No mistakes during Holy prophets (s.a.w.a.) physical presence
Beginning from the life of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.), firstly, we are sure that nothing went wrong in the time when the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) was alive. Since we know very well that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) was at the helm of the affairs of the Muslims and no mistakes could be attributed to the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.). It is sufficient to say that at least no Muslim believes that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) committed any mistake that ultimately has caused such tragic oppressions of the Muslims. Also, the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) has received a certificate from Allah (s.w.t.) that he will not err in the affairs of the Muslims in the following verses of the Holy Quran:
“Your companion does not err, nor does he go astray; Nor does he speak out of desire. It is naught but a revelation that is revealed.”1
Also the Holy Quran certifies all his actions by asking everyone to follow each and every action of his without any exception, this verse has been repeated tens of times in the Holy Quran:
“Obey Allah and obey the Prophet.”2
Our journey for seeking truth has started from the life of the Holy Prophet and is supposed to ultimately terminate at the contemporary. So the next stage which should not miss our stringent perusal is the period immediately after the passing away of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.).
Differences immediately After Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.)-
Immediately after the passing away of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) we observe big differences taking place amongst the Muslims. We can proffer more than 40,000 instances displaying the terrible differences that had occurred after the passing away of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.). But since the scope of this document is highly limited, in order to indicate the extent of differences taking place after the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.), it is sufficient to enunciate the following 12 points:
1. Abu Ja’far Baladhuri Ahmad Bin Yahya Bin Jabir Baghdadi, one of reliable traditionalists and historians according to the Sunnis, writes in his History that when Abu Bakr called Ali to swear allegiance, Ali refused. Abu Bakr sent Umar who went with a torch to set fire to Ali’s house. Fatima came to the door and said: “O son of Khattab! Have you come to set my house on fire?” He said: “Yes, this is more effective than anything your father did.”
2. Sharhe Nahju’l-Balagha, Volume III, page 351. Ibn Abi’l-Hadid wrote that he told his teacher, Abu Ja’far Naqib, that when the Prophet was told that Hubbar Bin Aswad had attacked his daughter Zainab’s litter with a lance, because of which Zainab suffered a miscarriage, the Prophet allowed him to be put to death. Abu Ja’far said:
“Had the Prophet of Allah been alive, he would have surely ordered the death penalty for him also who had frightened Fatima so much that her child, Muhsin, died in miscarriage.”
3. Hazrat Hussein (a.s.) the grandson of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) was martyred along with his family members.
4. When Abdullah learned that, like other copies of the Holy Quran, his copy had been burnt, he was much aggrieved. In social and religious gatherings, he narrated the condemnatory hadith that he knew about Uthman. When this news reached Uthman, he had Ibn Mas’ud so severely beaten by his slaves that his teeth were broken, and he was confined to bed. After three days he succumbed to his injuries. Ibn Abi’l-Hadid writes in detail about these facts in Volume I, pages 67 and 226 of Sharh Nahju’l-Balagha (printed in Egypt) under “Ta’n VI.
5. Ulema of both sects relate that when Umayyad oppression increased, some companions of the Prophet wrote to Uthman, asking him to relent. They said that if he continued to assist his cruel Umayyad Governors, he would not only be harming Islam, but he would himself be subjected to serious consequences. They asked Ammar Yasir to deliver the petition since Uthman himself had acknowledged Ammar’s virtue. They had often heard Uthman say that the Prophet said that faith was blended with the flesh and blood of Ammar. So Ammar took the letter to Uthman. When he arrived, Uthman asked him, “Do you have business with me?” He replied: “I have no business of a personal nature. But a group of the Prophet’s Companions have written in this letter some suggestions and advice for your welfare. They have sent them to you through me.” After reading a few lines, Uthman threw the letter down. Ammar said: “It was not good of you. A letter from the companions of the Holy Prophet of Allah deserves respect. Why did you throw it on the ground? It would be proper for you to have read it and replied to it?” “You are lying!” Uthman shouted. Then he ordered his slaves to beat him, and Uthman himself kicked him in the stomach.
6. Uthman was also cruel to Jandab Bin Junada, known as Abu Dharr Ghifari, one of the intimate companions of the Holy Prophet and a learned man. Great traditionalists and historians of both sects have reported that this ninety-year-old man was unjustly exiled from place to place with utmost ignominy – from Medina to Syria, to Medina again, and then from Medina to the desert of Rabza. He rode on a naked camel accompanied by his only daughter. He died in Rabza in penury and neglect. Sunni prominent ulema and historians, including, Ibn Sa’d, in his Tabaqat, Volume IV, page 168; Bukhari in Sahih, Kitab-e-Zakat; Ibn Abi’l-Hadid in his Sharhe Nahju’l-Balagha, Volume I, page 240 and Volume II, pages 375-87, Yaqubi in his History, Volume II, page 148; Abu’l-Hasan Ali Bin Husain Mas’udi, the famous traditionalist and historian of the fourth century in his Muruju’dh-Dhahab, Volume I, page 438, and many others have recorded Uthman’s cruelty. It has been widely reported how he mistreated the pure-hearted Abu Dharr, the loved one of the Holy Prophet, and also how Abdullah Bin Mas’ud, the hafiz and recorder of Wahi, who was given forty lashes because he bid farewell to Abu Dharr Ghifari. Insulting treatment was likewise shown to Ali for the same reason.
7. The wife of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) came out to fight against the Holy Imam Ali (a.s.).
8. Ayesha went to Basra. Uthman Bin Hanafi, a great companion of the Prophet and governor of Basra appointed by Ali, was captured there. His hair and beard were pulled out; he was tortured and driven out. More than 100 innocent, helpless Muslims were killed. Ibn Athir, Mas’udi, Muhammad Bin Jarir Tabari, Ibn Abi’l-Hadid, and others have written in detail about this event.
9. Abu’l-Faraj Ispahani in his Maqatilu’t-Talibin, Ibn Abdu’l-Bar in his Isti’ab, Mas’udi in his Isbatu’l-Wasiyya, and many other ulema have reported that Asma Ju’da, by order and promise of Mu’awiya, gave poison to Abu Muhammad Hasan Ibn Ali. Ibn Abdu’l-Bar and Muhammad Bin Jarir Tabari have also reported that when Mu’awiya was informed of the passing away of the holy imam, he shouted the takbir (“Allah is Great”).
10. When Amr Bin As and Mu’awiya Bin Khadij conquered Egypt, the supply of water was cut off to Muhammad Bin Abu Bakr. When he had nearly died of thirst, he was killed. He was then enclosed in the skin of an ass and the bundle was thrown into a fire. When Mu’awiya learned of this, he was very pleased.
11. Sunni eminent ulema and historians, including Yusuf Sibt Ibn Jauzi in his Tadhkira Khawasu’l-Umma, p.122; Allama Mas’udi, author of Muruju’z-Dhahab, in Isbatu’l-Wasiyya, p.136; Ibn Abi’l-Hadid in Sharh-e-Nahju’l-Balagha, vol. IV, p.18, reporting from Abu’l-Faraj and Yahya Bin Hasan, author of Kitabu’n-Nasab; Muhammad Khwawind Shah in his Rauzatu’s-Safa, and many others have written that when the corpse of Imam Hasan was being transported to Medina, A’yesha, mounted on a mule and accompanied by a group of the Bani Umayya and their slaves, stopped the group with Imam Hasan’s body. They said that they would not let Imam Hasan be buried by the side of the Holy Prophet. According to the report of Mas’udi, Ibn Abbas said: “It is strange of you, A’yesha! Was not the Day of Jamal, that is, your entering the battlefield mounted on a camel, sufficient for you? Now should the people also keep in memory the Day of Baghl (mule)?
12. Differences in the four schools of thought namely shaafei, Maaliki, Hanmbali and hanafi, which came in after the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) had been so intense that they used to go to the extent of calling each other infidels.