10. The author uses the word torpedoes to describe
the dolphins to suggest—
A power and speed.
B intelligence and sensitivity.
11. The difference between Kathleen’s and the author’s responses to the dolphins swimming
past them is BEST expressed by which statement?
A She is relaxed, and he is nervous.
B She is excited, and he is bored.
C She is alert, and he is careless.
D She is playful, and he is businesslike.
12. What evidence does the author provide to demonstrate the intelligence of dolphins?
A He compares their ability to swim to that of humans.
B He mentions a study in which dolphins learned the meaning of words.
C He describes instances in which dolphins helped humans.
D He shows there is a relationship between Kathleen and the dolphins.
13. Which one of the following themes is developed in the article?
A the conflict between art and science
B the importance of technology
C the joy of exploration
D the difficulty of being true to oneself
Read the passage and answer questions 14 through 17.
The Remarkable Paper Cuttings
of Hans Christian Andersen
1 Best known as an author of fairy tales, Hans Christian Andersen wrote such children’s classics as “The Ugly Duckling,” “The Little Mermaid,” and “The Emperor’s New Clothes.” Many people may not be aware, however, that he was also an actor, a singer, and an artist, and that as an artist, he excelled at the unusual craft of paper cutting.
2 Andersen may have begun practicing paper cutting as a young boy in Denmark. It is known that he loved to play with puppets and frequently created clothes for them from scraps of cloth. He also may have helped cut leather for his father, a shoemaker. These practices could have contributed to his proficiency in using scissors to create works of art.
3 Paper cutting was not a well-known craft in Denmark during the 1800s. Some Europeans created silhouettes out of black paper, but Andersen’s cuttings were quite different. Andersen usually used white or brightly colored paper. He never drew an outline first but simply snipped away with a design that existed only in his imagination. Sometimes he used a flat piece of paper. Other times he folded the paper, made some cuts, opened the paper, and then refolded it in a different way before cutting again. When at last he unfolded the finished paper cutting, an intricate design could be seen, often incorporating dancers, swans, windmills, storks, and castles.
Frequently, the images were bordered by a stage with curtains and fancy decorations.
4 Andersen had many reasons for making his paper cuttings, but the main one was to entertain. Andersen loved to tell his fanciful stories to anyone who would listen. As he spoke, he would take out his scissors and create a remarkable paper cutting to illustrate his words. Audiences remained enthralled as they awaited the end of the tale and the outcome of the mysteriously changing piece of paper. Books, especially those other than instructional, were not very common at the time. People who enjoyed hearing a story purely for the sake of entertainment valued Andersen’s unique skill as a storyteller and an artist.
5 Andersen also found that his paper cuttings helped bridge a communication gap between himself and others. Although an awkward and shy man, Andersen still loved an audience. His stories and paper cuttings helped him to communicate when he would have otherwise felt uncomfortable. He loved to travel and always took his scissors along. When encountering those who spoke different languages, Andersen found he could always make a connection by demonstrating his beautiful paper creations.
6 The paper cuttings also became unique gifts for friends and family. Sometimes Andersen would paste the cuttings into scrapbooks and present them to the children of relatives. Other times they were given as tokens of appreciation to hosts and hostesses. When his writing brought him fame, these gifts were even more valued.
7 Now more than 100 years old, many of Andersen’s delicate paper cuttings still exist in a museum in Denmark devoted to his work. While Andersen will always be remembered for his classic fairy tales, his beautiful works of art also remain for all to enjoy.
14. What does delicate mean as used in the following sentence?
Now more than 100 years old, many of Andersen’s delicate paper cuttings still exist in a museum in Denmark devoted to his work.
15. Based on the information in the passage, which of the following is MOST likely to happen?
A Andersen’s paper cuttings will be preserved for many years.
B The museum will replace the paper cuttings with other objects created by Andersen.
C Interest in Andersen’s books will diminish when people learn about his paper cuttings.
D Andersen’s paper cuttings will become more treasured than his writings.
16. What is the main purpose of this passage?
A to illustrate the importance of having a variety of skills
B to compare entertainment of the past to that of the present
C to illustrate how a person used art to overcome shyness
D to explore a lesser-known talent of a famous writer
17. Which of the following would make this passage easier to understand?
A a picture of one of Andersen’s paper cuttings
B an excerpt from one of Andersen’s fairy tales
C a quote from someone who owns one of Andersen’s paper cuttings
D an explanation of what inspired Andersen to write fairy tales for children
The following essay discusses the early years of the .lm industry. Read the essay and answer questions 18 through 20.
The lights go down and flickering images appear on the big screen. Suddenly, the engaging grins of two small boys emerge in black and white. The tow-headed boys are dressed in coveralls and are sitting on a porch with their dusty bare feet propped on a wooden step below them. A long-eared hound lies listlessly at their feet. Catcalls and giggles fill the theater. “Hey, look. It’s George and Roy. And there’s old Tige snoozin’ away at their feet.” Applause and more giggles break out in the small movie house in eastern Tennessee.
It is early in the twentieth century, and movie houses are springing up all over the country. During this time, nickelodeons were being replaced by a new industry. The emerging movie houses were given regal names such as the “Majestic,” the “Imperial,” and the “Plaza.” Patrons
were happy to pay the price of a movie ticket, usually 10 cents, to see the latest moving picture show. At first, single reels of film were projected onto the big screen. By 1907, multiple reels of film were spliced together and presented as feature films. Early audiences were lured
into the movie houses not only by the western feature shown every Saturday but also by the promise of seeing still shots of themselves up on the big screen.
Traveling photographers earned a living, moving from town to town, taking photos of local people—especially children—and nearby scenes of interest to show on the screen of the local movie house. The photographers were paid not only by the movie house owner who knew that
local shots would be popular attractions, but they were also paid by the parents for the children’s photographs. Eventually, these still shots of local people and places were replaced by newsreels of current news events, such as the world wars in Europe. These newsreels, precursors of the evening news now watched nightly, showed flickering images of real men going off to battle. The
reels played before the main feature and were eagerly awaited reports of current events in the world.
The early features shown every Saturday and occasionally during the week were silent films. A local, talented pianist usually sat in the front of the theater supplying a musical backdrop for the action. Chords were pounded out as the western film star Tom Mix rode his horse up to the latest,
staged train robbery or as the Keystone Cops investigated another caper.
Soon, the feature films were no longer silent; recorded sound was now possible, and the feature films were now referred to as “talkies” and became even more popular.
The films were all in black and white, with color films not appearing until the late 1930s.
With the invention of air conditioning, movie theaters became cool retreats in the midst of summer’s sultriest weather. The Rivoli Theater in New York heavily advertised the cool comfort of the interior, and summer ticket sales soared. Eager patrons slipped in out of the heat and humidity and enjoyed the cooled air and watched the latest feature film.
Today, movie theaters remain cool havens of sight and sound entertainment. Popcorn and sodas are served in every theater—multiplexes showing several different features at once. Missing are the still photographs of local children or scenes. The only remaining clues as to their part in the development of the industry are faded copies of the original photographs now tucked away in dusty family albums.
18. According to the passage, the reason the sound of Tom Mix’s horse was accompanied by a piano was because—
A viewers were making too much noise.
B the horse made snorting noises that needed to be masked by music.
C films were silent since audio technology was not invented then.
D Tom Mix preferred pianos to violins.
19. The main idea of this essay is that movies—
A are popular because theaters are air conditioned.
B provide audiences with world news.
C give parents an opportunity to entertain children.
D have been entertaining audiences for many years.
20. Which of the following sentences from the essay helps describe the setting of the opening
A “Nickelodeons were being replaced by a new industry.”
B “The films were all in black and white, with color films not appearing until the late 1930s.”
C “Patrons were happy to pay the price of a movie ticket, usually ten cents, to see the latest moving picture show.”
D “The lights go down and flickering images appear on the big screen.”
The following article tells of children seining for minnows while also offering some general information on the fish. Read the article and answer questions 21 through 23.
Seining for Minnows
There was a time when hot summer days brought children outdoors to local creeks and streambeds to seine for minnows. Catching the small, silver fish was a fun, refreshing opportunity to wade in cool, rushing water on a sultry summer’s day. Before setting out for the creek in their neighborhood, however, children first had to locate a burlap bag to use for a seine. Girls as well as boys loved this outdoor activity.
Upon reaching the creek bank, the children pulled off their socks and shoes and plunged feet first into the cold, sparkling water. Wading carefully over the pebbly bottom, they looked for the right spot where the minnows flashed. Seining for minnows was easiest if two children worked together. Grasping two corners of the bag, each child would stand in shallow water and slowly lower the bag until it was .at on the bottom of the streambed. Then, standing very still, the children would wait for the dirt and silt to settle and for the fish life in the stream to resume
normal activity. The children would bend over and again grasp a corner of the bag in each hand and quickly and smoothly raise the bag straight up, keeping it as level as possible. A flutter and flicker of silver shades would glimmer all over the soaked burlap bag. Dozens of tiny
silver fish almost too small to have been seen in the stream would now cover the rough bag. Tiny little fish bodies, startled by being thrust into the open air, would wiggle and turn, seeking an outlet back into the cold, clear water of their creek.
The joy of seining for minnows is that, once caught, the fish are thrown back into the water to continue their natural lives, perhaps to be scooped up by other children and then returned again to their watery home. So the net is swiftly lowered back into the stream, and the small fish swim off. Then the whole process is repeated once more as more minnows are scooped up and then released.
The small silver fish that children call minnows are really any small fish, regardless of species. Fish called minnows actually belong to the cyprindae family of fish. Members of the cyprindae family, including carp and gold fish among several dozen species, can be found in lakes and
streams throughout the United States and much of the world.
Minnows often serve as primary consumers in a streambed, sometimes as bottom feeders to suck up ooze or eat algae. Others, as secondary consumers, ingest zooplankton, crustaceans, insects, worms, and other minnows. Some become food for tertiary consumers, being the prey of birds, mammals, and other fish. Those of a larger size are used as bait for sport fishing. Still others are used as food additives in livestock feeds.
Their role as prey and their use as bait and food additives are not the only dangers that minnows face in the world today. The child with a burlap sack who goes out to seine for minnows on a summer’s day now will find fewer glittering fish on the bag when it is lifted out of the stream. The destruction and alteration of the minnows’ habitat due to land treatment and watercourse alteration threaten the future of this beautiful, hardy family of fish. If the children of tomorrow are to have the joy of seining for minnows on a hot summer’s day, the natural habitats of our lakes and streams must be preserved.
21. What does the word consumers mean in the following sentence?
Minnows often serve as primary consumers in a streambed, sometimes as bottom feeders to suck up ooze or eat algae.
A those who shop
B those who eat
C those who occupy
D those who serve
22. This article suggests that minnows face which of the following dangers?
A being used as prey or bait
B eating poisonous food
C lack of food
D children playing in the water
23. What information supports the idea that minnows play an important role in the food chain?
A Minnows do not eat algae.
B Minnows only eat worms and insects.
C Birds avoid eating minnows.
D Birds and other minnows eat minnows.
The following article discusses the sport of falconry. Read the article and answer questions 24 through 26.
On Becoming a Falconer
Falconry, an ancient sport popular in the days of medieval royalty and jousting tournaments, is still practiced by dedicated enthusiasts around the world. Falconers work with predatory birds ranging from expert fliers, like the peregrine falcon, to less spectacular hawks, such as the redtail. Regardless of the species, training is the most important part of falconry. But it can be frustrating; so, you must be very patient.
The fist in training your falcon is to establish her trust in you. Initially, the falcon won’t allow you near—she will “bate,” or beat her wings wildly, as you approach. But gradually you will coax her to you by offering food. The proud and cautious bird will be reluctant to your hand, but she will want the food there and she will move back and forth on her perch, stamping her feet.
Suddenly she will leave her perch. She may land on your hand and bate off right away, frightened by her own bravery at first. Sooner or later, however, she will return to feed, and that will be her first careful step toward accepting you.
Why do falconers love this sport? To understand falconry, you must understand the special nature of the bond that forms between the falconer and the bird. The wild behavior and skills of the falcon are treasured by the falconer. The reward in working with a trained falcon is the companionship of a creature that can choose at anytime to disappear over the horizon forever. You can join the honored tradition of falconers if you have patience and respect for wild creatures.
24. What does the phrase disappear over the horizon mean in the following sentence?
The reward in working with a trained falcon is the companionship of creatures that can
choose at any time to disappear over the horizon forever.
A return to the falconer
B abandon the falconer
C go behind some trees
D fly very high
25. According to the article, which of the following summarizes the main reason modern falconers love their sport?
A It allows them to work with a creature that is normally wild.
B It was popular among royalty of the Middle Ages.
C The falcon bates the falconer.
D They like the reward money from the sport.
26. Which of the following MOST accurately indicates the author’s attitude toward the sport of falconry?
A It is not suited to modern times.
B It can be frustrating.
C It is best to work with a peregrine falcon.
D It is a rewarding experience.
Read the following document and answer questions 27 through 33.
HOW TO CHOOSE A PASSWORD
Passwords are commonly used today to restrict access to personal possessions or privileged information. Passwords consist of a unique sequence of characters—letters, numbers, and symbols—required to access personal banking information, automated teller machines, secure buildings and businesses, computer networks, certain Web sites, e-mail, and more. Passwords are much like keys. Each password is different, and only the correct one allows the right of entry. It should be something unusual enough that the wrong person could not decipher it just by knowing you.
Before you can choose a password, however, you must know the types of passwords required. First find out if all letters must be lowercase or if upper- and lowercase are both acceptable. Should the password consist of letters or numbers only, or are special characters permissible? What is the minimum and maximum length allowed?
Now you are ready to think of an appropriate password. Your password should be something you can easily remember but something impossible for anyone else to decode or guess. We will discuss poor options first, so you will know what to avoid. Poor choices include names of people, family or fictional characters, common sequences such as QWERTY on the keyboard or 789456123 on the numeric keypad, or any word that appears in a dictionary.
Other inappropriate choices include your telephone number or birth date. Do not use your middle name, mother’s maiden name, your street name, or any other familiar name or number in reverse order.
The best way to choose a password that is hard to crack, yet easy to remember, is to select something memorable from your past. It could be the name of your grandparents’ dog when you were 5 (tippy5) or the name of your math teacher in room 118 (118-Thompson). You could form a string of characters using the first letter of each word in a phrase or saying that makes sense to you. For example, your mother might say, “The sun is shining—So am I.” A password derived from this saying might be (TsisSaI) or (Tsis-SaI).
Once you have created a good password, keep it safe. Do not store it in a computer or leave a handwritten copy where others might see it. You could put the number in your address book in a disguised form. It is not likely that anyone who found Ted Williams, 35 N. Sheldon Ave. in
your address book would know it contains your password (TW35NSA).
It is best to have different passwords for each system. If you have used the same password for your bike lock and your access code to the Internet, would you be willing to loan your bike and lock to a schoolmate?
Since unauthorized access to sensitive information could open the door for an unscrupulous individual to access or even tamper with your personal records, as well as those of other people on the system, it is wise to change your passwords frequently. Some authorities suggest changing
passwords every three months.
NYTXvincent (best friend in first grade
preceded by state of birth and
current state of residence)
Delygd (first letters of coach’s
favorite saying: Don’t ever
let your guard down.)
Ofcmgr98 (mother’s abbreviated
job title—Office Manager—in 1998).
782-8973 (phone number)
LittleBoPeep (storybook character)
12-11-86 (birth date)
Dejavu (foreign phrase)
leahcim (name spelled backwards)
QQQQQQ (repeated letter)
XyzXyxXyz (repeated pattern of letters)
27. According to the document, what should you do FIRST before choosing a password?
A determine what type of password must be used
B think of something memorable from your past
C decide where to store the information to keep it safe
D change your password about every three months
28. The two boxes included at the end of the document illustrate information that is primarily found in which two paragraphs?
A 1 and 2
B 3 and 4
C 5 and 6
D 6 and 7
29. According to the two boxes at the end of the document, which of these would be the BEST password?
A date of a wedding anniversary
B your family nickname
C the same number, repeated five times
D the first letters in the title of your favorite book
30. Based on information in the document, which statement about passwords is accurate?
A Computer programs cannot be protected by passwords.
B Passwords may not be used as a security measure in the future.
C People only need to use one password for different systems.
D Bad passwords could give access to unauthorized individuals.
31. Which sentence from the document BEST summarizes the author’s main point?
A It is best to have different passwords for each system.
B Before you can choose a password, however, you must know the prerequisites for the
C Your password should be something you can easily remember but something impossible for anyone else to decode or guess.
D Some authorities suggest changing passwords every three months.
32. What suggestion does the article provide about writing down passwords?
A Write it down often so you don’t forget your password.