Name: ________________________ Period ________ Date:_______________
Essay: Choose two questions to answer (9 points each)
19. Compare the falls of Mayan, Aztec, and Incan civilizations. (A.) How were their falls similar? (B.) How were they different? (C.) Give an example of how an aspect of each civilization survives today.
A. Similar – They all were located in Latin America and they all lost their power quickly when compared to their rise to power.
B. Different - The Mayans were much earlier in history, around 250 A.D. and they were not conquered. They seem to have just disappeared as a civilization, but moved into the surrounding area. No one knows how or why they disbanded their empire. The Incans and Aztecs were conquered by the Spanish (Pizzaro/Incan, Cortes/Aztec).
C. Today’s Civilization – Descendants of Mayan still live in Latin America, today. Aztec festivals still exist in Mexico, in their dance, music and religious ceremonies. The Incan language Quechua is still spoken in South America.
20. A. Explain what motivated explorers to travel to the New World? Give three (3) examples.
- Explore new trade routes to the Far East
- Seek wealth by mining for gold and silver
- Spread the word of Christianity
B. Explain what motivated settlers to travel to the New World? Give three (3) examples.
- French came for fur trade, especially beaver
- English came for a better life. Seek religious freedom. Seek political freedom and to escape poverty
- Spain and Portugal came to conquer new land, create colonies and build plantations
21. How did the decimation of Native Americans lead to the slave trade? Give three (3) examples.
Native Americans were decimated (destroyed, killed) by way of:
- killed in warfare
- killed by many diseases from Europe
- killed from overwork and malnutrition as slaves
- Once the number of Native Americans were gone, the Spanish needed workers for their mines and plantations, both to work the fields and as servants in the home.
22. List and explain at least three reasons why a relatively small band of Spanish soldiers was able to conquer much of Latin America and the people who lived there.
In a paragraph talk about the Spanish having:
- superior weapons (guns, cannons, horses, armor)
- local native American tribes joined the fight against the Aztec and Incas
- European diseases caught the Native Americans off guard, as they did not have immunity against the diseases, nor the medical care to overcome
23. How might the cultures of Latin America be different if the Spanish and Portuguese had never arrived? What kind of culture do you think would dominate the region today?
(think outside the box) What would it be like if the French or English conquered this area as well? What would it be like if the Native American tribes stayed in place? Would they progress, become more technically inclined? Would they have stayed with ritualistic murder as part of their religion? (difficult question)
24. Explain the similarities and differences between how the Spanish and French dealt with the indigenous peoples in North America.
- French were the most civil. They wanted to introduce religion, but not by force. They wanted to trade with the Native Americans, but not by force. The French believed in treaties, and then, they would honor the treaties that were signed with the Native Americans.
- Spanish were out for riches, gold, and land. They would use any force and method to attain their goals. They even used force to convert Native Americans to Christianity.
25. Discuss the origins and the positive/negative effects of the Colombian Exchange by using examples of goods, animals or diseases that were part of the exchange?
Latin America benefited from technology like the wheel, horse and superior weapons. LA also received other livestock and plants (See graphic on study guide and on Power Point review)
Latin America’s disadvantages were the loss of lives to diseases and war. They lost their land. They lost their identity/culture/way of life.
Europe gained better food/diets (See graphic on study guide and on Power Point review for other gains and trades.)
Writing Essay suggestions:
-use an introduction sentence
-write sentences with one complete thought
-use a concluding sentence
-avoid long stringy sentences that go on and on, with many words like: and, which, and then