Essential Strategies for Effective Writing Curriculum for efl 5 Adult Learners June 2008 Co-Authors and Editors: Ann Marie Barter, Maine Department of Education Juliette Dzija, Auburn Adult and Community Education Christina Parks



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Essential Strategies for Effective Writing

Curriculum for EFL 5 Adult Learners


June 2008

Co-Authors and Editors:
Ann Marie Barter, Maine Department of Education

Juliette Dzija, Auburn Adult and Community Education

Christina Parks, Sanford Community Adult Education

Maggie Scholl, Franklin County Adult Education
Questions regarding this document should be directed to Andy McMahan at andy.mcmahan@maine.gov

or Ann Marie Barter at annmarie.barter@maine.gov.



Essential Strategies for Effective Writing
Table of Contents:
Page 1: Cover Page

Page 2: Table of Contents

Page 3: Curriculum and Content Outline

Page 4: How to Use the Curriculum Document

Pages 5-6: Resources and Recommended Texts

Pages 7-17: Curriculum



Pages 18-24 Appendix


  • Learning Styles Inventory from Help Yourself

  • Smart Goal Sheet and other goal-setting templates

  • Key Assignment Words

  • Pre-Writing Strategies

  • Writing Process

  • Writing Rubric

  • Revision Evaluation Form

  • Writing Process Reflection Form

  • Graphic Organizers

  • Evaluating Web Sites

  • Portfolio Guidelines

  • Portfolio Criteria

  • Portfolio Rubric

Essential Strategies for Effective Writing Curriculum Outline
EFL: NRS Level 5
Standards:
MLR: B Writing (PI’s 1 & 2), D Language (PI’s 1 & 2)

EFF: Convey Ideas in Writing & Plan
Objectives:
Students will be able to use the writing process to effectively compose paragraphs and essays.
Students will be able to use logical sequence and effective transitions.
Students will be able to write using voice appropriate to audience and purpose.
Students will be able to write using rhetorical skills that demonstrate an understanding of Standard American English.
Students will be able to write expository essays with embedded narrative.
Format: Unit-Based
Curriculum built around three units: Introduction to the Writing Process, Expository Writing: Compare and Contrast, Expository Writing: Cause and Effect.
Appendix to include selected texts at appropriate level.
Curriculum to have PI’s identified next to learning activities.
Content:


  • Review Writing Process: Pre-writing, writing and post-writing activities

  • Composing and organizing a draft

  • Revising and editing

  • Reflecting on the writing

  • Expository writing: compare and contrast, cause and effect, and embedded narrative

  • Grammar as determined by learner errors and needs

How to Use the Curriculum Document – A Guide for Instructors
This curriculum is designed to match the needs of your learners with your teaching style in a way that addresses standards-based instruction. The following guide is intended to help you better understand how the designers of this curriculum envision its use.


  1. Print out all the pages of the document and organize the sections of the curriculum into a user-friendly format (a three-ring binder divided into Resources, Curriculum, and Appendix works well).




  1. Read each section carefully, paying particular attention to the pages just before the actual curriculum that inform you about the curriculum (Pp 7-9).




  1. Consult the pre-requisite knowledge and skills of the instructor section on Page 7. Having these skills will ensure successful implementation of the curriculum. See #9 for suggestions.




  1. If it is your responsibility to conduct standardized learner assessments (CASAS), it is recommended that you do this PRIOR to placement into this course and not during class time.




  1. Familiarize yourself with the standards and objectives of the course because in a standards-based curriculum these are your instructional and assessment targets.




  1. Review Resources and Appendix to select appropriate texts and supporting documents for use in class. You may decide to use authentic materials exclusively or select a course text and then supplement with additional selections. You may have a different learning style inventory or goal sheet that you are comfortable using. The curriculum is meant to be a flexible document and substitutions are encouraged as long as the materials used are adult-friendly AND meet the criteria for EFL 5 readability level. Instructions to determine readability level are provided in the appendix. You may wish to go to the websites cited in the Appendix and print out resources before the class starts.




  1. Decide how you prefer to spend the first 3-6 hours of instruction – do you focus exclusively on assessing prior knowledge and goal-setting to get to know the learners better or do you embed those activities in the first theme in order to start with reading instruction? There is no right or wrong way as long as you don’t eliminate any portion of the curriculum.




  1. Write your lesson plans. Determine how much time you will allot to each unit and/or activity, how much time will be devoted to language and mechanics, and what activities will be done outside of class.




  1. Seek professional development on any aspect of the curriculum that is unfamiliar to you. Although most instructions are included in the appendix, there are on-line courses, websites, books, and DOE or MAEA sponsored learning opportunities to support your use of this curriculum.




  1. Have fun! Learners and teachers who have experienced this curriculum loved it.

Notes:


  • The curriculum is a guideline that can be easily adapted to suit you and your learners’ needs.

  • To insure the integrity of the level, it is critical that materials and/or activities that are modified continue to meet the criteria of the NRS descriptors.

  • Do not eliminate any portion of the curriculum – doing this compromises the learners’ opportunity to meet standards and demonstrate mastery through the learning activities and assessments.

  • The standards and/or performance indicators addressed in each part of the curriculum are printed in the column to the left of the learning activities for each unit and assessment activity.

Essential Strategies for Effective Writing

Course Resources
Copyright note: It is legal under the “fair use” doctrine of copyright law to copy a portion of a copyrighted text for non-profit educational use. The law does not specify what quantity of the whole text is permissible.

This curriculum recommends excerpts from texts which are generally a few pages or up to a chapter, a minimal portion of the entire text.


An asterisk indicates strongly recommended by pilot teachers
Prior Knowledge, Learning Style Inventory, and Writing Pre-Assessment Resources:
*Help Yourself: How to take advantage of your learning styles by Gail Sonbuchner, New Readers Press
Learning Style Websites:

http://www.engr.ncsu.edu/learningstyles/ilsweb.html

http://www.rrcc-online.com/~psych/LSInventory.html

http://www.metamath.com/lsweb/dvclearn.htm
*Mastery of Writing: An Individualized Program, Prestwick House, Inc – has pre-and post-tests, as well as writing prompts for a sample – purchase of one copy comes with rights to reproduce all portions of the text
Writing Resources:
*College Writing Skills with Readings by John Langan, McGraw-Hill

*The Compact Reader: Short Essays by Method and Theme by Jane Aaron, Bedford Books of St. Martin’s Press – has student and well-known authors’ essays as examples

Edit, Revise, Rewrite! J. Weston Walch Publishers

English Essentials: What Every College Student Needs to Know about Grammar, Punctuation and Usage by John Langan & B. Johnson, McGraw-Hill

*Evergreen: A Guide to Writing by Susan Fawcett & A. Sandberg, Houghton Mifflin

Ideas and Details: A Guide to College Writing by M. Garrett Bauman, Heinle

*The Least You Should Know About English by Paige Wilson & T. Glazier, Thomson Heinle

Mad Libs online: http://www.madglibs.com/



*Mastery of Writing: An Individualized Program, Prestwick House, Inc – has graphic organizers, exercises and reproducible masters
University of Maine Writing Center

http://www.umaine.edu/wcenter/resources.html

University of Wisconsin Writing Center



http://www.wisc.edu/writing/Handbook/QPA_quoting.html
Assessment Resources:
*Making Classroom Assessment Work by Anne Davies, ASCD

Mastery of Writing: An Individualized Program, Prestwick House, Inc

Rubric Examples: http://rubistar.4teachers.org/index.php



Teaching Writing:
12th Grade Expository Reading & Writing Course, The California State University System, http://www.calstate.edu/eap/englishcourse.materials.shtml
Best Practice: New Standards for Teaching and Learning in America’s Schools by Steven Zemelman et al, Heinemann

On Writing by Stephen King, published by Pocket
Good Pre-Writing Exercises in:

The Writer as an Artist by Pat Schneider, Lowell House Publishers
Good Activities for Word Choice in:

Writing By Doing by Hayes and Sohn, published by NTC/Contemporary
Standards:

Maine Learning Results http://www.maine.gov/education/

EFF Standards http://eff.cls.utk.edu/

Essential Strategies for Effective Writing
This curriculum was designed to be used with adult learners who are functioning at NRS Level 5. It is intended to provide the opportunity for learners to earn a high school diploma credit in English and/or be a College Transition course. It would serve equally well as a high school diploma elective credit or as a course for any student identified as working at this level whose goal is to improve his/her writing. Although this course could be conducted in 45 hours, the recommendation is to allow 60 hours in order to cover the strategies fully and to offer the opportunity for learners to master the standards.
Pre-requisite knowledge and skills necessary for the learner to be successful in this course:


  • Mastery of NRS level 5 skill descriptors

Learners can already comprehend expository writing and identify spelling, punctuation, and grammatical errors; can comprehend a variety of materials such as periodicals, library reference materials and compose multi-paragraph essays; can identify the main idea in reading selections and use a variety of context clues to determine meaning. Learners’ writing is organized and cohesive with few mechanical errors and learners are proficient using computers and most common computer applications.




  • CASAS score of 236 or higher or any other measurement of reading level at Grade Level Equivalent of 9-10.9 administered prior to placement into course




  • Mastery of Performance Level Three or higher on the EFF Use Information and Communications Technology Performance Continuum

Learners can already do basic internet searches using key words, use a word processing program, be familiar with the internet, use Help functions to solve problems, use online communications such as email with attachments, and perform multi-step tasks with few errors in a familiar environment.


Pre-requisite knowledge and skills for the instructor to successfully implement this curriculum:


  • Understanding of adult learning theory and evidence-based instructional practices

  • Working knowledge of NRS level descriptors, EFF standards and MLR standards

  • Willingness to partner with learners in an inquiry-based, learner-centered approach to instruction

  • Familiarity with formative assessment and portfolio assessment

  • Familiarity with college and university placement exams, especially ACCUPLACER

  • Basic familiarity with using a word processing program, navigating the internet, and accessing quality resource sites for the selected units

  • Working knowledge of internet research techniques

This course primarily focuses on improving writing skills with reading and language/grammar study embedded to enhance skill building. It is a unit-based course with choices for the instructor and adult learners throughout the curriculum. This course is offered to be used as designed or to serve as a model of a course curriculum that meets the criteria of the Curriculum Framework Rubric and aligns to Maine Learning Results, Equipped for the Future Standards and NRS Level 5 descriptors. The developers of this curriculum recommend following the sequence of instructional activities in the order given to provide scaffolding for the learners in the course.


The recommended resources are meant to serve as a guide for instructors, not a prescribed menu. Most recommendations included in this curriculum fall within the EFL 5 range and it is expected that instructors selecting materials beyond the suggestions provided in this document will verify the text’s alignment to the EFL reading/writing range in order to preserve the integrity of the curriculum. Learners should be working with texts at their instructional level throughout this curriculum. In a standards-based curriculum, there is an intentional relationship between the identified standards, the learning activities and the assessments. Therefore, any adjustments to the curriculum must continue to align with and assess the performance indicators associated with that portion of the curriculum. Eliminating any portion of the curriculum would compromise the learners’ ability to build and demonstrate mastery of the identified standards.
Copyright note: It is legal under the “fair use” doctrine of copyright law to copy a portion of a copyrighted text for non-profit educational use to illustrate a lesson. The law does not specify what quantity of the whole text is permissible to copy.
Please note: It is expected that grammar and mechanics will be assessed and reinforced throughout this curriculum. Based upon the errors and patterns the instructor sees in the learners’ products, as well as the results of the initial assessment, the instructor will provide contextualized and frequent lessons to support the review of correct usage, grammar and mechanics. It is particularly important that sentence combination and revising for effectiveness are explicitly covered since they are integral components of the ACCUPLACER.
This course addresses and assesses the following Maine Learning Results Standards (Revised 2007):


  1. WRITING: Students write to express their ideas and emotions, to describe their experiences, to communicate information, and to present or analyze an argument.

B1. 9-Diploma Performance Indicator: Interconnected Elements of Writing

Students use a writing process to develop an appropriate genre, exhibiting an explicit organizational structure, perspective and style to communicate with target audiences for specific purposes.
B2. 9-Diploma Performance Indicator: Narrative

Students embed narrative writing in a written text when appropriate to the audience and purpose.


D. LANGUAGE:  Students write and speak using the conventions of Standard American English.  They

  apply knowledge of grammar and usage when reading to aid comprehension. They know and apply

rules of mechanics and spelling to enhance the effectiveness and clarity of communication.
D1. 9-Diploma Performance Indicator: Grammar and Usage

Students apply rhetorical skills when reading, writing, and speaking through their understanding of



Standard American English.
D2. 9-Diploma Performance Indicator: Mechanics

Students demonstrate the use of the structures and conventions of Standard American English in their

communication.

This course addresses and assesses the following Equipped for the Future Standards:
Convey Ideas in Writing


  • Determine the purpose for communicating.

  • Organize and present information to serve the purpose, context, and audience.

  • Pay attention to conventions of English language usage, including grammar, spelling, and sentence structure, to minimize barriers to reader’s comprehension.

  • Seek feedback and revise to enhance the effectiveness of the communication.

Plan


  • Set and prioritize goals.

  • Develop an organized approach of activities and objectives.

  • Actively carry out the plan.

  • Monitor the plan’s progress while considering any need to adjust the plan.

  • Evaluate its effectiveness in achieving the goals.

** Please note that while other standards and performance indicators will be addressed in this curriculum, the focus for instruction and assessment will be on the identified standards and performance indicators.


Articulated Learning Outcomes/Objectives for this course:


  1. Students will be able to use the writing process to effectively compose paragraphs and essays.

  2. Students will be able to use logical sequence and effective transitions.

  3. Students will be able to write using voice appropriate to audience and purpose.

  4. Students will be able to write using rhetorical skills that demonstrate an understanding of Standard American English.

  5. Students will be able to write expository essays with embedded narrative.


Writing Process Overview:
Pre-writing activities

Reading – assignment, topic, samples

Brainstorming

Identify purpose and audience

Formulating a Thesis

Research, if appropriate


Writing activities

Composing a Draft

Organizing the Ideas

Developing the Content


Post-writing activities

Seeking Feedback

Revising the Draft

Editing the Draft

Reflecting on the Writing


Curriculum for Essential Strategies for Effective Writing

45-60 hours of Instruction


MLR

B. Writing

Students write to express their ideas and emotions, to describe their experiences, to communicate information, and to present or analyze an argument.


EFF Plan

Set and prioritize goals.





3-6 hours Assess Prior Knowledge, Conduct Learning Style Inventory, Administer Writing Interest Survey or Letter to Learners, Icebreakers, Team Building Activities, Goal-Setting, Portfolio Introduction
Prior Knowledge Assessment: Writing sample

Diagnostic inventory from Mastery of Writing text or another assessment of grammar and mechanics

Learning Style Inventory: Help Yourself or online inventory

of instructor’s choosing (see appendix for options)

Goal-Setting: SMART worksheet and goal plan in appendix
Introduce Portfolio Assignment
Have learners keep all versions of all writing assignments in order to evaluate progress at the end of the course.
This portion of the curriculum may be taught as the first 3-6 hours of the course, or spread out over the first few class sessions in order to integrate review of the writing process.


MLR

B. Writing Students write to express their ideas and emotions, to describe their experiences, to communicate information, and to present or analyze an argument.
MLR ELA

B1. 9-Diploma Performance Indicator: Interconnected Elements of Writing

Students use a writing process to develop an appropriate genre, exhibiting an explicit organizational structure, perspective and style to communicate with target audiences for specific purposes.


MLR ELA

B2. 9-Diploma Performance Indicator: Narrative

Students embed narrative writing in a written text when appropriate to the audience and purpose.


MLR ELA

D. Language

Students write and speak using the conventions of Standard American English.  They apply knowledge of grammar and usage when reading to aid comprehension. They know and apply rules of mechanics and spelling to enhance the effectiveness and clarity of communication.



MLR ELA

D1. 9-Diploma Performance Indicator: Grammar and Usage

Students apply rhetorical skills when reading, writing, and speaking through their understanding of Standard American English.


MLR ELA

D2. 9-Diploma Performance Indicator: Mechanics

Students demonstrate the use of the structures and conventions of Standard American English in their communication.


EFF Convey Ideas in Writing

Determine the purpose for communicating.

Organize and present information to serve the purpose, context, and audience.

Pay attention to conventions of English language usage, including grammar, spelling, and sentence structure, to minimize barriers to reader’s comprehension.

Seek feedback and revise to enhance the effectiveness of the communication.
EFF Plan

Develop an organized approach of activities and objectives.

Actively carry out the plan.

Monitor the plan’s progress while considering any need to adjust the plan.

Evaluate its effectiveness in achieving the goals.


17-20 hours Unit One – Introduction to the Writing Process
Getting Ready to Write: Determine the audience and purpose for writing

Many learners struggle with writing assignments because they do not read the assignment carefully. Here are some strategies that might help learners overcome this problem:



  • Read the assignment carefully with learners and identify or clarify key assignment words. (see appendix)

  • Help learners specify the topic of their assignment.

  • Help learners recognize the purpose of the assignment.

  • Help learners recognize the intended audience.

  • Help learners realize that voice and tone vary according to audience and purpose.

  • Help learners chunk the work, be clear on deadlines and understand the criteria by which their work will be evaluated.

Suggested learning activities:

Provide exemplars of the types of writing learners will be doing and discuss the qualities and characteristics of each.
Ask learners to write or discuss what they know about their audience and purpose.
Have learners write two different letters – same topic, different audience. Discuss difference in word choice, voice, format, tone, etc.
Divide an assignment into steps with individual deadlines at the beginning of the course.

Pre-Writing
Many learners tend to start writing their first draft without engaging in a pre-writing process. Encourage them to find a way to generate and organize ideas prior to creating their first draft. (see appendix for more pre-writing strategies)
Suggested learning activities:

Brainstorming

Free Writing

Outlining

Graphic Organizers-see appendix

Journal Use
Composing First Draft
The first draft provides an opportunity for learners to discover what they know and think about a topic. Its purpose is simply to get ideas on paper, using their pre-writing strategies to inform their writing.
Most learners find it helpful to formulate a topic sentence in order to develop a well supported paragraph. A strong topic sentence helps keep the writer focused. Help learners understand the importance of supporting details.
Suggested activities:
Give learners several paragraphs from a variety of sources and have them identify the topic sentence by highlighting it. Discuss what a topic sentence is and the various places it may be located.
Give learners supporting details and have them write a topic sentence.
Give learners a topic sentence and have learners list the supporting details.
Use exercises in resources listed for this curriculum. (i.e. Evergreen, Writing by Doing)
Given a variety of topic sentences (selected by teacher or learner) and supporting details, learners will compose individual paragraphs.
Give learners feedback either individually or as a group before they generate their first draft.
Provide direct instruction on grammatical and mechanical errors based on learners’ work at this point. Practice exercises found in texts or workbooks may be assigned as homework.
Learners may need instruction about the elements of a 5 paragraph essay – an introduction, body and conclusion. You may wish to assess or refresh their knowledge of these elements.
(See appendix for writing process and strategies resources)

Remind learners that:


The introduction may include:

  • A hook to attract reader’s attention

  • Background information the audience needs

  • A topic sentence which states the writer’s position on the topic.

The body may include:

  • Paragraphs that present support for each topic sentence

  • Evidence that the writer has considered his/her own values, beliefs, and assumptions as well as those of the audience.

The conclusion may include:

  • An indicator of the significance of the topic

  • Summarizing thoughts, ideas, and/or statements


Suggested learning activities:
Provide examples of 5 paragraph essays of varying quality. Align the essays to a writing rubric and help learners understand how each essay rates and why. See appendix for sample rubrics. Sample essays may be found in GED materials and/or in textbooks.
Use exercises in suggested resources.
Have learners develop a 5 paragraph narrative essay to demonstrate their understanding of the writing process. The purpose for selecting narrative for this assignment is that students will be able to focus on the writing process without doing research and to scaffold the learning in preparation for the expository essay with embedded narrative.
Revising and Editing the Draft
In this phase of the writing process, learners need to work with the organization and development of their drafts in order to enhance the effectiveness of their writing. Learners will also be considering voice, appropriate word choice, language usage, and rhetorical devices relevant to their audience and purpose.
Suggested learning activities:
Provide a draft and facilitate the revision as a whole group for modeling. Suggest edits and ask learners why and how this improves the overall effectiveness of the writing.
Distribute/develop writing rubric or checklist and have learners assess their first draft of the narrative essay.
Provide direct instruction on grammatical and mechanical errors based on learners’ work at this point. Practice exercises found in texts or workbooks may be assigned as homework.

Peer group work, paired work or individual work for editing and multiple revisions. (see appendix for example of a revision evaluation form)
Show learners multiple drafts of one piece of writing and have them identify the changes and rationale for each.
Have learners revise and edit the draft for just one quality at a time – for example the first revision may be for organization only, the second for supporting details, the third for word choice, the fourth for mechanics.
Use exercises in suggested resources.
Reflecting on the writing
It is good practice to engage learners in writing about their writing. Ask them to reflect in writing about the process of their assignment, what they learned that transfers to the next assignment, how they feel about the comments they received from peers and the instructor, and/or how they can apply what they learned outside of the learning environment.

All standards and performance indicators are assessed.

Unit One Assessment
Learners will turn in final draft of narrative essay as assessment and one of the following assessment options:

Learners write a journal entry reflecting on the writing product and process.

Learners complete a writing process reflection form – see appendix for example.


MLR

B. Writing

MLR ELA

B1. 9-Diploma Performance Indicator: Interconnected Elements of Writing

Students use a writing process to develop an appropriate genre, exhibiting an explicit organizational structure, perspective and style to communicate with target audiences for specific purposes.



MLR ELA

B2. 9-Diploma Performance Indicator: Narrative

Students embed narrative writing in a written text when appropriate to the audience and purpose.



MLR ELA

D. Language

MLR ELA

D1. 9-Diploma Performance Indicator: Grammar and Usage

Students apply rhetorical skills when reading, writing, and speaking through their understanding of Standard American English.



MLR ELA

D2. 9-Diploma Performance Indicator: Mechanics

Students demonstrate the use of the structures and conventions of Standard American English in their communication.



EFF Convey Ideas in Writing

All components of the standard.



EFF Plan

All components of the standard.




11-14 hours Unit Two – Expository Writing: Compare and Contrast
In this unit, learners will engage in the study of the comparison/contrast form of organization in order to produce their own expository piece of writing in this style. It is important to help learners understand that expository writing may include a personal perspective and that comparison/contrast essays often balance information with narrative techniques.
Based on learners’ prior knowledge, you may need to reinforce or provide direct instruction on the comparison/contrast format of writing. This can also be taught using the resources cited.
Learners will then read and analyze a variety of comparison/contrast essays prior to creating their own.
Each learner must create, revise and edit an expository essay in the comparison/contrast format using elements taught in this unit. Learners should be getting feedback during every step of the writing process and have multiple opportunities to revise before the final evaluation of the product.
Suggested learning activities:
Have learners read professional writers’ essays about their own writing in order to understand how expository writing embeds narration. (Stephen King, Amy Tan, Elizabeth Berg, Natalie Ginsberg, Anne LaMott, Peter Elbow…)
Have learners use a Venn diagram or appropriate graphic organizer to compare and contrast two stories, articles, ideas or authors. For example, read two stories by same or different authors to compare voice, word choice, tone, and use of narrative style embedded in expository text.
Engage learners in exercises that address word choice and voice – slang, clichés, emotionally charged language, pretentious language, and vocabulary enrichment are addressed here. Teachers may use authentic texts such as editorials, emails, memos, magazine articles, a thesaurus and any informational texts.
Using the information gathered from the previous graphic organizer exercise, learners will compose a first draft of a comparison/contrast essay comparing the two readings. Instructor may assign the topic of focus for this draft.
Provide direct instruction on grammatical and mechanical errors based on learners’ work at this point. Practice exercises found in texts or workbooks may be assigned as homework.
Peer group work, paired work or individual work for editing and multiple revisions. (see appendix for example of a revision evaluation form)




All standards and performance indicators are assessed.

Assessment of Unit 2 – Expository Writing: Compare and Contrast
Each learner will use all stages of the writing process to compose a comparison/contrast essay on a topic of their choosing. Evaluation of this product should include evidence of:
- use of a writing rubric or checklist

- embedded narrative in the essay

- documentation of each stage of the writing process

- a journal entry reflecting on the writing product and process or a completed writing process reflection form – see appendix for example



MLR

B. Writing

MLR ELA

B1. 9-Diploma Performance Indicator: Interconnected Elements of Writing

Students use a writing process to develop an appropriate genre, exhibiting an explicit organizational structure, perspective and style to communicate with target audiences for specific purposes.



MLR ELA

B2. 9-Diploma Performance Indicator: Narrative

Students embed narrative writing in a written text when appropriate to the audience and purpose.



MLR ELA

D. Language

MLR ELA

D1. 9-Diploma Performance Indicator: Grammar and Usage

Students apply rhetorical skills when reading, writing, and speaking through their understanding of Standard American English.



MLR ELA

D2. 9-Diploma Performance Indicator: Mechanics

Students demonstrate the use of the structures and conventions of Standard American English in their communication.



EFF Convey Ideas in Writing

All components of the standard.



EFF Plan

All components of the standard.



11-14 hours Unit Three – Expository Writing: Cause and Effect
In this unit, learners will engage in the study of the cause and effect form of organization in order to produce their own expository piece of writing in this style. It is important to help learners understand that expository writing may include a personal perspective and that cause and effect essays sometimes balance information with narrative techniques.
Based on learners’ prior knowledge, you may need to reinforce or provide direct instruction on the cause and effect format of writing. This can also be taught using the resources cited. Be sure to include examples of multiple causes and/or effects.
Learners will then read and analyze a variety of cause and effect essays prior to creating their own.
Each learner must create, revise and edit an expository essay in the cause and effect format using elements taught in this unit. Learners should be getting feedback during every step of the writing process and have multiple opportunities to revise before the final evaluation of the product.
Suggested learning activities:
Have learners use a graphic organizer (see appendix) to outline the sequence of events and subsequent effect(s) in stories, articles, or essays. Sample topics: current events, the price of gasoline, global warming, politics, health and disease, the collapse of the airline industry, etc.
Provide instruction on transitions and vocabulary representative of this type of writing.
Using the information gathered from the previous graphic organizer exercise, learners will compose a first draft of a cause and effect essay.
Provide direct instruction on grammatical and mechanical errors based on learners’ work at this point. Practice exercises found in texts or workbooks may be assigned as homework.

Peer group work, paired work or individual work for editing and multiple revisions. (see appendix for example of a revision evaluation form)


All standards and performance indicators are assessed.

Assessment of Unit Three – Expository Writing: Cause and Effect
Each learner will use all stages of the writing process to compose a cause and effect essay on a topic of his/her choosing. Evaluation of this product should include evidence of:
- use of a writing rubric or checklist

- embedded narrative in the essay

- documentation of each stage of the writing process

- a journal entry reflecting on the writing product and process or a completed writing process reflection form – see appendix for example





EFF Convey Ideas in Writing

Determine the purpose for communicating.

Organize and present information to serve the purpose, context, and audience.

Pay attention to conventions of English language usage, including grammar, spelling, and sentence structure, to minimize barriers to reader’s comprehension.

Seek feedback and revise to enhance the effectiveness of the communication.

EFF Plan

Develop an organized approach of activities and objectives.

Actively carry out the plan.

Monitor the plan’s progress while considering any need to adjust the plan.



Evaluate its effectiveness in achieving the goals.

3-6 hours Portfolio/Course Assessment
Have learners keep all versions of all writing assignments in order to evaluate progress at the end of the course. Engage learners in one or more activities to encourage reflection on progress.
Evaluate the final product based on pre-determined criteria, alignment to standards, and/or any agreed upon process that is made clear to learners in advance of this assignment. (see appendix for example guidelines and scoring rubric)
This portion of the curriculum may be taught as the last 3-6 hours of the course, or spread out over several class sessions. The portfolio assignment should be introduced to learners very early in the curriculum.
Suggested learning activities:
Have learners revisit goals and write about whether or not they met them. What is the evidence? What were the barriers?
Have learners create a writing portfolio – may be a process or presentation portfolio.
Hold individual conferences with each learner to review progress and products.
Have learners present portfolio, one piece of writing, or one key piece of learning for them in this class to the rest of the class.


APPENDIX FOR ESSENTIAL STRATEGIES FOR EFFECTIVE WRITING

EFL 5
Copyright note: It is legal under the “fair use” doctrine of copyright law to copy a portion of a copyrighted text for non-profit educational use to illustrate a lesson. The law does not specify what quantity of the whole text is permissible to copy.


  1. Learning Style Inventory Recommendations:


Help Yourself: How to take advantage of your learning styles by Gail Sonbuchner, New Readers Press (*strongly recommended for purchase and use by all pilot teachers and curriculum developers)
Learning Style Websites:

http://www.engr.ncsu.edu/learningstyles/ilsweb.html

http://www.rrcc-online.com/~psych/LSInventory.html

http://www.metamath.com/lsweb/dvclearn.htm

http://www.learning-styles-online.com/inventory/questions.asp?cookieset=y


  1. Sample SMART goal sheet – See Page 19




  1. Sample Goal-Setting template – See Page 20




  1. Key Assignment Words – Appendix B, Page 27 of the 12th Grade Expository

Reading & Writing Course, The California State University System, http://www.calstate.edu/eap/englishcourse/index.shtml


  1. Pre-Writing Strategies – Appendix C, Page 28 of the 12th Grade Expository

Reading & Writing Course, The California State University System,

http://www.calstate.edu/eap/englishcourse/index.shtml


  1. Writing Process and Strategies - http://web.mit.edu/writing/Resources/Writers/index.html




  1. Sample Writing Rubric - http://www.neiu.edu/~neassess/pdf/WritingRubric.pdf




  1. Revision Evaluation Form – See Page 21




  1. Writing Process Reflection Form – See Page 22




  1. Graphic Organizers –

Cause and Effect and Sequencing graphic organizers may be found at this site:

http://edhelper.com/teachers/Sequencing_graphic_organizers.htm

spider web, kwl chart, pre-writing organizers

and many others from Houghton Mifflin on this site:

http://www.eduplace.com/kids/hme/k_5/graphorg/


  1. Sample Portfolio Guidelines – see Page 23




  1. Windham Adult Education’s Portfolio Criteria – see Page 24




  1. Portfolio Rubric – (in Microsoft Word, so can be modified) http://www.umes.edu/education/exhibit/docs/PORTFOLIO%20RUBRIC.doc

SMART GOAL SHEET
A SMART goal is Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Relevant and Time specific.


  1. Specific (think narrow, not broad)

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


  1. Measurable (how will I know when I get there? what is the proof?)

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


  1. Achievable (my goal is reasonable and realistic)

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


  1. Relevant (how is my goal relevant to my life?)

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


  1. Time (set flexible but specific target dates)

I will achieve my goal by ________________ Today’s Date____________________


1st step_________________________________Deadline_______________________
2nd step_________________________________Deadline______________________

3rd step_________________________________Deadline______________________


4th step_________________________________Deadline______________________
5th step_________________________________Deadline______________________
Be sure to evaluate goal and time frame along the way. Also, celebrate your success!
Goal-Setting


  1. What do you hope to accomplish as a result of taking this class?



  1. Why is it important to you to accomplish this?



  1. What are the first three steps you need to complete in order to achieve that goal?



  1. Of these three, which is the most important to you and why?



  1. What aspects of reading or writing will you need to build or strengthen in order to meet your goal?



  1. What knowledge, skills and strategies do you already possess that will help you reach your goal?



  1. List any concerns or potential obstacles you have that may stand in the way of achieving your goal.



  1. Create an action plan to work towards your answer to question number 4 or 5.

1st step_______________________________________ by________________


2nd step_______________________________________by________________
3rd step_______________________________________by________________
4th step_______________________________________by________________


Essay Revision Evaluation Form

.


Write your comments below for each section.

Introduction:
Does it clearly introduce the main idea?

Does it hook the reader’s interest?

Does the introduction preview the topics that will be covered to support the main idea?





Body paragraphs:
Does each paragraph focus on only one idea?

Is there a good topic sentence for each paragraph?

Are the paragraphs supported by facts, examples and reasons?

Are transition words used to link paragraphs?

Are the ideas presented logically and clearly?

Is there sufficient evidence to support my thesis or main ideas?








Conclusion:
Does the conclusion wrap up the entire essay?

Does it have a punch line or a thought-provoking ending?






Overall essay:
Does my essay follow my outline?

Have I included all the points I identified?

Are topics covered in a logical sequence?

Have I covered anything that is better left out?









Writing Process Reflection Form

Reflect on each part of the writing process as you answer the questions. Write comments to the right of each stage of the process.

This form may be filled out during the process at each stage or filled out entirely at the end of the process.


1.Getting ready to write the assignment

Did you read the assignment carefully,

more than once if necessary?

How did you clarify the topic and the purpose of the assignment?

How did you determine how you would approach this topic?

Who was the audience you addressed for this paper?

How did this audience affect your tone/voice?





2. Prewriting

What method did you use, for example,

brainstorming, outlining, using a graphic organizer or another means of prewriting?

Was this a good method for this paper?

How did you come up with your ideas?

What might you have done differently?






3. Composing the first draft

How did you generate your first draft?

Did it flow out easily or was it a slow process?

Would you write your next first draft the same way?

Why or why not?





4. Revising the draft

Did you read the entire paper to see if it makes sense?

Did you change anything at that point?

Did you add, delete or move any of the content?

Was this successful? What did you learn?





5. Editing the draft

When you read the entire paper over slowly and thoroughly, to find any errors?

What kind of errors did you find?

Did you find errors using spell check and grammar check?

If so, what kind?

Did you get suggestions from having a peer check your work?







6. Reflection:

What did you learn doing this essay?

Did you see improvement in any part(s) of the process?

What would you like to do better next time?

Any other comments?






Portfolio Guidelines

Creating a portfolio is intended to be an opportunity for you to gather, arrange, and evaluate your work this semester. There is no right way to make a portfolio and I cannot show you or tell you what it “should” look like. Here are some guidelines to help you get started, as well as some of my expectations:




  • Your portfolio should represent your work over a period of time.




  • Your portfolio is a chance to display a range of work so that you can see improvement and make plans for future learning.




  • Your portfolio MUST have a method of organization, but it is your choice what the method is. However you choose to organize your work, it should be obvious without an explanation. A stack of papers is not a portfolio.




  • The only piece of work I require you to include is a written self-evaluation. Think about what you have learned, what you would like to do better, where you see improvement, what you are proud of.




  • You will select one piece from your portfolio to share with the group. It may be anything you choose or it may be something you create to share. Be prepared to tell the group about it and why you chose that piece.

Windham Adult Education Portfolio Development Criteria
Windham Adult Education, in keeping with the State Department of Education’s adoption of the Equipped for the Future Standards for Adult Education in the State of Maine, has a long history of participation in the EFF standard development process at the local, state and national levels. The State Adult Education team evaluates programs state-wide based on the program monitoring document created from the EFF framework. Their number one initiative in the State’s current strategic plan state:
“Identify Equipped for the Future (EFF) within existing best practices in order to:

  • increase awareness of the intersection of EFF and best practices

  • facilitate best practices through use of EFF tools” (http://www.state.me.us/education/aded/StrategicPlan.htm)

Research supports engaging learners in the assessment process, especially in regards to self-assessment opportunities.


This document is intended to provide clarity and consistency to our learners and staff. It was designed at the request of and with input from current and previous staff members. It is meant to provide MINIMUM guidelines for portfolio assessment. Staff are encouraged to develop (preferably with learners) more relevant and/or specific criteria while adhering to these program guidelines.
Suggested portfolio development sequence: (recommended to involve learners in each step)

  1. select which type of portfolio learners will create – process or presentation

  2. identify EFF standard for documentation

  3. set criteria for product and presentation

  4. students create portfolio, prepare self-assessment and presentation

  5. students present to chosen audience

  6. students receive feedback on portfolio and presentation that matches criteria

Program Guidelines for all portfolios, all learners, and all levels:



  • Students are involved in setting criteria for portfolio final product and presentation (i.e. number of pieces, selection of evidence, method of organization, etc).

  • Learners must include a written or oral self-evaluation in portfolio, which may or may not be included in presentation. Other examples of reflection components include peer evaluations, teacher evaluations and class evaluations.

  • Portfolio must document growth relative to at least one EFF standard. ALL components of selected standard must be reflected in the portfolio with learner products and evidence.

  • Each portfolio must have an identifiable method of organization. It is intended to be a “stand-alone” product and all evidence must be documented (i.e. oral reflections on tape or written by teacher/tutor).

  • The portfolio is a graded assignment for all HSD students and all other learners for whom a grade is assigned.

  • Students must receive written and/or oral feedback relative to the portfolio criteria from their teacher/tutor. This feedback should address both the product and the presentation and is not necessarily part of the learner’s portfolio.

Definitions:


Growth or process portfolio – when the purpose of the portfolio is to show progress in learning on given learning targets, the portfolio is designed to measure and display improvement with periodic dated entries documenting learning for specified targets and includes student’s reflection(s) on his/her growth.
Competence or presentation portfolio – when the purpose of the portfolio is to document attainment of level of mastery or meeting the learning target, the portfolio is designed to show samples of evidence for each component represented with reflections and explanations of how the evidence demonstrates competence.
(Adapted from “How Type of Portfolio Affects Design” by Richard Stiggins et al in Classroom Assessment for Student Learning: Doing It Right – Using it Well, Assessment Training Institute, 2004.)





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