Theodore Roosevelt was a prominent conservationist, putting the issue high on the national agenda.
Roosevelt was deeply committed to conserving natural resources, and considered to be the nation's first conservation President.
American naturalists John Muir, created the Sierra Club
Chief of Forestry Gifford Pinchot
Which president of the day (1890’s) was a prominent conservationist and put the issue high on the national agenda?
The famous American naturalist __________ created helped establish the Parks Service and later created the Sierra Club.
The chief of forestry was _________________.
The Great Flood 1
Very little withstood the wave as it tore through Woodvale. Most of the town was reduced to mud flats. The destruction of the wire works released miles of barbed wire, adding to the terror of those caught in the flood.
An approximate total of 230,000,000 acres of land into preservation
Franklin Delano Roosevelt (1933–45), like his cousin Theodore Roosevelt.
Used programs to end wasteful land-use, mitigate the effects of the Dust Bowl, and efficiently develop natural resources in the West.
Civilian Conservation Corps
After World War II increasing encroachment on wilderness land evoked the continued resistance of conservationists who succeeded in blocking a number of projects in the 1950s and 1960s.
In 1948 - The Inter-American Conference on the Conservation of Renewable Natural Resources met in 1948 as a collection of nearly 200 scientists from all over the Americans forming the trusteeship principle that:
"No generation can exclusively own the renewable resources by which it lives. We hold the commonwealth in trust for prosperity, and to lessen or destroy it is to commit treason against the future"
Beginning of the modern movement
During the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s, several events occurred which raised the public awareness of harm to the environment caused by man.
Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into an environment that causes instability, disorder, harm or discomfort to the ecosystem i.e. physical systems or living organisms
Prior to the establishment of the EPA, the federal government was not structured to comprehensively regulate environmental pollutants.
Summary (the point of all of this)
Environmental awareness was around before 1970 (remember Donora 1948) .
The EPA was created to regulate and oversee environmental protection and regulation.
Do fill in the blank worksheet to review your notes. YOU WILL NEED YOUR SKELETON OUTLINE – it contains the answers.
Now that we’ve examined the history of the environmental movement we are prepared to examine some real cases of environmental hazard.
Which statement is the most correct?
A. Chemicals manufactured by humans are more dangerous to human health than naturally occurring chemicals.
B. Both natural and human-made chemicals are potentially toxic to humans.
C. Naturally occurring chemicals are more poisonous to humans than synthetic chemicals.
Both natural and human-made chemicals have the potential to harm humans.
Toxic chemicals can occur naturally. For example, rattlesnake poison and botulin are both naturally occurring chemicals that harm humans. Botulin is the toxin which causes food poisoning and is produced by bacteria.
Toxic chemicals can also be created by humans, for example, lead-based paints or pesticides such as DDT.
Define hazardous waste.
SO What IS hazardous Waste?
Any discarded material containing substances known to be toxic, mutagenic, carcinogenic, or teratogenic to humans or other life-forms; ignitable, corrosive, explosive, or highly reactive alone or with other materials.
Break it down…
Toxic – poisonous
Mutagenic – capable of causing a change or mutation
Carcinogenic – capable of causing cancer
Teratogenic - agents that can interfere with normal embryonic development
SCC’s Canonsburg and Oakland sites were, of course, contaminated.
The Vanadium Building, later renamed the Flannery Building and today known as the Parkvale Building was the subject of several decontamination efforts.
In 2002, decontamination was successfully completed and the building released by the state for unrestricted use.
The Canonsburg mill site was designated in the 1978 Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act as eligible for federal funds for clean up, the only uranium mill east of the Mississippi River so listed.
Under a $48 million cleanup, the mill site and 163 nearby properties in Canonsburg were remediated.
The nearby properties were contaminated as a result of mill tailings from the SCC operation having been used as road and yard fill in Canonsburg.
Residual radioactivity was consolidated into a covered, clay-lined cell at the Canonsburg mill site that is fenced and posted and periodically monitored by the department of Energy and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.
Love Canal Case 1 2 -
COMMENT IN YOUR NOTES
Take notes on your emotion – what are you feeling and what is the trigger for that emotion.
Reflect on the situation
Summarize for us what happened.
Love Canal is a neighborhood in Niagara Falls, New York, which became the subject of national and international attention, controversy, and eventual environmental notoriety following the discovery of 21,000 tons of toxic waste that had been buried beneath the neighborhood by Hooker Chemical.
Between 1974-1978 , 54% of the babies born in the area had at least 1 birth defect!
At first, scientific studies did not conclusively prove that the chemicals were responsible for the residents' illnesses, and scientists were divided on the issue, even though eleven known or suspected carcinogens had been identified, one of the most prevalent being benzene.
There was also dioxin (polychlorinated dibenzodioxins) in the water, a very hazardous substance. Dioxin pollution is usually measured in parts per trillion; at Love Canal, water samples showed dioxin levels of 53 parts per billion.
Geologists were recruited to determine whether underground swales were responsible for carrying the chemicals to the surrounding residential areas. Once there, they explained, chemicals could leach into basements and evaporate into household air.
COMMENT IN YOUR NOTES
These days does it sound like a good idea to spray oil on the roads to hold dust down?
When Russell Bliss (owner of waste oil company) was defending himself what did he say?
Reflect on the situation
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)
Responding to public concern over 'midnight dumping' of toxic wastes, Congress establishes authority for controls over hazardous waste from generation to disposal under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA).
Toxic Substances Control Act
Congress enacts the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), which provides EPA with authority to protect public health and the environment through controls on toxic chemicals that pose an unreasonable risk of injury.
A series of chemical reactions that ignite a large chemical-waste treatment facility in Bridgeport, New Jersey
A spark from a welder's torch touches off a series of chemical reactions that ignite a large chemical-waste treatment facility in Bridgeport, New Jersey, leaving six dead and hospitalizing 35. It is reported that, 'the raging fire propels waste drums through the air and blankets the city in a funnel of black smoke that reaches hundreds of feet into the sky.'
State of Emergency at Love Canal, New York
President Carter declares a State of Emergency at Love Canal, New York, after a startling increase in skin rashes, miscarriages, and birth defects. Love Canal heightens public awareness of the grave and imminent perils of unregulated hazardous waste dumping in communities.
House and Senate committees hold extensive hearings on the dangers posed by toxic waste dumps
House and Senate committees hold extensive hearings on the dangers posed by toxic waste dumps and major bills are introduced to create a 'superfund' for dealing with these dangers in both houses of Congress.
Toxic waste bursts into flames at a waste storage facility in Elizabeth, New Jersey
Toxic waste bursts into flames at a waste storage facility in Elizabeth, New Jersey, sending a thick black plume of smoke and ash over a 15-mile area and raising fears of widespread chemical contamination. The fire burns for 10 hours as State officials issue an environmental advisory closing schools and urging residents to close all doors and windows and remain indoors.
Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA or Superfund)
Congress passes the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA or Superfund) toaddress the dangers of abandoned or uncontrolled hazardous waste dumps by developing a nationwide program for: emergency response; information gathering and analysis; liability for responsible parties; and site cleanup. CERCLA also creates a Trust Fund (or 'Superfund') to finance emergency responses and cleanups.
Superfund successfully responds to the 'Valley of the Drums' site in Kentucky
Superfund successfully responds to the 'Valley of the Drums' site in Kentucky, drawing national attention as EPA acts on behalf of public safety by removing over 4,000 drums and installing protective measures.
Birth of the environmental justice movement
A landfill protest in Warren County, North Carolina, raises new concerns over the unequal distribution of environmental threats in disadvantaged and minority communities, fostering the birth of the environmental justice movement.
Relocation of more than 500 residents of Times Beach, Missouri
EPA permanently relocates more than 500 residents of the town of Times Beach, Missouri, because of widespread dioxin contamination
These sites lead to the creation of the SUPERFUND program established to address sites like these and that holds polluters accountable for their damages.
Established by the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA), a byproduct of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA 1979)
It allows the EPA to clean up such sites and to compel responsible parties to perform cleanups or reimburse the government for EPA-lead cleanups. www.EPA.GOV
The responsibilities of the Superfund program are to:
Determine the number of sites where potentially significant contamination existed;
Create technologies to remove or control contaminants.
SO What IS hazardous Waste?
One of the items below is a hazardous substance. Four are sources of a hazardous substances. Which one is a hazardous substance?
A. clogged furnace
C. a dog
D. paint applied before 1978
E. dust mite parts
There are no listed SUPERFUND sites in Greene Co.
I did discover one in Denbo , PA – where friends and I used to swim!
Hazardous Waste Worksheet
Read case study Issues #15
HOMEWORK – this will be graded and used as your first major grade of
Add all the laws and acts here
Ideas Box – look at the items in your tables box – These items are seemingly unconnected so its now YOUR job to make the connection and discuss the possibilities to see if you and your partner can figure out what the connection is.
What is the connection?
All of the products in the connections box contain chemicals that are toxic.
Brainstorm with your neighbor and complete the ‘What I know / What I want to know’ information sheet and be prepared to discuss your results.
Toxic substance in your home…
So… if you can find all of these products in your home… where do they go when you are finished with them?
Ponder this … then answer and explain why.
Which would you prefer to drink – a cup of caffeine or a cup of trichloroethylene?
Read and highlight Text Materials
Use the note taking sheets to compile the information that you find to be important to understanding the text.
We will review some of the key points in the text but you are responsible to “get it.”
Questions for DISCUSSION
Homes are full of products that are designed to make life easier – like if your couch is smelly – just spray some Frebeeze on it, or if your hair is naturally curly you can straighten it with chemicals, or if your grass wont grow you can put some chemlawn on it…
The list goes on and on- what are some other things we use to make life easier?
Q: Where does this stuff go?
A. Magical cleaner fairies pick it up when your finished.
B. It vaporizes into thin air.
C. They become pollutants when thrown in the trash (in many cases before that).
Q: How much waste does each person throw away in a day?
1 lb./day (365 lbs./year)
2 lbs. / day (730 lbs./year)
3 lbs./day (1,095 lbs./year)
4lbs./day (1,460 lbs./year)
America throws away more trash than any other nation in the world.
On average each person throws away 4lbs. of garbage a day…
That is almost 160 million TONS
Or…320,000,000,000 pounds of garbage a year produced in the USA.
The waste we dispose of now did not exist 50 -100 years ago…
What kind of wastes can be hazardous? Brainstorm with your partner (3minutes)
These wastes often are not disposed of properly and are thrown onto the land or into storm sewers.
These are called OPEN DUMPS …
Toxics in the home
There are approximately 3 – 10 gallons of potentially harmful materials in the home…
What kind of wastes can be hazardous?
Take 3 minutes to list as many potentially harmful substances that can be found in your home (prize for the most).
Now we know we use potentially hazardous products in the home…
So – where do they go ?
How does that effect the environment?
Are there alternatives?
Please explain how to clean a bathtub.
How does this chemical waste get into surface water?
Do these materials break down or disappear when you use it?
As rain water percolates (Filter gradually through a porous surface or substance) through a landfill rotting garbage decomposes and forms a syrupy liquid called leachate.
AKA – Garbage Juice
This leachate seeps into the ground and contaminates groundwater.
POINT SOURCE POLLUTION
Pollution that comes from an observable / known point.
“That POINT is the SOURCE of the pollution.”
SO what then is NON POINT Source pollution?
SO what then is NON POINT Source pollution?
NON POINT Source pollution
Pollution coming from many - sometimes indeterminate (unknown) sources.
People can reduce non point source pollution…
By the 3 R’s
In this lesson project you will be closely examining household product use, pollution potential, and alternatives to potentially harmful products.
IN this INVESTIGATION – Day 1
Your assignment is to:
Divide into teams of 2 or 3
Use table 1 & 2 on worksheets to decipher the code for the symbols used to represent the types of pollutants associated with the numbered household sites)
Finish table 1 and consider how to reduce this pollution
What current practice contribute to nonpoint pollution?
How can we reduce the pollution?
DO NOW! DAY 2
In 4 minutes make a list of all the household products you use that may contribute to nonpoint source pollution.
Best list get a prize!
Day 2 – Using your worksheet…
Today we are going to review your worksheets – get them out I will be around to check them…(keep them for your packet to turn in at the end of the week).
Use board to review
Bell work Q Pick one to answer
Explain the difference between POINT sources and NON POINT source pollution.
How much garbage (in lbs. or tons) does America produce in 1 year?
Your assignment is to do a home inventory using the worksheet.
You will be assigned a focus area of the home to investigate – but you may add from other areas.
Read and review directions – this is due tomorrow for a MAJOR grade and portion of your project.
Review Q’s 2-7-11
Compare and contrast point source and non point source pollution.
How do the toxic chemicals that everyone uses in their home make their way to the environment?
Describe what you would do if a toxic chemical waste dump moved into your neighborhood. What are some things you would want to know?
Home Inventory PART II
Choose 3 products from your list and begin to complete the chart using DATA Table 3 and computers if you need.
Complete the discussion questions on the next page – as completely as possible. They Are DISCUSSION questions – some have no right or wrong but will be used for discussion.
Finish for HW
PART III: RESEARCH
Choose one product from your list of household pollutants.
You will be investigating the chemical contents of this product to prepare a warning brochure – and also researching some alternative equivalents for the product that are less threatening.