English Colonial Society



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English Colonial Society

  • Preview: “British colonials were such a diverse, contentious lot that any hope of political union seemed utterly impractical….Yet despite such disagreements, a majority of white colonials took pride in their English traditions and in membership in a powerful empire.”

Immigration and Natural Increase

  • Immigration and Natural Increase
    • Enormous ethnic diversity
    • Tremendous birthrate: three times higher than today
    • Demographic changes resulted in shift in the balance of power between the colonies and England.
    • 1700 = less than 300,000 people;
    • 2.5 million by 1775
  • Demographics: Forces of Division

Population growth in the American colonies

  • 1625: 2,500; 90% male; 95% white; primary source of increase is immigration
  • 1650:
  • 1700:
  • 1725:
  • 1750:
  • 1775:

Population growth in the American colonies

  • 1625: 2,500; 90% male; 95% white; primary source of increase is immigration
  • 1650: 50,000; 70% male; 85% white; source of increase now immigration augmented by birth rate
  • 1700:
  • 1725:
  • 1750:
  • 1775:

Population growth in the American colonies

  • 1625: 2,500; 90% male; 95% white; primary source of increase is immigration
  • 1650: 50,000; 70% male; 85% white; source of increase now immigration augmented by birth rate
  • 1700: 250,000; 65% male; 80% white; sources of increase unchanged
  • 1725:
  • 1750:
  • 1775:

Population growth in the American colonies

  • 1625: 2,500; 90% male; 95% white; primary source of increase is immigration
  • 1650: 50,000; 70% male; 85% white; source of increase now immigration augmented by birth rate
  • 1700: 250,000; 65% male; 80% white; sources of increase unchanged
  • 1725: 600,000; 65% male; 80% white; population now doubles every 25 years
  • 1750:
  • 1775:

Population growth in the American colonies

  • 1625: 2,500; 90% male; 95% white; primary source of increase is immigration
  • 1650: 50,000; 70% male; 85% white; source of increase now immigration augmented by birth rate
  • 1700: 250,000; 65% male; 80% white; sources of increase unchanged
  • 1725: 600,000; 65% male; 80% white; population now doubles every 25 years
  • 1750: 1.2 million; 60% male; 80% white; wave of immigration
  • 1775:

Population growth in the American colonies

  • 1625: 2,500; 90% male; 95% white; primary source of increase is immigration
  • 1650: 50,000; 70% male; 85% white; source of increase now immigration augmented by birth rate
  • 1700: 250,000; 65% male; 80% white; sources of increase unchanged
  • 1725: 600,000; 65% male; 80% white; population now doubles every 25 years
  • 1750: 1.2 million; 60% male; 80% white; wave of immigration
  • 1775: 2.5 million; 60% male; 80% white; under 50% English

New England the least ethnically mixed

  • New England the least ethnically mixed
  • Middle colonies most ethnically mixed
  • Ethnic Groups
  • Notecard 41

The Settlement of the Backcountry

  • The Settlement of the Backcountry
    • Backcountry society was very isolated
  • Social Conflict on the Frontier
    • 1763: Paxton boys (mostly Scots Irish) protest inadequate protection from Indians
    • 1771, Carolina Regulator Movement: Frustrated poor people from western North Carolina rebelled against the colonial government
    • Ethnic and class differences sparked tensions

Colonial Religion

  • Anglicans (Church of England)
  • King of England was the head of the Church (his power came from God)
  • Used Book of Common Prayer, yet maintained many Catholic practices
  • Established (tax supported) in the South
  • No American Bishops, loosely watched over by the Bishop of London, power predominately lodged in the hands of the local vestries
  • Being a member carried a great degree of status in the colonies
  • Name of Denomination
  • Number
  • Chief Locale
  • Congregationalists
  • 575,000
  • New England
  • Anglicans
  • 500,000
  • N.Y., South, especially in Virginia and Maryland
  • Presbyterians
  • 410,000
  • Frontier
  • German Churches (incl. Lutheran)
  • 200,000
  • Pennsylvania
  • Dutch Reformed
  • 75,000
  • N.Y., N.J.
  • Quakers
  • 40,000
  • N.J. & Penn
  • Baptists
  • 25,000
  • R.I., N.J., Del.
  • Roman Catholics
  • 25,000
  • Maryland, Pennsylvania
  • Methodists
  • 5,000
  • Scattered
  • Jews
  • 2,000
  • N.Y., R.I.
  • Est. Total Membership
  • 1,857,000
  • Est. Total Population
  • 2,493,000
  • Percentage of Church Members
  • 74%
  • Colonies
  • Established Churches
  • Year Disestablished
  • Massachusetts (including Maine)
  • Congregational (Puritans)
  • 1833
  • Connecticut
  • Congregational
  • 1818
  • New Hampshire
  • Congregational
  • 1819
  • New York
  • Anglican
  • 1777
  • Maryland
  • Anglican
  • 1777
  • Virginia
  • Anglican
  • 1786
  • North Carolina
  • Anglican
  • 1776
  • South Carolina
  • Anglican
  • 1778
  • Georgia
  • Anglican
  • 1777
  • Rhode Island
  • none
  • New Jersey
  • none
  • Delaware
  • none
  • Pennsylvania
  • none

Enlightenment and Awakening in America

  • The Enlightenment in America
    • Ben Franklin and many colonial leaders were devotees of the Enlightenment ideal of human reason
    • Movement of “rational Christianity” – Christian beliefs must be reasonable
    • Important thinkers: John Locke, Baron de Montesquieu, and Adam Smith
    • Deism (God as the watch maker)
    • Many ministers grew concerned over the growth of rationalism

The First Great Awakening

  • The First Great Awakening
    • Evangelical reaction to rationalism
    • Emotional message appealed to all classes and ethnicities
    • George Whitfield and Jonathan Edwards most famous preachers

Read Jonathon Edwards “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God” on pages 30 3rd paragraph, “That God holds you over a pit of hell” (skip page 29)

Pages 27-28, Q 1-3

  • Colonial Religion handout

The Aftermath of the Great Awakening

  • The Aftermath of the Great Awakening
    • Movement deepened divide between religious factions, “Old Lights” vs. “New Lights”
    • Growth of Baptist and Presbyterian churches
    • New colleges founded, Columbia, Brown, Dartmouth, Princeton (Ivy League Schools)
    • Democratizing Effect, lead to Revolution?
  • Name of University
  • Original Name (if different)
  • Location
  • Opened or Founded
  • Denomination
  • Harvard
  • 1636
  • Congregational (Puritan)
  • William and Mary
  • Williamsburg, Virginia
  • 1693
  • Anglican
  • Yale
  • New Haven, Connecticut
  • 1701
  • Congregational (Puritan)
  • Princeton
  • Collage of New Jersey
  • Princeton, New Jersey
  • 1746
  • Presbyterian
  • Pennsylvania
  • The Academy
  • Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
  • 1751
  • Nonsectarian
  • Columbia
  • King’s Collage
  • New York, New York
  • 1754
  • Anglican
  • Brown
  • Rhode Island College
  • Providence, Rhode Island
  • 1764
  • Baptist
  • Rutgers
  • Queen’s College
  • New Brunswick, New Jersey
  • 1766
  • Dutch Reformed
  • Dartmouth (began as an Indian missionary school)
  • Hanover, New Hampshire
  • 1769
  • Congregational (Puritan)

Colonial Economics

  • Eighteenth-Century Seaports
    • All major colonial cities were seaports
      • Philadelphia, New York, Boston, & Charleston
    • Dominated by merchants and artisans

The Imperial System before 1760

  • The Imperial System before 1760
    • English government’s policy of salutary (benign neglect): indifference toward American colonies
    • Economically, the Mercantilist system was suppose to dominate the colonies, yet this idea was hardly enforced in any of its forms, including the Navigation Acts
  • cotton
  • iron
  • lumber
  • furniture
  • tools
  • textiles
  • I’m bloody filthy rich!
  • Navigation Acts
  • (1660's)
  • Ex.) sugar, tobacco, indigo
  • 1) Most products could be sold only to England.
  • 2) All products going to the colonies had to first go through England where the products were taxed.
  • spices
  • tea
  • spices
  • tea

Triangle Trade

  • .
  • .
  • England
  • Africa
  • American Colonies
  • slaves
  • tobacco, rice, indigo
  • guns, textiles
  • West Indies
  • .
  • .
  • England
  • Africa
  • American Colonies
  • slaves
  • sugar, molasses
  • rum, iron
  • West Indies
  • .
  • .
  • England
  • Africa
  • American Colonies
  • slaves
  • tobacco, rice, indigo
  • guns, textiles
  • West Indies
  • .
  • slaves
  • rum, iron
  • sugar, molasses

Navigation Acts, pg. 62

  • Positives:
  • Negatives:

Positives:

  • Positives:
  • Allowed Britain and the colonies to build up their own merchant marines
  • Protected English manufacturers from foreign trade
  • Ships had to be ¾ British (colonist counted)
  • Colonial urbanization- Phil, NYC
  • Colonial ship building expanded
  • Did not affect 60% of colonial exports (rum, grain, & lumber were okay)
  • Gave colonist a monopoly on British markets for many enumerated goods (cash crops)
  • Refunded much of the duties on re-exported items
  • Led to economic diversification
  • Colonist could smuggle around laws (Salutary Neglect)
  • Created some industries for colonies because of bounties and tariffs, like lumber
  • Could still make some goods on a small scale
  • Could manufacture iron
  • Negatives:
  • Limited free trade
  • Cut out Dutch traders that sold goods cheaper
  • Enumerated goods had to pass through England and be taxed
  • Banned large-scale manufacturing
  • Farming was difficult in New England because of:
  • • long winters
  • • thick forests
  • • rocky soil
  • * Fishing and trade became major industries in New England.
  • Middle Colonies
  • New York was first settled by the Dutch, then the English.
  • Pennsylvania was originally a Quaker settlement.
  • Farmers exported grain such as wheat, barley, and rye.
  • Therefore, the Middle Colonies became known as the Breadbasket Colonies.
  • Southern Colonies
  • Tobacco, rice, and indigo were grown on plantations. (Cash crops)
  • • The South has rich soil and a warm climate.
  • Planters, or plantation owners, relied on slave labor to accumulate massive wealth.

Government structure of Colonies by 1775

  • 1. Royal Colonies: 8 col. had royal governors appointed by the crown.
  • 2. Proprietary Colonies: 3 col. led by proprietors who chose governors     -- Mary., Penn., and Del.        
  • 3. Charter Colonies: Conn. & R.I. elected own governors under self-gov. charters. 
  •   
  • Bicameral legislature most common         1. Upper house, or Council -- normally appointed by the crown or proprietor      
  • 2. Lower house, or Assembly -- elected by property owners
  • Voted for taxes to pay expenses in the Colonial gov.
  • New England -- townhall meetings         
  • Voting restrictions
  • a. Property and/or religious qualifications were imposed
  •         
  • See Handout p. 63-64

Lord Cornbury: New York Governor from 1702 - 1708

New England Confederation created to deal with the War

Dominion of New England (1686)

  • Purpose: Enforce Navigation laws created to protect mercantilist system
  • James II appointed Sir Edmund Andros to lead the DNE, takes away most all colonists rights
  • Triggered "First Amer. Rev.“
  • England's "Glorious Revolution"
    • Catholic James II dethroned in Eng. and replaced by Protestant William & Mary          

Essay 4

  • Essay 4
  • Compare and contrast the colonies of TWO of the following European empires in North America before 1763.
    • British
    • French
    • Spanish

French vs. Spanish vs. English

Summary of relations between the three major colonial powers in America and the Amerindians

  • Spain sought to Christianize and control the Indians (through the encomienda, hacienda and mission systems)
  • The French sought to establish strong trade relations with the Native Americans; Jesuits sought to convert them.
  • English settlers often sought to either move Indians westward or annihilate them

Spanish Settlement

  • c. St. Augustine fortress erected (1565): oldest European settlement in U.S. -- Purpose: keep French out of Spanish southeast territory & protect sea lanes in the Caribbean.                   
  • d. New Mexico founded in 1609, Santa Fe became capital.     i. Mission system established in 17th century
  • ii. Pueblo Revolt (1680): Amerindians, led by Pope, rebelled against Spanish rule; eventually subdued

 e. Texas: 1716, mission system established in Texas

  •  e. Texas: 1716, mission system established in Texas
  • (including San Antonio-- later the Alamo
  • f.  California
    • i. Spain concerned about Britain & Russia in N. America after 1763
    •  ii. Father Junipero Serra founded first mission in San Diego in 1769.
      • -- 20 missions followed (Franciscan friars); 4 presidios

France in North America

  • A. French exploration
  • 1. Giovanni da Verrazano, 1524: sailed American coast from Carolina to Maine.
  • -- Probably the first European to see New York harbor.
  • 2. Jacques Cartier explored up the St. Lawrence River in 1530s.
  • 3. In response, Spain erected fort St. Augustine, Florida, (1565) to keep French out of North American interior & Caribbean.
  • 4. Samuel de Champlain “father of New France” established Quebec in 1608 (a year after the English founded Jamestown in Virginia)

French vs. Spanish vs. English

B. Of the European powers, the French were the most successful in creating an effective trading relationship with the Indians.

  • 1. English settlers sought to remove or exterminate Amerindians
  • 2. Spanish sought to Christianize Indians and use them for forced labor.
  • -- Utilized the encomienda system (forced labor in towns), hacienda system (forced labor for farming), and later, the mission system (forced conversion).
  • The French became great gift givers (the key to getting on with Amerindians who based inter-tribal relationships on gift giving) during late 17th century. i.  Trade not seen as a transaction or contract (like in Europe). ii.  Trade seen by Indians as a continuing process.
  • iii.  When a group stopped trading w/ another, it was tantamount to declaring war.

C. The beaver trade led to exploration of much of North America; (heavy demand for fur in European fashion)

  • 1. Coureurs de bois (“runners of the woods”) – Rough frontiersmen who sought to tap the lucrative fur trade.
  • 2. French seamen - voyageurs -- recruited Indians into the fur trade
  • D. Jesuits: Catholic Missionaries who sought to convert Indians and save them from the fur trappers.
  • 1. Some were brutally killed by Indians (although in the eyes of Indians, Jesuits held up best to torture and were thus more respected than other European groups).
  • 2. Played a vital role as explorers and geographers.

E. Other explorers

  • 1. Antoine Cadillac -- founded Detroit in 1701       -- Aimed to keep English settlers out of the Ohio Valley
  • 2. Robert de La Salle -- Sailed from Quebec, down through the Great Lakes, and down the Mississippi River in 1682 with the help of Indian guides.       a. Goal: prevent Spanish expansion into Gulf of Mexico region       b. Coined the name "Louisiana" in honor of Louis XIV
  • 3. French establish posts in the Mississippi region
  • (New Orleans most important—1718)       a. Attempt to block Spanish expansion into the Gulf of
  • Mexico.
  • b. Forts and trading posts in Illinois country: Kaskaskia, Cahokia, & Vincennes           -- Large amounts of grain sent down the Mississippi River for shipment to the West Indies and Europe.

Impact of French (and British) on eastern woodlands Indians: decimation by diseases, gun warfare & alcoholism.

  • Contributions of Mother Countries to North America
  • 1. England: Democratic forms of local government; tradition of hard-working, zealous individuals, English language
  • 2. France: Language, culture, and religion introduced to Canada and Louisiana and to many Amerindians west of Appalachians; large-scale trade with Amerindians
  • 3. Spain: Schools, hospitals, and printing presses established by missionaries; Spanish language in the Southwest; teaching of Christianity and handicrafts to Amerindians.

The Royal Government in New France, 1663

  • Originally ran by a joint stock companey, The Charter of the Company of 100 Associates (1627-1663)
    • Chamblain 1st Governor of Quebec
    • Charter cancelled because it had defaulted on its promise to transport thousands of settlers to New France
  • Intendant
    • Responsible for the daily economic affairs of the colony, trade, justice, finance, and settlement
  • Governor
    • represented the king in the colony. He was responsible for the defense of New France and for relations with the English and the Indians.
  • Bishop
    • in charge of the church which in turn was responsible for the spiritual and social needs of the colony through its church, its schools, charities, hospitals and for the conversion of the Natives.
  • The Sovereign Council
    • Consisted of a dozen officials including the governor, intendant and bishop. It acted as a legislative, administrative and judicial body and it was the sole governing authority in the colony responsible to the king.
  • Captains of Militia:
  • The Captains of the Militia reported to the Intendant about the concerns of the habitants and informed the habitants of the Intendant's plans.
  • More centralized government structure than the English colonies (less self-government), no representative assemblies

Climb the ladder answer

  • Belief in religious freedom was central to the development of the Northern colonies of Massachusetts and Rhode Island, while primarily economic motives drove the interests of the Southern colonies of Virginia and South Carolina
  • The Puritans goal was to build a religious utopian society and were initially successful at this venture in Massachusetts Bay, but faded over time because of their religious intolerance.
  • The British policy of salutary neglect primarily allowed for self-government to develop in the colonies, while letting a significant degree of freedom of religion, and a small degree of free trade to grow.
  • The British and Spanish empires were similar in their mercantilist economic outlooks, while strongly divergent in their treatment of Native Americans and their degree of centralization of government

Essay 2

  • Compare and contrast settlement in colonial New England compared to Virginia from 1607 to 1754

Map Activity

  • Label and date all 13 colonies
  • Draw borders around the dividing line between the Southern, Middle, & New England Colonies
  • Label the port cities of Philadelphia, New York, Boston, & Charleston
  • Label the Appalachian Mountains
  • Circle the 2 Chesapeake Colonies and label the Chesapeake Bay
  • Chesapeake
  • Bay
  • 13 Colonies
  • KEY
  • New England
  • Middle Colonies
  • Southern Colonies
  • Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Connecticut
  • New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware
  • Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia
  • New England Colonies
  • Farming was difficult in New England because of:
  • • long winters
  • • thick forests
  • • rocky soil
  • * Fishing and trade became major industries in New England.
  • Middle Colonies
  • New York was first settled by the Dutch, then the English.
  • Pennsylvania was originally a Quaker settlement.
  • In time, Pennsylvania was settled by German-speaking Protestants known as the Pennsylvania Dutch.
  • Farmers exported grain such as wheat, barley, and rye.
  • Therefore, the Middle Colonies became known as the Breadbasket Colonies.
  • Southern Colonies
  • Tobacco, rice, and indigo were grown on plantations.
  • • The South has rich soil and a warm climate.
  • Planters, or plantation owners, relied on slave labor to accumulate massive wealth.

1. “Belief in religious freedom was central to the development of some colonies, while in other colonies economic interests dictated development.”

  • 1. “Belief in religious freedom was central to the development of some colonies, while in other colonies economic interests dictated development.”
  • -Assess the validity of this statement.
  •  

2. Throughout the colonial period, economic concerns had more to do with the settling of British North America than did religious concerns.”

  • 2. Throughout the colonial period, economic concerns had more to do with the settling of British North America than did religious concerns.”
  • -Assess the validity of this statement with specific reference to economic and religious concerns.

Religion

  • Religion
    • NE- Puritans, City Upon a Hill, Roger Williams- RI, yet trade Boston & shipping
    • Penn- Quakers, holy experiment, yet trade Philadelphia & bread basket
    • Maryland- Catholic haven, proprietary colony, yet tobacco farming
  • Economics
    • Virginia- Joint-Stock Company, make money, tobacco, Rolfe, plantations, slavery (Anglican)
    • Carolinas- Cash crops- rice & indigo, slavery imported from Barbados, Charleston port city (Anglican)
    • NY- Trade, NYC, Dutch West India company, fur trade (Anglican)
    • Georgia – Oglethorpe, debtors haven, buffer for SC, failed utopia (Anglican)

3. In the seventeenth century, New England Puritans tried to create a model society. What were their aspirations, and to what extent were those aspirations fulfilled during the seventeenth century?

  • 3. In the seventeenth century, New England Puritans tried to create a model society. What were their aspirations, and to what extent were those aspirations fulfilled during the seventeenth century?

4. Compare the ways in which religion shaped the development of colonial society (to 1750) in TWO of the following regions:

  • 4. Compare the ways in which religion shaped the development of colonial society (to 1750) in TWO of the following regions:
      • New England
      • Chesapeake
      • Middle Atlantic

New England

  • Colonies: MBC, Plymouth, Conn, New Haven, New Hampshire, RI
  • Religion- Puritans (Congregationalists), Separatists(Pilgrims), a few outsiders like Quakers and Baptists
  • Ideas- Predestination- the elect, Work Ethic, reform the church, intolerance, Social Covenant, Utopia- City Upon a Hill
  • Development:
    • Gov- Theocracy, Church membership to vote
    • Settlement Pattern-
    • Economy- Trade- Boston, small farms, little slavery, egalitarian
    • Education- Train people to be literate in the Bible, or universities like Harvard to train ministers
    • Intolerance (b/c Utopia-perfect society)- RI Roger Williams, Salem, Anne Hutchinson, Quakers, treatment of Native Americans, Pequot War-Mystic River Massacre, King Phillip’s War, Ethnicity- homogeneous, English
    • Demographics- Great Migration, settle as families, in towns to watch each other

Chesapeake

  • Colonies: Maryland & Virginia (Jamestown)
  • Religions: Catholics in Maryland, Church of England (Anglicans) came to dominate, state (tax) supported churches
  • Development
    • Economy: slavery, Cash Crops society
    • Gov-House of Burgess- Land to vote, Salutary Neglect
    • Little public Education- William and Mary to train Anglican ministers
    • Demographics- mostly males in the beginning, plantation settlements patterns
    • Maryland- Started out as a Catholic refuge-Lord Baltimore, but overrun by Anglicans- Religious Toleration Act-1649

Middle Atlantic

    • Penn, NY, NJ, Delaware
  • Religions
    • Dutch Reformed Church- Protestants-Patroonships
    • Quakers- Penn-Utopia “Holy Experiment”- Proprietary Colony
      • Inner Light, no taxes for church, pacifists, no titles, Penn and Fox, dislike of authority and official church structure
    • Development
      • Tolerant: Open, liberal, attracts people, ethnic diversity- Germans, English, Scotts-Irish. marketed
      • Negotiated with Indians, more humane treatment in Penn
      • Overrun by outsiders, took over
      • Economy: Trade NYC, Philadelphia, grain export, little slavery in the beginning

5. For the period before 1754, analyze the ways in which Britain’s policy of salutary neglect influenced the development of American society as illustrated in the following,

  • 5. For the period before 1754, analyze the ways in which Britain’s policy of salutary neglect influenced the development of American society as illustrated in the following,
    • Legislative Assemblies
    • Commerce
    • Religion

Salutary Neglect: England does not closely watch over the colonies or enforce rules

  • Salutary Neglect: England does not closely watch over the colonies or enforce rules
  • Legislative Assemblies (practiced self-gov)
    • In every colony, like the House of Burgess
    • Tied to the citizens, suffrage based on land ownership
    • Power of the purse, raise taxes, spend, raise a militia
    • Town Halls in NE
    • Royal governors
  • Commerce (Exercised some degree of free trade)
    • Mercantilism: Navigation Acts
    • Triangle Trade, Slave trade, middle passage
    • Cash crops
    • Smuggling

Religion (Freedom in area to practice religion separate from the Church of England, led to variety & diversity)

  • Religion (Freedom in area to practice religion separate from the Church of England, led to variety & diversity)
    • Anglicans, no Bishops in colonies, Little direct control from the King
    • Protestants: Puritans, NE, purify, Separatists & Plymouth, Quakers, & Penn, Presbyterian & Scots-Irish, Baptists & RI
    • Catholics, Maryland haven, overrun by Protestants, Toleration Act 1649
    • Religious freedom in Penn & RI
    • Established Churches
    • Great Awakening

6. Compare the ways in which TWO of the following reflected tensions in colonial society:

  • 6. Compare the ways in which TWO of the following reflected tensions in colonial society:
  • Bacon’s Rebellion (1676)
  • Pueblo Revolt (1680)
  • Salem Witchcraft Trials (1692)
  • Stono Rebellion (1739).

7. How did economic, geographic, and social factors encourage the growth of slavery as an important part of the economy of the southern colonies between 1607 and 1775?

  • 7. How did economic, geographic, and social factors encourage the growth of slavery as an important part of the economy of the southern colonies between 1607 and 1775?

8. Compare and contrast the colonies of TWO of the following groups in North America before 1763.

  • 8. Compare and contrast the colonies of TWO of the following groups in North America before 1763.
    • British
    • French
    • Spanish

Economics

  • Economics
  • Spanish
  • French
  • English
  • Government
  • Spanish
  • French
  • English

Geography

  • Geography
  • Spanish
  • French
  • English
  • Religion
  • Spanish
  • French
  • English

Native Americans

  • Native Americans
  • Spanish
  • French
  • English
  • Mercantilism – An economic system based on the idea that a nation could increase its wealth by importing raw materials from, and export finished goods to, its colonies.
  • 3) All ships used in trade had to be built in either England or the colonies.
  • Video: The Navigation Acts & the Glorious Revolution 0:05:24 
  • The Triangular Trade – Summary (1:58)
  • Roots : rebellion amongst the slave ship Lord Ligonier by Kunta Kinte (5:39)
  • Middle Passage - from Amistad (edited - 3:34)
  • Slave Trade Documentary (2008) - American descendants of slave traders trace their ancestry and explore the issue of race. (5:09)

In what ways did the French and Indian War alter the political, economic, and ideological relations between Britain and its American colonists? Confine your answer from 1740 to 1766.

Evaluate the relative importance of TWO of the following as factors prompting Americans to rebel in 1776: -Parliamentary taxation -Restriction of civil liberties -British military measures -The legacy of colonial religious and political ideas

To what extent did the American Revolution fundamentally change American society? In your answer be sure to address TWO of the following as factors from 1775 to 1800: -political -social -economic

“The American Revolution brought about a social revolution in America from 1775-1800” -Assess the validity of this statement

Analyze the degree to which the Articles of Confederation provided an effective form of government with respect to any two of the following: -Foreign relations -Economic conditions -Western Lands

“The Constitution did not come from a desire to protect the liberties won in the American Revolution, but rather to protect the financial interests of the framers.” -Assess the validity of this statement.

To what extent was the US Constitution a radical departure from the Articles of Confederation?

Declaration of Independence

  • 4th of July, 1776
  • Thomas Jefferson
  • Life, Liberty, & the pursuit of happiness
  • All men are created equal
  • 2nd Continental Congress
  • Blames the King
  • Not a system of laws
  • 1st draft blamed the king for the slave trade

Articles of Confederation, 1776-1789

  • Northwest Ordinance
  • Banned slavery in the Northwest Territory
  • Unicameral legislature
  • No President or federal courts
  • Guided the nation through the Revolutionary War
  • Shays’ Rebellion
  • State centered, these united states
  • Ethnic Groups

Constitution, 1789 starts

  • We the people of the United States
  • Philadelphia Convention, 1787
  • James Madison
  • Beard Thesis
  • President, Bicameral House and Senate, Federal Courts
  • 3/5 clause, abolished slave trade, yet protects slavery and returns fugitive slaves
  • Whiskey Rebellion
  • Bill of Rights
    • Right to bear arms, jury trial, I plead the 5th, freedom of press, assembly, and religion

5. For the period before 1750, analyze the ways in which Britain’s policy of salutary neglect influenced the development of American society as illustrated in TWO of the following,

  • 5. For the period before 1750, analyze the ways in which Britain’s policy of salutary neglect influenced the development of American society as illustrated in TWO of the following,
    • Legislative Assemblies
    • Commerce
    • Religion

4. Compare the ways in which religion shaped the development of colonial society (to 1750) in TWO of the following regions:

  • 4. Compare the ways in which religion shaped the development of colonial society (to 1750) in TWO of the following regions:
      • New England
      • Chesapeake
      • Middle Atlantic


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