Enterprise Resource Planning (erp) Systems What is erp?

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Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) Systems

What is ERP?

  • An ERP system is an attempt to integrate all functions across a company to a single computer system that can serve all those functions’ specific needs.
  • “Integration” is the key word for ERP implementation.

What is ERP?

  • It may also integrate key customers and suppliers as part of the enterprise’s operation.
  • It provides integrated database and custom-designed report systems.
  • It adopts a set of “best practices” for carrying out all business processes.

Major Reasons for Adopting ERP

  • Integrate financial information
  • Integrate customer order information
  • Standardize and speed up operations processes
  • Reduce inventory
  • Standardize Human Resources information

Potential Benefits of ERP

  • Internal Benefits
    • Integration of a single source of data
    • Common data definition
    • A real-time system
    • Increased productivity
    • Reduced operating costs
    • Improved internal communication
    • Foundation for future improvement

Potential Benefits of ERP

  • External Benefits
    • Improved customer service and order fulfillment
    • Improved communication with suppliers and customers
    • Enhanced competitive position
    • Increased sales and profits

ERP Implementation Approaches

  • The big bang – install a single ERP system across the entire organization
  • Franchising – Independent ERP systems are installed in different units linked by common processes, e.g., bookkeeping.
  • Slam dunk – install one or several ERP modules for phased implementation of key business processes.

Major Phases of ERP Implementation (Kent Sandoe, Enterprise Integration)

  • Initiation – develop business case, project scope, and implementation strategy
  • Planning – establish implementation team, determine goals and objectives, establish metrics
  • Analysis and process design – analyze and improve existing processes, map new processes to be adopted by the system

Major Phases of ERP Implementation (Kent Sandoe, Enterprise Integration)

  • Realization – install a base system, customization, and test the system
  • Transition – replace the formal system with the new system, data conversion
  • Operation – monitor and improve system performance, provide continued training and technical support

Major Challenges to ERP Implementation

  • Limitations of ERP technical capabilities
  • Inconsistency with existing business processes
  • Costs - implementation (hardware, software, training, consulting) and maintenance
  • Impact on organizational structure (front office vs. back office, product lines, etc.)
  • Changes in employee responsibilities

Major Challenges to ERP Implementation

  • Flexibility of software system upgrades
  • Implementation timelines
  • Availability of internal technical knowledge and resources
  • Education and training
  • Implementation strategy and execution
  • Resistance to change

Total Cost of ERP Ownership (in millions of $) - META Group Survey

  • System Medium Average Smallest Largest Baan 16.1 13.6 0.8 26.5 JD Edwards 3.9 5.7 0.8 21.6 Lawson 1.9 4.1 0.4 16.4 Oracle 5.4 11.2 1.4 42.8 PeopleSoft 7.4 15.5 1.3 58.6
  • SAP 13.9 52.2 0.8 308.2
  • SSA 1.7 7.6 0.7 29.6
  • From: “ Implementation Study Reveals Costs, Benefits,” The Performance Advantage, APICS, October 1999, p.7

Benefits of ERP Implementation (META Group Survey)

  • Benefits are mostly in terms of cost containment rather than revenue increase.
  • 53 companies (out of 63) reported annual savings of over $5 millions with the median annual saving of $1.6 million. Nine companies account for 73.4% of the reported savings.
  • The study found that much of the ERP value is in indirect, non-quantifiable benefits.
  • A number of companies surveyed had a negative net present value.

ERP Implementation - Key Enablers (APQC Best-Practice Report)

  • The organization is prepared for the change.
  • The executive leaders are active and visible in their support.
  • The initiative is seen as a business imperative by the organization.
  • The resources are available to conduct the project completely.
  • A good packaged system is used and not customized.
  • The user group is trained to use the software before it is implemented.

ERP Implementation Practices (APQC Best-Practice Report)

  • Project Management
    • Organizations link implementation teams to both the technical (IS) and functional departments.
    • They tightly control implementation processes
    • They appropriately use consultants throughout the implementation process
    • They manage turnover of key implementation employees
    • They have basic business reasons for implementation
    • They align implementation with organizational strategies

ERP Implementation Practices (APQC Best-Practice Report)

  • Change Management
    • Redesigned jobs call for higher levels of skills and accountability
    • Change management is viewed as more than just increased training and communication
    • Enterprise-wide systems drive redesigned changes.
    • The executive sponsor is the change agent.
    • Resistance from the work force (including management) is the most significant obstacle.

ERP Implementation Practices (APQC Best-Practice Report)

  • Technology Excellence
    • Organizations rely heavily on the ERP package as the majority of their application configuration.
    • Organizations implement ERP packages on time and within budget
    • Organizations centralize support groups within their IT departments

New Developments In ERP

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