English 1 Segment 1 Exam Note-Taking Guide and Practice Test



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English 1 Segment 1 Exam Note-Taking Guide and Practice Test

Directions for the review: Read the notes on each concept and complete the questions in preparation for your segment 1 exam.

View the segment 1 exam review video here: https://youtu.be/MmEHWx5uZjw



*If you are an HONORS student, you will be responsible for the regular material in the course PLUS the honors material. Along with viewing the exam review video for the regular portion of the course, you can view a video review of the honors material here: http://youtu.be/e5xBhhuCHo4

Colon:


  • Use a colon if you have a complete sentence that comes before your quotation.

    • Simon and Garfunkel’s use of a simile creates a dreary image: “But my words, like silent raindrops fell."

  • Use the colon after a complete sentence to introduce a list of items when introductory words such as namely, for example, or that is do not appear.

    • You may be required to bring many items: sleeping bags, pans, and warm clothing.

    • I want the following items: butter, sugar, and flour.

Rewrite the following sentence, so the colon is used properly:

On the exam, I must know the following concepts paraphrasing, using context clues, and identifying plot techniques.

1. Type your revision here:

Paraphrase and Summary:


A summary is an explanation of the main points or ideas of a text written in your own words.

Summarize the following excerpt: In the long history of the world, only a few generations have been granted the role of defending freedom in its hour of maximum danger. I do not shrink from this responsibility—I welcome it. I do not believe that any of us would exchange places with any other people or any other generation. The energy, the faith, the devotion which we bring to this endeavor will light our country and all who serve it—and the glow from that fire can truly light the world.”

1. Type your summary here:

A paraphrase is a rephrasing of the original text or idea using your own words.



Paraphrase the following sentence from John F. Kennedy in your own words:

In your hands, my fellow citizens, more than in mine, will rest the final success or failure of our course”



1. Type your paraphrase here:

Hook:


“The hook” is the first sentence in your introduction. Its purpose is to capture (or hook) your readers’ attention.

Effective Hook Strategies:

  • Anecdote: A very short, personal story that illustrates some aspect of your essay's topic to help your reader connect to your topic.

  • Quotation: A saying or quotation that ties into your essay's topic can be thought-provoking for your reader.

  • Definition: A fresh or unusual way of defining the topic of your essay can cause your reader to keep reading. Do not use dictionary definitions as a hook.

  • Description: A vivid description of some aspect of your essay's topic can get your readers' attention; appeal to as many of the senses as possible to create a powerful image that will keep them reading.

  • Bold/Shocking Statement: A surprising or shocking statement connected to the topic of your essay causes your reader to keep reading to find out if the statement is true or how it connects to your topic.

  • Facts/Statistics: A surprising fact or statistic pertaining to your essay's topic can draw your reader into your essay.

Which hook is more effective for an essay on the behaviors of lions and why?

A: Elizabeth Kenny said “It’s better to be a lion today than a sheep your whole life.”



B: A lion can grow to weigh over 500 pounds.

1. Type your answer here:



Theme:


Theme is the message of a work, not the subject.

  • Theme is not one word such as “friendship,” “peace,” “heartbreak,” or “disappointment.”

  • Themes should be stated in complete sentences such as:

    • Friendship helps us through all stages of life.

    • Although conflicts surround us, peace is something that all humans desire.

    • Heartbreak, while difficult, can be an opportunity to grow emotionally.

    • Disappointment can cause us to become bitter and angry.

  • A text can have multiple themes.

Questions to ask yourself to determine the theme:

  1. What happens in the text?

  2. Why is this included in the story?

  3. What is the message?

Determine the theme of the following fable:

A Lion asleep in his lair was woken up by a Mouse running over his face. Losing his temper he seized it with his paw and was about to kill it. The Mouse, terrified, piteously entreated him to spare its life saying he could help him in return someday. The idea of so insignificant a creature ever being able to do anything for him amused the Lion so much that he laughed aloud, and good-humoredly let it go. But the Mouse's chance came, after all. One day the Lion got entangled in a net which had been spread for game by some hunters, and the Mouse heard and recognized his roars of anger and ran to the spot. Without more ado it set to work to gnaw the ropes with its teeth, and succeeded before long in setting the Lion free.

1. Type the theme of the fable here:

Tone:


Tone is the author’s attitude, stated or implied, toward a subject. Some possible examples of tone are: Anxious, Excited, Worried, Foolish, Smart, and Depressing. An author’s tone can be revealed through choice of words and details.

Example: Read the following line excerpt to determine the tone: And the trees all died. They were orange trees and beautiful once. I can’t believe they all died. The tone of this excerpt could be unhappy, depressing, or melancholy.
Tones often shift throughout a text. Certain words can signal a shift: but, on the other hand, however, on the contrary, in contrast, etc.
Read the excerpt and answer the following questions:
(1)There is no strife, no prejudice, no national conflict in outer space as yet. (2)Its hazards are hostile to us all. (3)Its conquest deserves the best of all mankind, and its opportunity for peaceful cooperation many never come again. (4)But why, some say, the moon? (5)Why choose this as our goal? (6)And they may well ask why climb the highest mountain?”
1. What is the tone?

2. Which line signifies a shift in tone?

3. What word signals the shift?


Figures of Speech (Figurative Language)


Whenever you describe something by comparing it with something else, you are using figurative language. Figures of speech are any language that goes beyond the literal meaning of words in order to furnish new effects or fresh insights into an idea or a subject.


  • Hyperbole – Hyperbole is a figure of speech which exaggerates. For example: "I nearly died laughing," "I was hopping mad," and "I tried a thousand times." Such statements are not literally true, but people make them to sound impressive or to emphasize something, such as a feeling, effort, or reaction.

  • Metaphor – A Metaphor is making a comparison without using like or as. For example, “The man is a doormat.” This says the man gets walked on by comparing him to a doormat.

  • Simile – Simile is a comparison of two different things using "like" or "as.” Example: "She was mad as a hornet."

  • Personification – Personification is when a non-living thing is given human characteristics. Example: “The waves danced upon her sandy toes.”

1. Create your own hyperbole:

2. Create your own metaphor:

3. Create your own simile:

Conflict:


Internal Conflict

  • Man vs. Self – Some characters lack the confidence they need. Fear might stop them from participating in certain activities. Love or anger might cause them to do things they wouldn't normally do. These kinds of problems are internal conflicts because they come from inside the character.

External Conflict

  • Man vs. Man – When someone yells at a character or serves as an obstacle, this is an external conflict because the problem comes from outside of the character. We call it Man vs. Man because it is an example of one person against another.

  • Man vs. Nature – When a character can't do something because of the weather or environment, this also an external conflict because the problem occurs outside of the character. We call it Man vs. Nature because it is an example of nature working against a person.

  • Man vs. Society – Sometimes characters feel out of place. Maybe they wear the wrong clothes to a party, or they don't fit in with a group of people. In other situations, it may be the government or the culture that poses a challenge. This is also an external conflict because the problem comes from outside of the character. We call it Man vs. Society because it is an example of society working against a person.

1. Describe the conflict the protagonist of the novel you read in unit 2 faces.

2. How does he/ she change as a result?

Author’s Techniques to Enhance the Plot Structure


An author uses several different techniques to make the plot of a story interesting.

Parallel Plots- Parallel plots follow different characters through their own separate narratives, but their experiences are related and eventually converge as the story is resolved. Featuring parallel plots is a strategy authors use to build interest and give additional details about their characters as they react differently to conflicts they encounter.

Episodic Plots- These short, separate stories are called episodes. Put together, they create one larger narrative—the episodic plot. By using episodic plots, authors can go into specific detail about key events and reveal more about the characters through their reaction to conflict and their interactions with each other.

Dream Sequence- A dream sequence is a method authors use to add another layer of interest to the story. Like flashback and flash-forward, a dream sequence provides a break from the main narrative. Revealing a character's dreams allows an author to provide key details and insight into characters' actions and identity. Example: “All of a sudden, she awoke in a cold sweat. She was in her bed and realized it was just a nightmare.”

In Medias Res- In Medias Res is a Latin term that means in the middle of things. Authors may choose to start a story right in the middle of the rising action or the conflict to build interest and capture the reader's attention. Readers are immediately immersed in the story and must keep reading to find out where the story begins, how it got to the current event, and what will happen next. Example: “He raced through the crowded halls of the school, trying to make his way to class on time. He passed his friends but didn’t stop to talk.”

Flashback- Through the narrator’s memory, the reader gets a glimpse into his/her through processes and experiences. Example: “She thought back to that time in third grade when she was in the spelling bee. That was her first experience with stage fright.”

Flash Forward- where the author interrupts the regular flow of the story to provide a glimpse of something that will happen in the future. By using a flash-forward, the author piques the readers' interest by making them wonder, "How is that going to happen?" "Why does that happen?” Example: “Little did he know he would meet his mortal enemy face-to-face later in the day.”

Fast-pace: To create the sense that time is going quickly and to make hearts race, an author might use fast-paced writing.

To create a sense that time is going quickly and to make hearts race, an author might use:



Slow pace: To create the sense that time is going slowly and to build suspense, an author uses slow-paced writing.

An author may deliberately slow the pace by using:



  • Long sentences

  • Punctuation that makes the reader pause or stop

  • Repetition of sentence structure

  • Formal diction

Read the passage and answer the following questions:

Marco raced through the airport, weaving in and out of the crowd. He had to reach Gate 72 before the passengers boarded and the plane took off for the other side of the world, leaving him all alone in the world. As Marco narrowly missed knocking down an elderly couple moving slowly and meticulously towards their gate, Marco wondered how he had let his situation come to this.

1. What technique does the author use to begin the story?

A. Flashback

B. Dream sequence

C. Flash forward

D. In medias res?

2. Why would the author choose to begin the story in this manner?

3. What effect does it have on the reader?


Context Clues and Synonyms:


Context clues are hints that an author gives to help define or figure out the unknown meaning of a word.

Synonyms are two different words or phrases that mean the same thing. Happy = Joyful



Read the following passage:

The young woman pressed and prodded the wasted muscles, resting her body on her knees, her bowed head hidden as in a cloud by her black wealth of hair.

1. What does the author mean by saying “wealth of hair”?

2. What words or phrases could you use to substitute for “wealth of hair” in this sentence to mean the same?

Read the following passage:

“There is no strife, no prejudice, no national conflict in outer space as yet. Its hazards are hostile to us all.” John F. Kennedy – “We Choose to go to the Moon”



1. What does Kennedy mean when he says “There is no strife, no prejudice, no national conflict in outer space as yet”? (Hint: What does “no strife, no prejudice, no national conflict”suggest? Is this positive or negative?)

2. What is the purpose of the sentence “Its hazards are hostile to us all”? (Hint: What does “us all” suggest? Is this positive or negative?)

Module 2 Novel of Your Choice


Make sure you review your novel of choice from Module 2. On your exam, you will be asked to provide examples from your novel to support your opinion. Here are some points for you to review:

1. Type your notes for each element:

Main characters -

Protagonist -

Antagonist -

Plot details -

Conflict -

Analyzing “Kennedy’s Inaugural Speech, 1961”
Watch Kennedy’s speech: http://safeshare.tv/w/ymvztwLOVC


This text will be featured on the final exam

What effect does Kennedy hope to have on his audience through his speech?




What is a possible theme from the speech?




What is Kennedy’s tone?




Read Kennedy’s speech and break down the paragraphs:

Example: …In your hands, my fellow citizens, more than in mine, will rest the final success or failure of our course. Since this country was founded, each generation of Americans has been summoned to give testimony to its national loyalty.

The graves of young Americans who answered the call to service surround the globe.


Example:

Give a summary of the paragraph and identify a figure of speech (hyperbole, metaphor, allusion, etc.) Kennedy is using:



  • It’s in the hands of the people of the United States to see if the US will be successful or not.

  • He is using a hyperbole to describe the number of Americans who have died defending our country.

Now the trumpet summons us again—not as a call to bear arms, though arms we need; not as a call to battle, though embattled we are—but a call to bear the burden of a long twilight struggle, year in and year out, "rejoicing in hope, patient in tribulation"—a struggle against the common enemies of man: tyranny, poverty, disease, and war itself.


Give a summary of the paragraph and identify a figure of speech (hyperbole, metaphor, allusion, etc.) Kennedy is using:





Can we forge against these enemies a grand and global alliance, North and South, East and West, that can assure a more fruitful life for all mankind? Will you join in that historic effort?

In the long history of the world, only a few generations have been granted the role of defending freedom in its hour of maximum danger. I do not shrink from this responsibility—I welcome it. I do not believe that any of us would exchange places with any other people or any other generation. The energy, the faith, the devotion which we bring to this endeavor will light our country and all who serve it—and the glow from that fire can truly light the world.


Give a summary of the paragraph and identify a figure of speech (hyperbole, metaphor, allusion, etc.) Kennedy is using:








And so, my fellow Americans: ask not what your country can do for you—ask what you can do for your country.

My fellow citizens of the world: ask not what America will do for you, but what together we can do for the freedom of man.


Give a summary of the paragraph and identify a figure of speech (hyperbole, metaphor, allusion, etc.) Kennedy is using:








Finally, whether you are citizens of America or citizens of the world, ask of us the same high standards of strength and sacrifice which we ask of you. With a good conscience our only sure reward, with history the final judge of our deeds, let us go forth to lead the land we love, asking His blessing and His help, but knowing that here on earth God's work must truly be our own.

Give a summary of the paragraph and identify a figure of speech (hyperbole, metaphor, allusion, etc.) Kennedy is using:









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