|ESCH 12 Test Review
____ 1. What pollutant forms when automobile emissions react with oxygen gas and ultraviolet rays?
____ 2. All of the following are primary air pollutants except
____ 3. Two-thirds of the sulfur dioxide that pollutes the air is produced by
____ 4. Which of the following is often used to remove poisonous gases from industrial emissions before they are released into the atmosphere?
____ 5. Which type of building would most likely have poor indoor air quality?
____ 6. Schools in the United States have spent over $40 billion to remove
____ 7. Which of the following pH measurements of rainwater would indicate acid precipitation?
____ 8. Which of the following contributes most to acid precipitation?
____ 9. As a lake becomes more acidic, fish are harmed not only by the acidity but also by substances that leach out of the soil into the water. Which of these toxic substances is leached when conditions are acidic?
____ 10. Most of the pollution that causes acid precipitation to fall in southeastern Canada is released from
____ 11. Most air pollution is produced by
____ 12. A true statement about sulfur dioxides is that they are
____ 13. Activities such as construction and agriculture are primary sources of
____ 14. A true statement about carbon monoxide is that it
____ 15. The automobile’s contribution to air pollution includes
____ 16. Which of the following is a secondary pollutant?
____ 17. Which of the following would cause the smallest increase in smog in an urban area?
____ 18. One way radon and asbestos are similar is that they
____ 19. Which air pollutants can aggravate bronchial asthma in humans and cause fish to suffocate?
____ 20. Which of the following pollutants is most likely to reach unhealthy levels inside an office building?
____ 21. Temperature inversions work to trap pollution when
____ 22. Which of the following activities is the largest producer of primary air pollutants in the United States?
____ 23. Light pollution can be decreased by
____ 24. Acid precipitation can be traced back to
____ 25. When the acidity of soil increases,
26. Secondary pollutants form when a(n) ____________________ pollutant comes into contact with other ____________________ pollutants, or with naturally occurring substances such as water vapor, and a chemical reaction takes place.
27. Particulates can form ____________________ that reduce visibility and cause a variety of respiratory problems.
28. The Clean Air Act, passed in 1970 and strengthened in 1990, gives the ___________________________________ the authority to regulate vehicle emissions in the United States.
29. In an electrostatic precipitator, gas containing _________________________ is blown through a chamber containing an electric current.
30. The ____________________ of air in the atmosphere usually keeps air pollution from reaching dangerous levels.
31. Smog results from chemical reactions that involve ____________________, automobile exhaust, and ozone.
32. Long-term effects on health that have been linked to air pollution include ____________________, lung cancer, and heart disease.
33. Sick-building syndrome is most common in _________________________ climates where buildings are _________________________ to keep out the heat.
34. Those people who are most at risk from ground-level ozone include ____________________, adults who exercise or work outdoors, older people, and people who suffer from respiratory ____________________.
35. Radon is one of the elements produced by the decay of ____________________, a radioactive element that occurs naturally in Earth’s crust.
36. Permanent deafness results from continuous or long-term exposure to sounds over ____________________ decibels.
37. Energy is ____________________ when light is directed upward into the night sky and lost into ____________________.
38. When fossil fuels are burned, they release oxides of ____________________ and ____________________.
39. The lower the pH number is, the more ____________________ a substance is; the higher the pH number is, the more ____________________ a substance is.
40. Normal precipitation is slightly _________________________ because atmospheric carbon dioxide dissolves in the precipitation and forms _________________________.
41. Sulfur dioxide in water vapor ____________________ the openings on the surfaces of plants.
42. Aquatic animals are adapted to live in an environment within a particular ____________________ range.
43. Decreases in numbers of fish caused by the acidification of lakes and streams can influence the livelihood of ____________________ fisherman and people involved in ____________________ fishing.
44. Because acid precipitation falls ____________________, the problem of solving acid precipitation has been difficult, especially at the international level.
45. Almost half of the acid precipitation that falls in southeastern Canada results from pollution produced in _________________________.
46. Catalytic converters, which are required in ____________________, remove pollutants from exhaust gases before the gases exit through the ____________________.
47. A scrubber is a machine that moves ____________________ through a spray of ____________________ that removes many pollutants.
48. Ventilation, or mixing outdoor ____________________ with indoor ____________________, is necessary for good air ____________________.
49. Some indoor air pollutants include _________________________ from dry-cleaning fluid, paradichlorobenzene from air fresheners, and methylene chloride from paint strippers.
50. What steps have been taken by the Environmental Protection Agency, the state of California, and the automobile industry to reduce the amount of air pollution from vehicles?
51. Describe three respiratory or other health problems that are caused or aggravated by air pollution.
52. If each whole number on the pH scale indicates a tenfold change in acidity, with lower numbers being more acidic, how much more acidic is water with a pH of 2 than water with a pH of 5?
53. Using your knowledge of how an industrial scrubber works, explain how frequent rainfall could help to reduce the amount of smog in a city.
54. Explain why areas that are densely populated and highly industrialized can experience acid precipitation with particularly low pH values.
55. You have a friend who lives in a large northeastern city. His doctor told him that his frequent eye irritation is partly caused by acids that form on the moist surface of the eye. Use your knowledge of the types of air pollutants to explain your friend’s problem.
56. Household ammonia is a commonly used solution that has a basic pH of 12. If a solution of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) has a pH of 14, how much more basic is the NaOH solution than the ammonia?
57. We know that radon is a radioactive element. An isotope of radon has a half-life of about four days. This means that at the end of each four-day period, one-half of the radon changes into another substance through radioactive decay. For example, if you started with 20 grams of radon, after four days, 10 grams would remain; after eight days, 5 grams would remain; and so on. How much will be left of 32 grams of radon after 20 days?
58. Name and describe three effects of air pollution on human health.
59. How is mass transit in cities a possible solution to urban air pollution?
60. Describe two atmospheric conditions that make air pollution worse.
61. How can acid precipitation endanger a country’s cultural heritage?
62. List three ways you could make the air in your home healthier.
63. Where does the majority of the air pollution in the United States come from?
64. Every day in the United States, motor vehicles release approximately 15 thousand tons of nitrogen oxides. The EPA estimates that modern cars release 95 percent fewer emissions than they did 30 years ago. If this is the case, approximately how many thousands of tons did motor vehicles release 30 years ago?
65. 30 decibels is ten times stronger than 20 decibels; 20 decibels is ten times stronger than 10 decibels; 10 decibels is ten times stronger than 0 decibels. Therefore, a sound measuring 90 decibels is how much stronger than a sound of 40 decibels?
66. At your school, a student who is not taking an environmental science class asks what an individual can do to reduce air pollution. What would you suggest? Explain why these actions would reduce air pollution.
67. Consider the following statements: A city is located in a valley where it is almost completely surrounded by mountains; the climate is sunny with only light breezes. In addition, there are several million cars and moderate industrial development. This city illustrates conditions that are highly favorable for smog formation, made worse by certain geographical and atmospheric conditions. Tell how each of the factors mentioned in the statements above contribute to smog formation or intensification. Specify the types of primary and secondary pollutants involved.
68. Use the following terms to complete the concept map below: nitrogen oxide, nitric oxide, oxygen atom, atmosphere, respiratory diseases, ozone, pH, aluminum, salt exchange, suffocation