Eng 312: Midsemester Exam Language Awareness by Eschholz, Rosa and Clark 9th Edition (2005), pages 1-420



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ENG 312: Midsemester Exam Language Awareness by Eschholz, Rosa and Clark 9th Edition (2005), pages 1-420

  • by Don L. F. Nilsen
  • And Stella Hadjistassou

CONTRAST THE FOLLOWING

  • Helen Keller’s epiphany vs. Malcolm X’s epiphany vs. David Raymond’s epiphany
  • Denotation vs. Connotation
  • Sign vs. Symbol
  • Strong vs. Weak form of the Whorf Hypothesis
  • Cognates vs. False Cognates

CONTRAST: MALE VS. FEMALE CONVERSATIONS

  • Status vs. Support
  • Independence vs. Intimacy
  • Advice vs. Understanding
  • Information vs. Feelings
  • Orders vs. Proposals
  • Conflict vs. Compromise

CONTRAST MALE VS. FEMALE LANGUAGE STRATEGIES

  • Tag Questions
  • Rising Intonations
  • Hedges
  • Indirect Language
  • Diminutives
  • Euphemism
  • Politeness Phenomena

DEFINITIONS

  • classical definition
  • dead metaphor
  • Ebonics
  • epiphany
  • euphemism
  • grammatical gender
  • morphophonemic spelling system
  • semantic inversion

EXAMPLES 1

  • Doublespeak
  • Euphemism
  • Gobbledygook
  • Inflated Language
  • Jargon
  • Weasel Words

EXAMPLES 2

  • Name Calling
  • Glittering Generality
  • Plain-Folks Appeal
  • Stroking (Argument ad Populum)
  • Argument ad Hominem
  • Guilt or Glory by Association
  • Bandwagon
  • Faulty Cause and Effect
  • False Analogy
  • Begging the Question
  • The two-Extremes Fallacy (False Dilemma)
  • Card Stacking (Cherry Picking)
  • Testimonial

EXPLANATIONS

  • Audience, Knowledge, Attitude, Needs
  • “Traduttore, traditore!” (The translator is a traitor)
  • Explain the Great English Vowel Shift

HISTORY OF ENGLISH

  • Contrast Old English and Modern English in terms of the following:
  • Phonology
  • Orthography
  • Morphology
  • Syntax
  • Semantics

IDENTIFICATIONS

  • S. I. Hayakawa
  • William Labov
  • William Lutz
  • Robert MacNeil
  • George Orwell

LISTINGS (5-POINTS EACH)

NAMES

  • Tell what names each of the following people had after they changed their names: Frederic Austerlitz, Benjamin Kubelsky, Bernard Schwartz, Doris Von Keppelhoff, Robert Zimmerman, James Bumgardner, and Marian Michael Morrison.
  • ANSWERS: Fred Astaire, Jack Benny, Tony Curtis, Doris Day, Bob Dylan, James Garner, and John Wayne

SHORT-ANSWER ESSAY (5 POINTS)

  • Explain the nature of slanting.
  • Contrast levels of adequacy (prescriptive, descriptive, explanatory, evaluative)
  • Contrast power and solidarity
  • Contrast lecturing and listening
  • Discuss the notion that “English is a superior language”

LONG-ANSWER ESSAY (10 PTS)

  • Explain the differences between male and female language.
  • Explain in detail how non-standard dialects tend to be more logical than standard dialects.
  • In detail, compare and contrast human language with the communication systems of other animals.

Contrast the following kinds of truth:

  • Empirical truth (true vs. false)
  • Linguistic truth (tautology vs. contradiction)
  • Metaphorical truth (apt vs. inept)

!PowerPoints:

  • HISTORY OF ENGLISH: One feature each to Contrast Old English and Modern English Phonology, Morphology, Graphology, Syntax, and Semantics
  • HUMOR: Give 3 Features, 3 Functions, and 3 Subjects of Humor
  • LITERARY GENRES: Give four literary genres and an example of each:
  • PROSE STYLES--LISTING: List ten qualities of Tough, Sweet, or Stuffy Language (I choose the prose style)

!!PowerPoints Continued:

  • REGIONAL AND SOCIAL DIALECTS: Give five phonological tests that will help to determine where a person spent the first six or so years of his or her life.
  • SEMANTIC GAPS: Be able to give an example of each of the following: Acronym, Blend, Borrowing, Clipping, Coinage, Compound, Meaning Shift, Metathesis, Part-of-Speech Change Prefixation, and Suffixation

!!!PowerPoints (Continued)

  • URBAN LEGENDS (10 PTS): Tell an urban legend (5pts), and explain the dramatic devices used (5 pts)
  • USAGE: Given sentences from the Usage handout, be able to correct those sentences.
  • VARIES: Give an example of word marked for each of the following: V-Vocation (Jargon), A-Age, R-Region, I-Informality, E-Ethnicity, S-Sex


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