Internal conflict is a psychological battle for a dramatic or literary character in a literary work. In ‘Versabraille’ by Bill Schermbrucker, the speaker experiences a major internal struggle. He has realized that he is disconnected from the story of his family, a disconnect he hopes to change. One instance of this in the work is in paragraph eight where he says to his Uncle Jim that his “father doesn’t seem to have been ambitious”. When the narrator is told of the unselfishness of his grandfather and his choice of family over personal ambition, he realizes he did not know much about his grandfather as a person. Another occurrence in this work is when the Uncle Jim hangs up after talking to the narrator in paragraph 33. The narrator realizes that he still does not have answers to all of his questions and he may not have a chance to learn them all, given the age of his uncle and how hard it is to connect with him.
1 mark for definition, 1 mark for answer, 1 mark reference one, 1 mark reference one explanation, 1 mark reference two, 1 mark reference two explanation.
From this plan, you can develop your essay to cover all points – relating each of the paragraphs back to the message and ensuring you have touched on all points.
Analytical Essay Scoring Rubric
Analytical Scoring Guide for Essays
content displays an outstanding knowledge of subject matter
content effectively responds to a given prompt
choice of content is consistently clear, specific and serves to answer the question
selections are consistently supported with specific and effective references
introduction and conclusion are compelling reinforcing unity
structure (nearly flawless with ideas that are logically sequenced and developed)
content displays a strong knowledge of subject matter
content usually responds to a given
choice of content is usually clear, specific and serves to answer the question
selections are strongly supported with references that relate to the task
introduction and conclusion are strong, clear and unified
structure (strong with ideas that are logically sequenced and developed despite some evidence of disunity
content displays a satisfactory knowledge of subject matter
content sometimes responds to a given prompt
choice of content is sometimes clear, specific and serves to answer the question
selections are sometimes supported
introduction and conclusion are general and contribute to unity
structure (general with ideas that are sometimes coherent and unified)
content displays a limited knowledge of subject matter
content rarely responds to a given prompt
choice of content is rarely clear, specific and serves to answer the question
selections are rarely supported with references
introduction has little direction
conclusion, although present, is limited and does little to tie the piece together
structure (limited;unity and coherence falter)
mechanics (errors are frequent and are beginning to affect readability)
content displays an unclear knowledge of subject matter
content does not respond to a given prompt
choice of content is unclear and does not serve to answer the question
selections are never supported with references
introduction is unclear
conclusion is unconnected or does not exist
structure (there is no unity and coherence)
mechanics (errors are making readability impossible)
Out of 15
Out of 5
Total out of 20
– the prevailing mood
of a literary work, particularly when that mood is established in part by setting (i.e., opening of “The Highwayman”).
– the highest point of emotional interest, after which the only thing left to do is tie up loose ends
– the way in which an author reveals an aspect or aspects of a character’s personality.
The author comes right out and tells the reader what a character is like.
The author provides clues about the character through:
What about FLAT and ROUND characters? The first is undeveloped, showing only one trait usually, while the second is realistic, with numerous traits.
what the character says;
what the character does;
the character’s name;
the character’s appearance/surroundings;
what other people say about the character;
how other people act toward the character;
how animals react to the charge.
– the struggle that grows out of the interplay of two opposing forces in a plot. It provides interest
, suspense, tension. The protagonist (usually) may be involved in one of those conflicts:
– struggle within
PERSON vs. PERSON
PERSON vs. NATURE
PERSON vs. SOCIETY
- the imitation of an action; the arrangement of the incidents; the action imitated should be a whole
– having a beginning, a middle and an ending. A plot should have UNITY
: imitate one action and that a whole, the structural union of the parts being such that, if any one of them is displaced or removed, the whole will be disjointed. This unit should leave the reader with an impression.
Characters + Actions =
(Conflict will be present)
POINT OF VIEW
– the vantage point from which the author presents the action of the story.
Third person omniscient – the author is not restricted to time, place or character and free to move and to comment at will (thoughts);
First person major – the main character tells the story (I);
First person minor – minor character tells story (I);
Third person limited – someone outside the story is telling it, but does not know the characters’ thoughts.
Other definitions sometimes used when discussing point of view:
– if the character does not comprehend the implications of what he or she is telling.
– when actions and conversations are presented in summary rather than in detail.
On the other hand, the author may present actions/conversations in detail without authorial comment – called scenic
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
– TIME + PLACE
The physical, and sometimes spiritual, background against which the action of a narrative takes place.
the occupations and daily living of the characters;
the time or period in which the action takes place;
the general environment of the characters, for example, religious, mental, moral, social and emotional conditions through which the people in the narrative move.
– a relatively brief fictional narrative in prose. It may range in length from 500 words up to 15,000 words. It has a definite construction plot. It finds unit in PLOT, THEME, CHARACTER, TONE, MOOD and, on occasion
, STYLE. It tends to reveal character through ACTION
(a series of events or ordeals), the purpose of the story being accomplished when the reader comes to know the true nature of a CHARACTER (or sometimes a SITUATION).
– when the author uses something concrete (a person, place or thing) to represent something abstract (an idea, a feeling for example); symbolism is often used to reveal theme. FLAG = PATRIOTISM
– a central or dominating idea of a work.
In non-fiction prose, it will be called the thesis.
In fiction, it is the abstract concept that is made concrete through character, action, etc…
Both theme and thesis imply a subject and a predicate
Other useful terminology:
Allegory – a narrative in which abstract ideas are personified; a description to convey a different meaning from that which is expressed; a continued metaphor; in allegory, the characters in a narrative have other meanings that lie outside the narrative: the Lord of the Flies island is also our world that we are barbarically destroying and Roger is the worst of our race, standing for the cruelty inside mankind
Allusion – a passing or indirect reference; in literature, an author will often make an allusion to a famous book such as the Bible, or a famous work of art
Archetype – the original pattern or model from which a thing is made or copied; prototype i.e. Dracula is the archetype from which Buffy and the Sesame Street Count gained their existence.
Autobiographical – written about oneself
Biography – the detailed story of a person’s life and achievements
Caricature – a ludicrous exaggeration (sometimes in picture form) of peculiar personal characteristics; to exaggerate or distort, in words or pictorial form
Complication – something that tangles the plot
Dialect – way of speaking common to a particular area or group, i.e. people in Massachusetts.
Dialogue – conversation.
Epiphany - a sudden insight, a new way of looking at something, thought by some to be a manifestation of god
Exposition – the beginning of the plot triangle, where setting, characters, and problem are introduced
Fiction –literature dealing with imaginary characters and situations
Flashback – the presentation of scenes or incidents that occurred prior to the opening scene of the work.
Foreshadowing – hints or clues about what will happen later.
*Foreshadowing can result from:
the establishment of an atmosphere;
the appearance of physical objects;
the revelation of a fundamental character trait.
– a kind, sort or style: All literature can be sorted into different genres.
– the recognition of a reality different from appearance.
– a figure of speech in which the actual intent of a statement is expressed in words that carry the opposite meaning (lighter than sarcasm). Sarcasm
is a taunt or sneer. It is bitterly satirical and cutting.
– refers to knowledge held by the audience but hidden from the character(s).
– a form of dramatic irony in which characters use words that mean one thing to them but have foreboding, different meaning for those whom understand the situation better.
– destiny controls one’s fate.
– the act of placing side by side
– reminiscences; a short biographical sketch
– a direct comparison of two unlike things i.e. the moon was a ghostly galleon.
– an idea running through literary works, such as the damsel in need of rescue (in Cinderella, Snow White, and Sleeping Beauty)
– what makes the character “tick”
– a legend embodying primitive faith in the supernatural; an invented story; many myths from different cultures have similarities, as these cultures made up answers to questions about the world around them
– the person telling the story
– a true account of events
– a self-contradictory combination of words.
i.e. Romeo’s speech referring to “loving hate” and “sick health”, “feather of lead”,
“heavy lightness” pretty ugly
emphasizes trial of love bittersweet
– a simple story used to give a lesson in morals (right vs. wrong); the best known are Biblical, including “The Feeding of the 5,000”, “The Lost Coin”, and “The Prodigal Son”
– an imitation of a poem, song, whatever, where the style is the same but the theme is ludicrously different; a feeble imitation (i.e. “The Pints of Snails”)
– in literature, the character who “speaks to” the reader or imagined audience; also called the speaker in a poem (a persona may be completely different than the actual author); a friend of mine (female) always wrote her poems using a male persona, a fact that one professor commented upon
– giving inanimate objects human characteristics i.e. the leaves danced in the gentle wind.
– the systematic, purposeful spreading of ideas
, both good and bad
– a play on words based on the similarity of sound between two words with different meanings.
“The sun of Rome is set”. Antony re: Brutus
– a comparison of two unlike things using “like” or “as” i.e. the water curled like snakes.
– a gross misrepresentation of people; to reduce a person to an empty formula, where individuality is lost, i.e. He is a ________ and so he must be ________. (Nflder/stupid)
– secondary action of a story, reinforcing or contrasting with the main plot (i.e. the Boo Radley story running side by side with the Tom Robinson story in To Kill A Mockingbird
; connected subplots enhance our understanding of a story, while unconnected ones provide a temporary break from the main story
NOTES on the ESSAY
is a moderately brief prose discussion of a restricted topic. This topic is otherwise known as the SUBJECT
Every essay will have a PURPOSE
, which is the central concern or reason behind the writing. The THESIS STATEMENT
will indicate the main idea behind the essay, revealing its purpose. The thesis statement will usually be found at the beginning or end of paragraph one.
Every individual paragraph will have a main point, revealed by the TOPIC SENTENCE
of the paragraph.
An essay will also have an intended AUDIENCE
, those people that the writer is intending to speak to specifically. Sometimes an audience may be a very general group.
is a term that refers to the attitudes toward the subject and toward the audience. An essay may have a tone that is: formal, informal, intimate, solemn, somber, playful, serious, ironic, condescending, and so on. Tone may be aided by diction, sentence structure, repetition, imagery, alliteration, assonance, consonance, and so on.
An essay’s PLAN
is the ordered arrangement of the ideas in an essay. It is also known as an outline.
A writer’s STYLE
is the arrangement of words in a manner best expressing the individuality of the author and the idea and intent in the author’s mind. Style involves the way a writer uses language – how s/he handles words, phrases, sentences, non-sentences, and paragraphs.
Long or short sentences and paragraphs?
Personal feeling? Philosophy?
Appealing to the senses?
Sometimes an essay may use SATIRE
, when a serious subject is treated in a humorous way, exaggerated, ridiculed, so that on the surface it becomes a laughing matter.
is used, whereby a relationship, or likeness, or parallelism is used for explaining something: “This course is like a long hike. If you have the right provisions, and you follow the right path, you’ll make great discoveries and enjoy the journey with your companions. But you shouldn’t fall behind.”
Other useful data:
– a worn out phrase
Closing by return
– ending an essay with a reference to the same anecdote or personal experience that was used to open the essay
– (:) this punctuation signals a list or an explanation
– accepted usage of language, capital letters, punctuation, etc…i.e. A convention of letter writing would be the inside address.
– ideas and images associated with words that go beyond dictionary meaning, i.e. New Orleans
– dictionary meaning of a word
– (…) this punctuation indicates that something has been left out; it is often used for implication, i.e. “If I told you once, …”
is not literal, i.e. crawling the walls (very bored); literal meaning
, on the other hand, would involve doing a wall at Walnuts.
– a statement that seems to be absurd or self-contradictory, but it is really founded on truth (i.e. “More haste, less speed.)
– the system of separating the written word (sentences, clauses) by the use of punctuation marks; we will review the uses of each in class (capitalization, colon, dash, exclamation mark, hyphen, italics, period, quotation marks, semicolon)
– statement in the form of a question to which no answer is expected
– rules governing sentence construction
– the personality of the speaker or creator that is revealed in a literary work through such elements as style
, tone, diction, etc.
“HOW TO WRITE AN ESSAY” WILL BE THE SUBJECT OF A SEPARATE HANDOUT.
SOME THOUGHTS ON STYLE
- the arrangement of words in a manner best expressing the individuality of the author and the intent in the author’s mind; adaptation of one’s language to one’s ideas
Points to consider:
arrangement of ideas
sentence variety (short? long? simple? compound? complex?) SEPARATE HANDOUT TO FOLLOW
paragraphs (long? short?)
diction (word choice)
standard diction - words found in the dictionary formal writing style
colloquialism - conversational, informal language informal writing style
journalese - newspaper writing
slang - language of a particular place or age group
repetition creates emphasis by focusing the reader’s attention on a word, idea or line over and over
- logical order; showing the relationship between ideas
Transitional Terms - are words or phrases which help to achieve carry-over within sentences, between sentences, and between paragraphs. Many good examples of transitional terms are listed in the table on page 87. (Review the sample sentences in your notes.)
Pronoun Reference - is the use of a pronoun in one sentence or clause to refer to a noun in a preceding sentence or clause.
Repetition of a Key Word or its Synonym - Sometimes repeating a word can lend
coherence to your writing, emphasizing your ideas.
Parallel Structure - Parallel structure requires that all ideas presented in a series or list have the same grammatical form.
Going to school, listening to teachers, and ____________________ are not my idea of a good time.
Organization – spatial, chronological, or logical order
(5) figurative language
imagery - words and phrases which appeal to any of the five senses; a writer uses imagery to make us see what s/he sees, i.e. the sunset was a mixture of varying hues of red, orange, and the most magnificent purple
simile - a comparison of two unlike things, using like or as, i.e. beginning each day with a smile is as easy as falling off a log
metaphor - a comparison of two unlike things, i.e. the cat’s eyes were two green emeralds (...and yes, I am referring to a living creature)
(6) purpose - the reason(s) for writing
- the writer’s attitude toward subject and audience
(8) the use of dialogue and/or dialect
Here are some words which may be used to describe a writer’s style. This list is by no means all-inclusive; however, it will give you an idea of how to talk about someone’s style.
-poetic -journalistic -humorous
-straightforward (explicit) -dull -sophisticated
-scientific -vivid -exaggerated
-descriptive -dramatic -subtle (implicit)
METHODS OF DEVELOPING AN ESSAY
Exposition is writing which explains.
The subcategories include:
Cause and effect - i.e. This happened because… OR A result of this was…
Classification and division - i.e. Every society can be broken down into these groups…
Comparison and contrast - i.e. A morning person vs. a night owl
Example and illustration - i.e. One example of Newfoundland’s uniqueness …
Definition - i.e. A good student is one who…
Process Analysis – i.e. How to [make, be, obtain]…
is writing which describes a person, place, or object. Its main purpose is to create a dominant impression
(main feeling) about that which is being described. Use spatial order and numerous adjectives.
is writing which tells a story, but in a narrative essay
the story is a means by which the writer can make a point, rather than a narrative shared more for entertainment purposes. There will be a thesis statement.
argumentation / persuasion -- an essay that attempts to persuade the reader to the writer’s point of view; the writer can be either serious or funny, but always tries to convince the reader of the validity of his or her opinion
cause and effect -- an author may look at the cause-effect relationship, or may discuss the causes or effects of something. The aim is to explain the causes (reasons) or the effects (results) of an event or situation
compare and contrast -- an author discusses the similarities and differences between characters, people, things, et cetera.
description – the exercise of representing characters, scenes, ideas or actions to make the writing more vivid and appealing for the reader
examples and illustration -- With almost every paragraph, a example is offered as to clarify and inform.
exposition -- an essay that is explanatory in nature. It deals with the world of ideas and is logically arranged. The methods of development for essays include compare and contrast, classification and division, example and illustration, process analysis, and definition. (There is usually a combination of methods in any expository essay, but quite often, there is one dominant method.)
narration -- writing that tells a story or part of a story; includes characters, setting, conflict, suspense, etc. Narratives are chronologically arranged and must involve some type of conflict.
process analysis -- a pattern of essay development in which the author explains how to do something (Example: How to be a successful student.)
: The logical arrangement and progression of ideas in writing.
Coherence is used to:
Provide logical connections between ideas.
Keep the plot tied together.
Help the reader follow the story or argument.
Methods of developing coherence:
Repetition of key ideas - Repeating key words or phrases throughout a piece of writing gives it flow and allows a main point to carry throughout.
Pronoun /antecedent references - Replacing nouns with words such as ‘he’, ‘she’, ‘it’, etc. can make explicit reference back to a form mentioned earlier. This is less distracting to a reader, adding to coherence.
Parallel structure - Using the same pattern of words to show that two or more ideas have the same level of importance. This technique is the oldest, most overlooked, but probably the most elegant method of creating coherence. It gives a piece of writing a smooth flow and provides a level of ease and expectation for the reader.
Transitional words and phrases – These help develop connections and create flow from one idea to the next (but, however, besides, another, therefore, of course, finally, etc.).
: When a work contains only what is relevant to the subject or topic.
Methods of developing unity:
Use of a dominant tone.
Use of a consistent point of view.
Use a thesis statement to connect the essay.
Use of topic sentences – Each paragraph in a piece of writing should have a topic sentence that can be linked back to the overall thesis of the essay.
Supporting evidence – all ideas/points put forward in a paragraph should be linked to or in support of the topic sentence.
Closing by return – The conclusion of a well-constructed essay often returns back to the main point given in the introduction.
forms of public communication (such as newspaper, radio, television, information network, poster, or brochure) that is designed to reach large numbers of people.
– evaluating media texts for comparison, message, intended audience
– the promotion of goods or services for sale through impersonal media, such as radio or television; the physical promotion of a product (commercial or magazine)
– a list or program of things to be done or considered; could also mean the purpose or motive behind a media text
– a website that contains an online personal journal with reflections, comments, and often hyperlinks provided by the author
– a booklet of printed informational matter, like a pamphlet, often for promotional purposes
– the words beneath a photograph that explain the subject and give background information; help to shape the meaning of the photo, sometimes in misleading ways
a public promotion of a product or service
breaking a text down into its components to see what messages and assumptions it carries
a portion of a population, especially considered as consumers
Endorsement - a message issued on behalf of some product, cause, idea, person, or institution; usually involves companies and their products
style, plan or arrangement
smaller division within a genre (Ex: poetry is a genre; haiku, a type of poetry, is a form of the genre)
the heading, title or caption of a newspaper article; usually very attention-grabbing.
in media, it can be referred to as an image; in literature, it is known as a description of a person or thing, usually using a figure of speech
an object that usually represents a larger idea
an aim or purpose
the introductory section of a news article/story; usually a news story of major importance in a newspaper
an identifying symbol used to advertise and promote an organization, event, product or service. Usually, such symbols combine pictorial and textual elements in a distinctive manner. When consisting solely of stylized textual elements, such symbols are referred to as logotypes or wordmarks.
Mass media –
when media methods are used to communicate to thousands of people at the same time
Media texts –
any communication product, including radio and television, movies, billboards, magazine and television advertisements, books, paintings, photographs, collages, posters, comics, and web pages
Medium – a means of mass communication, such as newpapers, magazines, radio, or television
the underlying purpose behind a text
a sign usually consisting of a combination of print and visuals; mainly designed to attract and hold the attention of the audience; may convey a message to make people think
Product placement - placing a product in a scene to subliminally promote that product
attempts to sway popular opinion and beliefs through distortions of the truth or outright lies. It is the way of presenting a belief that seeks to generate acceptance without regard to facts or the right of others to be heard. Propaganda often presents the same argument repeatedly, in the simplest terms and ignores all rebuttal or counter-argument. It is essentially self- interested and often associated with authoritarian regimes. Propaganda is often used to convey official descriptions of reality, when it may be allied with bureaucratic control of media, censorship of opposing opinions and deliberate misinformation.
Dialogue bubbles/Speech balloons –
a graphic convention used mostly in comics, cartoons, and graphic novels which contain a character’s spoken words (balloons are shaped with smooth circular lines) as well as their thoughts (words are contained in balloons shaped like clouds); thoughts sometimes appear in boxes in the upper corners of the graphic
the text of a play, broadcast, or movie
– a script for a film including dialogue and descriptions of characters and sets
Target audience –
consumer group most likely to buy a specific product and identified by region, age, demographics, or economic status. Effective ads are created and placed in media with the target audience clearly in mind.
part of a scene, landscape, etc., which is near the viewer (between the observer and up to l/4 or 1/2 mile distant). The surface patterns or objects and visual elements are important in the "foreground" portions of views
distance part of a landscape; surroundings, especially those behind something, and providing harmony and contrast; area located from 3-5 miles to infinity from the viewer, characterized by perception of outline shape, landforms, and patterns of light and dark. Skylines or ridgelines against other land surfaces are the strongest visual elements of background.
slant; a biased way of looking at or presenting something
illumination, can often establish mood or serve a symbolic purpose
perceptual effect of the juxtaposition of very different colors. Occurs when there is a visual difference between things or qualities being compared; degrees of dynamic imbalance between elements of a composition which draw the eye and demand resolution (dominance) to establish unity and overall balance in the design as a whole.
Logical fallacies –
errors of reasoning, errors which may be recognized and corrected by prudent thinkers
appearance of objects (or light sources) described in terms of a person's perception of their hue and lightness (or brightness) and saturation
any thought, idea, or information, whether expressed in plain or in secret language, prepared in a form suitable for transmission by any means of communication.
Text choice –
often reflects purpose and target audience (ex: Big, bold if appealing to children and elegant if appealing to young women)
is a mental leaning or inclination; partiality; prejudice; bent. It is sometimes delivered to the audience subconsciously.
– used by advertisers as a way to sell their product; it can be defined as any sensory stimuli below an individual’s threshold of perception (an individual does not know they are subjected to the message or object); a form of advertising on film or television that employs subliminal images to influence the viewer unconsciously
the implicit meaning or theme of a literary text
; a message which is not stated directly but can be inferred
Web page –
a page of information on a website; may include text, graphics, and links to other pages
space on a page or poster not covered by print or graphic matter
An advertisement is a public announcement in a newspaper, magazine or on the radio, television, or Internet advertising something such as a product for sale or an event.
In order to tackle this portion of your exam, you will need to KNOW the following definitions.
Luckily, MOST OF THESE STRATEGIES HAVE THEIR MEANING WITHIN THEIR NAME:
- this technique appeals to your desire for conformity
; if you don't buy the product, you are not up-to-date or part of the in crowd, so jump on the bandwagon
Example: Every day, thousands are switching to Lay's Potato Chips.
2. Cartoon/Cute Characters
- this technique relies on the entertainment value of the cute character
to encourage us to purchase the product
Example: The Charmin bear uses toilet tissue.
3. Celebrity Endorsement
- this technique involves a public figure speaking on behalf of a product
; the plan is that your admiration for the singer or sports star will cause you to buy the product
Example: Lady Gaga wears Red Door perfume, and so should you.
4. Emotional Appeal
- this technique appeals to one of our emotional needs
Example: Buy Nutella and you will be a great parent, providing your child with good nutrition.
5. Facts and Figures
- this technique tells the consumer that this product has been proven to be the best buy or the most effective
or whatever; often "tests" have been conducted to prove this
Example: In clinical studies, Crest has been clinically proven to whiten teeth.
6. Gender/Sex Appeal
- this technique uses sex or gender connection
to sell a product
Example: Buy Axe and all the women will want you.
7. Name Calling
- this technique uses slander of the opponent to win support
Example: The current government has not managed your tax dollars well. They have been wasteful.
8. Plain Folks
- this technique appeals to people who feel that they want products for ordinary folks
; often these people are family oriented, and certainly those who feel that they are down-to-earth, part of average society
Example: Shop at Walmart; we make family budgets go further.
9. Shock Appeal
- this technique involves shocking you into believing that you should buy or do something
Example: there is a very scary old ad for a cell phone that has a woman stranded on a deserted road with no phone and an unknown man in a pickup stopping to check on her
10. Snob Appeal
- this technique involves convincing you that the product is for people who will have only the best
; people who choose the product involved here are "in a league above the rest"
Example: Come dine at The Keg, where we cater to those who deserve the best.
- This technique is aimed at those who worry about growing older; for those who want to hang on to their youth
Example: I'm Kate and I use Tide to wash the soccer uniforms of my four kids - it works every time.
(Artistic) Visual Terms
- The kind or category of visuals.
Ex. Landscape, portrait, nature photography, abstract painting, etc.
- The arrangement of visual elements within a picture (layout of the elements)
- The way shapes are arranged. When shapes are balanced, they create a feeling of order or harmony. When shapes are not balanced, they create tension.
- The appearance of objects (or light sources) described in terms of a person's perception of their hue/tint. It is used to represent the ways things really look and also to create feeling
- Purity or strength of a color (brightness or dullness)
- Lightness or darkness of a color
- Drawing attention to something by use of color, size or placement
- Part of a visual that is the main area of interest
- The height, width and depth of a structure, all of which can create a perspective
- The quality that binds the parts of a visual image into a whole. It is often created through simplicity and repetition
- The basic unit of any image that has both length and direction
- A sense of energy in a visual, determined by the spaces between shapes and by the shapes themselves
– used by authors to emphasize an idea. Methods to achieve this include repetition, font [bold and italics], short sentences, punctuation, and interrupted movement.
Listing (numerical order, bullets, sequencing)
Font – (bold, unusual capitalization, italics, underlining). Example: Hello. Hello! HELLO!!
Punctuation (colon, dash, exclamation mark, ellipsis, brackets) - show breaks in thought and shifts in tone
Repetition -- the repeated use of the same word or word pattern. Example: – It is important you study for your test. If you do not study, you will not get the marks you deserve! So, not studying could cost you valuable marks.
Parallel structure – Be sure to eat your supper, complete your homework, and study your notes before going to sleep tonight.
Sentence fragments – an incomplete sentence that can be missing a subject or verb. Example: So, like, there we were! (I was a Teen Ingenue)
Short sentence – very simple sentence. Example: I froze.
– a harsh, disagreeable sound
– the opposite of cacophony, pleasantness or smoothness of a sound; assonance; assimilation of the sounds of syllables to facilitate pronunciation and to please the ear
– intentional departure from normal order, construction, or meaning of words in order to gain strength and freshness of expression, to create a pictorial effect, to describe by analogy, or to discover and illustrate similarities in otherwise dissimilar things.
Antithesis – characterized by strongly contrasting words; balancing of one term against another
Apostrophe – someone (usually absent), or some abstract quality, or a nonexistent being is directly addressed as though present (Lady Luck, smile on me.)
Hyperbole – conscious exaggeration, to heighten effect, or produce comic effect (This dog, with teeth the size of axe blades, started chewing at the seat of my pants.)
Oxymoron (Gk. Oxus, sharp and moros, dull) – a figure of speech in which two words or phrases of opposite meaning are set together for emphasis or effect, i.e. falsely true
Metonymy – the substitution of a term naming an object closely associated with the word in mind for the word itself (i.e. the skirt, the badge)
– using words which appeal to one of the five senses i.e. The path through the forest was a lush green velvet color.
– words of a song
– the use of words that by their sound suggest their meaning i.e. meow, crunch
– the poet’s privilege of departing from normal order
– repeating a word or phrase for emphasis
– the use of words beginning with the same consonants or any vowel sounds in successive or closely associated syllables, especially stressed syllables i.e. “In a summer season, where soft was sun…” OR “Apt alliteration’s artful aid is often an occasional ornament in prose.”
– similar vowel sounds in stressed syllables that end with different consonant sounds i.e. “Lake” and “fake” demonstrate rhyme. “Lake” and “fate” show assonance.
– the use at the end of verses of words in which the final consonants in the stressed syllables agree but the vowels that precede them differ i.e. “add-read,” “bill-ball,” “born-burn”
– the repeated use of a grammatical pattern in a line or lines of a poem