Essay on Ghadir -contents



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Three Basic Excuses given for non acceptance of the Ghadir appointment & their Rebuttals:


There are basically 3 excuses which the opponents offer. Though these excuses are self-evident to be no more than futile excuses,we will deal with them in detail so that the opponents do not have any excuse left.

Excuse 1.The tradition of Ghadir is not reliable and authentic.

Excuse 2.The word ‘Maula’ used in the tradition does not imply Master ,but it means friend. Hence the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) actually announced about the friendship of Ali (a.s.) on the day of Ghadir and not about mastership of Ali (a.s.).

Excuse 3.It does not appeal to our common sense that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) appointed Ali (a.s.) as his successor in clear terms and still the companions of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) disobeyed him and after his death appointed a vicegerent by themselves.


Each one of the above excuses are dealt below separately & such details, as to dispel all doubts and lay bare the mischief of the mischief-makers.

Excuse 1:The tradition of Ghadir is not reliable and authentic.

Rebuttal of Excuse 1:


A. Sunni references for the verse 5:67 revealed in relation and just before the tradition of Ghadir. Though there are at least 69 chains of transmitters present for this from Sunni sources but due to lack of space we will mention only 9 books:

1. Yanabi’ al-mawaddah - Khwajah Kalan, Sulayman b. Ibrahim, al-Husayni al-Balkhi al-Qunduzi al-Hanafi.

2. al-’Arba’in fi fada’il Amir al-Mu’minin - Jamal al-Din ‘Ata’ Allah b. Fadl Allah, al-Husayni al-Shirazi.

3. Al-Durr al-Manthur - al-Suyuti, Jalal al-Din ‘Abd al-Rahman b. Kamal al-Din Abi Bakr, al-Shafi’i.

4. Tafsir Kashf wa’l-bayan - Al-Tha’labi, Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Ibrahim, Abu Ishaq al-Nisaburi.

5. Asbab al-Nuzul - al-Wahidi, Abu al-Hasan ‘Ali b. Ahmad b. Muhammad b. ‘Ali b. Mattawayh, al-Naysaburi.

6. al-Dirayah fi Hadith al-Wilayah (Kitab al-wilayah) – Mas’ud b. Nasir b. ‘Abd Allah b. Ahmad, Abu Sa’id al-Sijzi (al-Sijistani).

7. Shawahid al-tanzil - Ibn Haddad al-Haskani, ‘Ubayd Allah b. ‘Abd Allah, Abu al-Qasim al-Hakim al-Nisaburi al-Hanafi.

8. Mafatih al-Ghayb (Tafsir al-kabir) - Fakhr al-Din al-Razi, Muhammad b. ‘Umar b. al-Hasan, Abu ‘Abd Allah al-Shafi’i.

9. Matalib al-sa’ul fi manaqib Al al-Rasul - Muhammad b. Talhah, Abu Salim al-Qarashi al-Nasibi al-Shafi’i.

B. Sunni references regarding the tradition of Ghadir. Here it is more than sufficient to mention that Allama Amini has mentioned this tradition from 110 companions of the Holy Prophet(s.a.w.a.) and 84 second generation (Ta’biun) and 360 sunni ulema. In fact at other places another 200 sunni ulema references are given which takes the number of sunni ulema to have related the tradition of Ghadir to atleast 560! Because of conciseness & lack of space, we will mention only 9 references from sunni sources who have related the tradition of Ghadir and that too have specifically mentioned the words of “For whoever I am his Leader (mawla), ‘Ali is his Leader (mawla).”:

1. Al-Bidayah wa’l-Nihayah fi al-Ta’rikh - Ibn Kathir, ‘Imad al-Din Isma’il b. ‘Umar b. Kathir b. Daw’, al-Qarashi al-Dimashqi.

2. Manaqib ‘Ali b. Abi Talib - Ibn Hanbal, Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Hanbal b. Hilal b. Asad, Abu ‘Abd Allah al-Shaybani al-Marwazi.

3. Al-Musnad - Ibn Hanbal, Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Hanbal b. Hilal b. Asad, Abu ‘Abd Allah al-Shaybani al-Marwazi.

4. Kanz al-’ummal fi sunan al-aqwal wa’l af’al - Nur al-Din ‘Ali b. ‘Abd al-Malik Husam al-Din al-Muttaqi al-Hindi.

5. Sunan - Ibn Majah, Muhammad b. Yazid, Abu ‘Abd Allah al-Qazwini.

6. Al-Musannaf - Ibn Abi Shaybah, ‘Abd Allah b. Muhammad b. Ibrahim b. ‘Uthman, Abu Bakr al-’Absi al-Kufi.

7. al-’Iktifa fi fadl al-’arba’ah al-khulafa’ - Ibrahim b. ‘Abd Allah, al-Wassabi al-Yamani al-Shafi’i.

8. Al-Khasa’is fi fadl ‘Ali b. Abi Talib - al-Nasa’i, Ahmad b. Shu’ayb b. ‘Ali b. Sinan b. Bahr, Abu ‘Abd al-Rahman al-Khurasani al-Nasa’i.

9. Miftah al-naja fi manaqib Al al-’aba - Mirza Muhammad b. Mu’tamad Khan al-Harithi al-Badakhshi (al-Badakhshani).

C. Sunni references about the verse 5:3 being revealed immediately after the sermon of Ghadir. Again here we can provide at least 35 chains of transmitters but we will mention only 9 sunni books to confirm:

1. Manaqib ‘Ali b. Abi Talib - Ibn al-Maghazili, ‘Ali b. Muhammad, Abu al-Hasan al-Tayyib al-Jullabi al-Shafi’i.

2. Miftah al-naja fi manaqib Al al-’aba - Mirza Muhammad b. Mu’tamad Khan al-Harithi al-Badakhshi (al-Badakhshani).

3. Ma nazala min al-Qur’an fi ‘Ali - Abu Nu’aym, Ahmad b. ‘Abd Allah, al-’Isfahani.

4. Manaqib ‘Ali b. Abi Talib - Ibn al-Maghazili, ‘Ali b. Muhammad, Abu al-Hasan al-Tayyib al-Jullabi al-Shafi’i.

5. al-Khasa’is al-’Alawiyyah - Muhammad b. ‘Ali b. Ibrahim, Abu al-Fath al-Natanzi.

6. Kitab al-Manaqib - Khatib al-Khawarazmi, Muwaffaq b. Ahmad, Abu al-Mu’ayyad al-Makki, known as Akhtab al-Muwaffaq.

7. Al-Durr al-Manthur - al-Suyuti, Jalal al-Din ‘Abd al-Rahman b. Kamal al-Din Abi Bakr, al-Shafi’i.

8. Fara’id al-samtayn fi fada’il al-Murtada wa al-batul wa al-sibtayn - al-Juwayni, Ibrahim b. Muhammad b. al-Mu’ayyad, Sadr al-Din Abu al-Majami’ al-Hamawayni or al-Hamawi al-Shafi’i.

9. Tafsir al-Qur’an al-’Azim - Ibn Kathir, ‘Imad al-Din Isma’il b. ‘Umar b. Kathir b. Daw’, al-Qarashi al-Dimashqi.

D. References of Hassan Bin. Thabits poetry:

1. Ma nazala min al-Qur’an fi ‘Ali - Abu Nu’aym, Ahmad b. ‘Abd Allah, al-’Isfahani.

2. Fara’id al-samtayn fi fada’il al-Murtada wa al-batul wa al-sibtayn - al-Juwayni, Ibrahim b. Muhammad b. al-Mu’ayyad, Sadr al-Din Abu al-Majami’ al-Hamawayni or al-Hamawi al-Shafi’i.

3. Kashf al-ghamma fi ma’rifat al-A’immah - al-Irbili, ‘Ali b. ‘Isa b. Abi al-Fath, Abu al-Hasan al-’Irbili.

4. al-’Azhar fi ma ‘aqdahu al-shu’ara’ min al-’ash’ar - al-Suyuti, Jalal al-Din ‘Abd al-Rahman b. Kamal al-Din Abi Bakr, al-Shafi’i.

5. Kifayat al-Talib - Muhammad b. Yusuf b. Muhammad, Abu ‘Abd Allah al-Kanji al-Shafi’i.

6. al-Khasa’is al-’Alawiyyah - Muhammad b. ‘Ali b. Ibrahim, Abu al-Fath al-Natanzi.

7. Tadhkirat khawass al-’ummah fi ma’rifat al-a’immah - Sibt b. al-Jawzi, Shams al-Din Yusuf b. Qizughli, Abu al-Muzaffar.

E. References of Oath of allegiance as mentioned above:

1. Al-Bidayah wa’l-Nihayah fi al-Ta’rikh - Ibn Kathir, ‘Imad al-Din Isma’il b. ‘Umar b. Kathir b. Daw’, al-Qarashi al-Dimashqi.

2. Manaqib ‘Ali b. Abi Talib - Ibn Hanbal, Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Hanbal b. Hilal b. Asad, Abu ‘Abd Allah al-Shaybani al-Marwazi.

3. Al-Musannaf - Ibn Abi Shaybah, ‘Abd Allah b. Muhammad b. Ibrahim b. ‘Uthman, Abu Bakr al-’Absi al-Kufi.

4. Fada’il ‘Ali - ‘Abd Allah b. Ahmad b. Hanbal, Abu ‘Abd al-Rahman al-Shaybani.

5. al-Fusul al-muhimmah li ma’rifat al-a’immah - Ibn al-Sabbagh, Nur al-Din ‘Ali b. Muhammad b. Ahmad, al-Ghazzi al-Maliki.

6. Manaqib Al Abi Talib - Ibn Shahrashub, Muhammad b. ‘Ali, Abu Ja’far.

7. Sharaf al-Mustafa - ‘Abd al-Malik b. Muhammad, Abu Sa’d al-Wa’iz al-Nisaburi al-Kharkushi (al-Khargushi).

8. Tafsir Kashf wa’l-bayan - Al-Tha’labi, Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Ibrahim, Abu Ishaq al-Nisaburi.

9. Riyad al-Nadirah - Muhibb al-Din Ahmad b. ‘Abd Allah, Abu al-’Abbas al-Tabari al-Makki al-Shafi’i.

Again we limit to 9 books references. There are otherwise atleast 76 chains of narrators mentioned in books for this.

F. The revelation of the verse 70:1-3 is regarding the event of the dispute of Harith as mentioned earlier. References for this are:

1. al-’Arba’in fi fada’il Amir al-Mu’minin - Jamal al-Din ‘Ata’ Allah b. Fadl Allah, al-Husayni al-Shirazi.

2. Tafsir Kashf wa’l-bayan - Al-Tha’labi, Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Ibrahim, Abu Ishaq al-Nisaburi.

3. Tadhkirat khawass al-’ummah fi ma’rifat al-a’immah - Sibt b. al-Jawzi, Shams al-Din Yusuf b. Qizughli, Abu al-Muzaffar.

4. al-’Iktifa fi fadl al-’arba’ah al-khulafa’ - Ibrahim b. ‘Abd Allah, al-Wassabi al-Yamani al-Shafi’i.

5. Hidayat al-su’ada’ - Shihab al-Din Ahmad b. Shams al-Din ‘Umar, Malik al-’Ulama’ al-Zawali al-Dawlatabadi.

6. Ma’arij al-wusul - al-Zarandi, Jamal al-Din Muhammad b. Yusuf b. al-Hasan al-Madani al-’Ansari al-Hanafi.

7. Wasilat al-ma’al fi ‘add manaqib al-’Al - Ba Kathir al-Makki, Ahmad b. al-Fadl b. Muhammad, al-Shafi’i.

8. Jawahir al’iqdayn fi fadl al-sharafayn sharaf al-’ilm al-jali wa al-nasab al-’ali - al-Samhudi, Nur al-Din ‘Ali b. ‘Abd Allah b. Ahmad, al-Hasani al-Shafi’i.

9. al-Fusul al-muhimmah li ma’rifat al-a’immah - Ibn al-Sabbagh, Nur al-Din ‘Ali b. Muhammad b. Ahmad, al-Ghazzi al-Maliki.

Again we are unable to mention other sources due space constraints. There are at least 31 chains of transmitters for this.


Excuse 2 :The word Maula used in the tradition does not imply master but it means friend. Hence the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.)actually announced about the friendship of Ali (a.s.) on the day of Ghadir and not about mastership of Ali (a.s.).
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