Why is magazine training so critical to the process of shaping a new response class? Sometimes the sound of the operation of the food magazine is called a bridging stimulus; what might this metaphor mean?
What is the evolutionary mechanism for the cultural survival of religious taboos against slaughtering and eating cattle? You should identify the conditions that make this evolution most likely.
Explain the notion of selection by consequences as a description of the change in distribution of behavior that takes place during shaping. How is this process different from selection that takes place under naturally occurring conditions?
Describe the results of [Razran’s] second experiment on semantically mediated generalization (numbers) done with a 13-year old boy. Be sure to identify the respondent behavior, the training stimuli, and the test stimuli. Why is this example semantically rather than physically mediated generalization?
What do chicken scratches, raccoon rubbings and pig rooting have in common? What stimuli have pre-existing relations these bits of behavior? What does the “misbehavior of organisms” have to do with the generality of principles of learning?
Transform into Problems
What were the reinforcing consequences in the Welsh, Bernstein & Luthans (restaurant) study? How were the consequences identified?
Problem-based Assessment :
Suppose you were asked to implement a motivational program in a business with 25 employees engaged in the following activities: production planning, inventory delivery, direct production, packaging, and marketing. Based on your understanding of the restaurant study, how would you improve the quality of the employees work by using access to activities as a motivator? Describe the costs and benefits of the program and make a recommendation about implementation.
The behavioral context into which punishment is added must be considered in evaluating the likely effect of a given stimulus. What conditions are essential in this analysis?
Suppose it is your task to decrease the frequency of college students engaging in binge drinking or games involving high levels of intoxication. You have been asked to set up a punishment program to eliminate this program before someone is hurt. What context for binge drinking would you identify first? What punishing consequence would you use? What characteristics would you include in your punishing system to maximize effectiveness? Please give an example of an additional element you would need to include to make the plan maximally effective.
Points for Question 1
4pts - reinforcement for drinking
5 pts - ID specific severe punishing consequence
4 pts - Practical plan for measurement of abusive drinking
12 pts - Immediate consequence (4 pts); severity (more than change action) (4 pts); consistent system (4pts)
Describe the results of the experiment on semantically mediated generalization done with a 13-year-old Soviet boy. Be sure to identify the respondent behavior, the training stimuli, and the test stimuli. Why is this example semantically rather than physically mediated generalization?
Generate your own example of classical conditioning using the neutral stimuli “idea” and “rock” along with the eliciting relation between a very loud noise and increased heart rate. Your example should include all of the following components: a description of a conditioning procedure that would produce differing reactions to the two stimuli, a description of the procedure that tests for the direct effects of conditioning, a description of a procedure that would test for physically mediated generalization, a description of a procedure that would test for semantically mediated generalization, and the likely results of the three test procedures.
Points for Question 2
4 pts - specific conditioning -- say “idea” (2) and then puff of air in eye (2)
7 pts - Direct test: Present “idea” (3) w/o air (2) and see blink (2) follows
7 pts - Physically mediated generalization: Present sound similar to “idea” (3) w/o air (2) and see weak or little blink (2)
7 pts - Semantically mediated generalization: Present sound or picture or word related to “idea” (3) w/o air (2) and see strong blink (2) more than physically mediated
Use existing work: Keep an archive of evidence
Distribution on 1st Attempt
Change of Questions
What do you make of the data?
Is this a surprise?
What examples do you have in your own work?
What does it take to “problematize” a concept for assessment?
Keep going in this direction or turn back to abstraction?