion.
1. Because yearly is derived from a noun, we would expect it to be an adjective (a yearly raise); however, it is both an adjective and an adverb (He goes to India yearly).
2. Leisurely, too, is derived from a noun. It is a prototypical adjective (Their leisurely stroll was very leisurely); but it is also used as an adverb (They strolled leisurely through the park).

Exercise 4.11
1. soberly (5) Applicable: (1) Has an adverb-making suffix {-ly} on an

ADVERB adjective base; (2) can be compared with more and most; (3) can be qualified (very soberly); (4) can move in its sentence: Barbara answered their questions soberly/Soberly, Barbara answered their questions; (5) can fit in the frame sentence: The man told his story soberly.


2. soon (4) Applicable: (2) can be made comparative and superlative:

ADVERB sooner/soonest; (3) can be qualified: very soon; (4) can move in its sentence: We’ll begin soon/Soon we’ll begin; (5) can fit in frame sentence: The man will tell his story soon.

Not applicable: (1) Has no adverb-making morpheme.


3. sometimes (2) Applicable: (4) Can move in its sentence: Sometimes I feel

ADVERB lonely/ I feel lonely sometimes; (5) can fit in the frame

sentence: The man tells his story sometimes.



Not applicable: (1) Has no adverb-making suffix; (2) cannot be compared (*more/most sometimes); (3) cannot be qualified (*very sometimes).
4. worldly (2) Applicable: (2) Can take comparative and superlative inflections

NOT AN (worldlier/worldliest); (3) can be qualified (very worldly)



ADVERB [These are also adjective tests.]

Not applicable: (1) Has no adverb-making morpheme; it has an adjective-making morpheme {-ly} on a noun base; (4) cannot move in its sentence: That is a worldly person/*Worldly that is a person; (5) cannot fit in the frame sentence: *The man told his story worldly. [Worldly is an adjective: The worldly crowd seemed very worldly.]


5. homely (2) Applicable: (2) Can take comparative and superlative inflections

NOT AN (homelier/homeliest); (3) can be qualified (very homely).

ADVERB [These are also adjective tests.]

Not applicable: (1) Has no adverb-making morpheme; it has an adjective-making morpheme {-ly} on a noun base; (4) cannot move in its sentence: Do you know that homely man?/*Homely do you know that man? (5) cannot fit in the frame sentence: *The man told his story homely. [Homely is an adjective: The homely man was very homely.]

6. backwards (3) Applicable: (1) Has an adverb-making suffix {-wards}; (5) can fit

ADVERB in the frame sentence: The man walked his dog backwards;

Not applicable: (2) Cannot be compared *more/most backwards; (3) cannot be qualified (*The man walked his dog very backwards); (4) Cannot move in its sentence: Sue tried never to look backwards/*Backwards, Sue tried never to look. [Backward (without the -s) is both an adjective and an adverb.]


7. seaward (3) Applicable: (1) has adverb-making suffix {-ward}; (4) can

ADVERB move in its sentence: The turtle crawled seaward.

Seaward, the turtle crawled; (5) can fit in frame sentence: The smoke drifted seaward.

Not applicable: (2) Probably cannot be made comparative or superlative: *more/most seaward; (3) does not qualify: *very seaward. [May also be an adjective: The strollers turned in a seaward direction.]
8. girlishly (5) Applicable: (1) Has an adverb-making morpheme on an

ADVERB adjective base (girlish + {-ly}); (2) can be made comparative or superlative: more/most girlishly; (3) qualifies: very girlishly; (4) can move in its sentence: She giggled girlishly/Girlishly, she giggled); (5) fits in frame sentence: She told the story girlishly.

9. Monday (2) Applicable: (4) Can move in its sentence: Monday, I’m

BORDERLINE going to look for a job/I’m going to look for a job Monday; (5) can fit in the frame sentence: The man told his story Monday.

Not applicable: (1) Does not have an adverb-making suffix; (2) cannot be compared (*more/most Monday); (3) cannot be qualified (*quite Monday) [Monday is one of the small set of nouns that can behave like adverbs: Let’s go home, I’ll see you Tuesday, but not *Let’s go school, *I’ll see you July.

Exercise 4.12
1. forever - TIME

2. boyishly - MANNER

3. completely - DEGREE

4. around - PLACE

5. irregularly - FREQUENCY

6. quickly - MANNER

7. seldom - FREQUENCY

8. aside - PLACE

9. utterly - DEGREE

Exercise 4.13
1. alone

ADVERB functioning ADVERBIALLY - Can fit in the adverb frame sentence: The man walked his dog alone; although it cannot be compared or qualified in the adverbial position (*Jacob doesn’t want to play Nintendo more/most/very alone), it can be qualified by degree (utterly alone).


2. today

NOUN functioning ADVERBIALLY - Can fit in the adverb frame sentence: The man walked his dog today; it can move in its sentence: Today Jacob doesn’t want to play Nintendo; but it cannot be compared or qualified: (*Jacob doesn’t want to play Nintendo more/most/very today).


3. lightweight

ADJECTIVE functioning ADJECTIVALLY - It can be compared and qualified, more/most/quite lightweight, and can fit in the adjective frame sentence: The lightweight luggage was very lightweight.


4. leather

NOUN functioning ADJECTIVALLY - It fails the adjective tests: *more/most leather, *quite leather;*The leather luggage was very leather. It inflects as a noun, two different leathers, and can fit in the noun frame sentence: The leather seems all right.


5. matched

VERB PARTICIPLE functioning ADJECTIVALLY - It has a past participle verb inflection. It fails the adjective tests: *more/most/quite matched;*The matched luggage was very matched.


6. Matt Damon

NOUN - functioning NOMINALLY - It is a proper noun (the name of a specific person), and it can fit in the noun frame sentence: Matt Damon seems all right.


7. buying

VERB functioning NOMINALLY - It has a present participle verb inflection; it fails the noun tests (*two different buyings. *The buying seems all right).


8. electronic

ADJECTIVE functioning ADJECTIVALLY - It ends with an adjective-making derivational morpheme {-ic); however, it cannot be compared or qualified,*more/most/rather electronic, nor can it fit in the adjective frame sentence: *The electronic ticket is very electronic.


9. parking

VERB PARTICIPLE functioning ADJECTIVALLY - It has a present participle verb inflection. It cannot pass the adjective tests: *more/most/quite parking;*The parking ticket was very parking.


10. theater

NOUN functioning ADJECTIVALLY - It fails the adjective tests: *more/most/quite theater;*The theater ticket was very theater. It inflects as a noun, two different theaters, and can fit in the noun frame sentence: The theater seems all right.



Exercise 4.14
1. color

NOUN functioning adjectivally -It fails the adjective tests, but it can take the noun plural inflection: three colors. [It can also take verb inflections: he colors/colored/has colored/is coloring.]


2. perceive

VERB functioning as a verb - It can fit in the verb frame sentence and can take verb inflections.


3. speech

NOUN functioning adjectivally - It fails the adjective tests, but it can take the noun inflections: three speeches, ?the speech’s conclusion.


4. human

NOUN functioning adjectivally - It fails the adjective tests, but it can take the noun inflections: those humans, the human’s behavior.


5. physical

ADJECTIVE functioning adjectivally - It has an adjective-forming derivational suffix and it can be compared: Her response was more physical than mental. It can be qualified for most speakers in sentences like Theirs was a very physical response.


6. visible

ADJECTIVE functioning adjectivally - A prototype: It ends with an adjective-making derivational morpheme {-ible}; it can be compared and qualified; and it can fit in the adjective frame sentence.


7. imperceptibly

ADVERB - A prototype: It contains an adverb-making morpheme {-ly} on an adjective base; it can be compared and qualified; and it can fit in the adverb frame sentence.


8. European

ADJECTIVE or NOUN - This one is ambiguous. If you can compare (a most European community) or qualify it (a very European community), as many speakers can, you are using it as an adjective. However, it is also a noun, and if you think of European community as being a community of Europeans, then you may have a strong sense that it is a noun modifying a noun.




REVIEW EXERCISES

Form Classes in Context
1. English - ADJECTIVE - Although it can occur as a noun (The English seem somewhat reserved), there is no reason to consider it anything but an adjective in this sentence. It contains an adjective-making morpheme; it can be compared or qualified: more/most/quite English, and it can fit in the adjective frame sentence: The English patient was very English.
2. form-class: NOUN - It pluralizes (form classes) and can fit in the noun frame sentence: The form-class seems all right. It cannot pass the adjective tests: *more/most/quite form-class, and it cannot fit in the adjective frame sentence: *The form-class words were very form-class.
3. peripheral: ADJECTIVE - It contains an adjective-making morpheme {-al}; it can be compared or qualified: more/most/quite peripheral; and it can fit in the adjective frame sentence: The peripheral members were very peripheral.
4. specific: ADJECTIVE - Although it can occur as a noun (He is familiar with the specifics of the situation), there is no reason to consider it anything but an adjective in this sentence. It is functioning adjectivally; it contains an adjective-making morpheme {-ic} it can be compared or qualified: more/most/quite specific; and it can fit in the adjective frame sentence: The specific features were very specific.
5. frequently: ADVERB - It contains an adverb-making morpheme {-ly} on an adjective base: frequent; it can be compared or qualified: more/most/very frequently; and it can fit in the adjective frame sentence: The man told his story frequently.
6. enable: VERB - It contains a verb-making morpheme {-en}; it accepts verb inflections: enables/enabled/enabling; and it can fit in the verb frame sentence: Fixing the carburetor may enable us to drive on.
7. form: NOUN - It pluralizes (forms) and can fit in the noun frame sentence: The form seems all right. It cannot pass the adjective tests: *more/most/quite form, and it cannot fit in the adjective frame sentence: *The form class was very form.
8. reflect: VERB - It contains a verb-making morpheme {re-}; it accepts verb inflections: reflects/reflected/reflecting; and it can fit in the verb frame sentence: The sun reflects brilliantly from the surface of the water.

Form Classes in Isolation
1. mint (a) NOUN - Mint grows well as a potted plant.

(b) VERB - The French are no longer minting francs.

[Do you consider (b) to be the same word as (a)? That is, do they have closely related meanings?]
2. center (a) NOUN - The other team’s center is taller than ours.

(b) VERB - Let’s center the piano on this wall.

3. low (a) NOUN - The stock market hit a new low yesterday.

(b) ADJECTIVE - Does low pressure signal that a storm is coming?

(c) ADVERB - I think we have hung the pictures too low.

[There is a verb low: The cattle are lowing in the meadow. Do you consider it to be the same word as (a) and (b)?]


4. sad (a) ADJECTIVE - Georgia always looks as though she has just received sad news.
5. faint (a) NOUN - Donna swooned in a faint when she heard the news.

(b) VERB - Nurses don’t usually faint at the sight of blood.

(c) ADJECTIVE - There seems to be a faint echo in the auditorium.


6. suddenly (a) ADVERB - While crossing the bridge, the car swerved suddenly.
7. house (a) NOUN - Our house is near the corner.

(b) VERB - Where did they house the tornado victims?

[Do you consider (b) to be the same word as (a)?]
8. score (a) NOUN - After seven minutes of the game, there was still no score.

(b) VERB - Boston scored the first points.


9. tan (a) NOUN - Betty always returns from Hawaii with a good tan.

(b) VERB - Some of the hotel guests were tanning themselves by the pool.

(c) ADJECTIVE - That tan paint doesn’t look good on the walls.

Subclasses
1. adjective, gradable, attributive and predicative

Those hot [attributive] potatoes are really hot [predicative].
2. adverb, frequency, superlative

Most often, I seem to get only your answering machine when I telephone.


3. noun, common, inanimate, noncount

Patience has never been one of Pam’s virtues.


4. adjective, attributive, but not predicative

Ed’s main worry is that he’ll run out of money on his vacation.



*Ed’s worry is very main.
5. noun, proper, inanimate, noncount

Not many governments embrace Communism today.


6. noun, common, animate, nonhuman, male

Shall we kill the old red rooster for Sunday dinner?


7. noun, common, animate, human

Nine out of ten patients have no side effects when taking this medicine.


8. adjective, nongradable, attributive and predicative

Harry found it impossible to draw parallel lines. His lines never seemed to be parallel.



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