EM WAVES AND TRANSMISSION LINES OBJECTIVES: The main objectives of this course are to understand:

Fundamentals of steady electric and magnetic fields using variouslaws

The concept of static and time varying Maxwell equations and power flow using pointingtheorem

Wave characteristics in different media for normal and obliqueincidence

Various concepts of transmission lines and impedancemeasurements

SYLLABUS: UNIT I:

Review of Co-ordinate Systems, Electrostatics:, Coulomb’s Law, Electric Field Intensity, Electric Flux Density, Gauss Law and Applications, Electric Potential, Maxwell’s Two Equations for Electrostatic Fields, Energy Density, Illustrative Problems. Convection and Conduction Currents, Dielectric Constant, Continuity Equation, Relaxation Time, Poisson’s and Laplace’s Equations; Capacitance – Parallel Plate, Coaxial Capacitors, Illustrative Problems. [1,5] UNIT II: Magneto Statics : Biot-Savart Law, Ampere’s Circuital Law and Applications, Magnetic Flux Density, Maxwell’s Two Equations for Magnetostatic Fields, Magnetic Scalar and Vector Potentials, Forces due to Magnetic Fields, Ampere’s Force Law, Inductances and Magnetic Energy. Illustrative Problems.[1,5]

Maxwell’s Equations (Time Varying Fields): Faraday’s Law and Transformer emf, Inconsistency of Ampere’s Law and Displacement Current Density, Maxwell’s Equations in Different Final Forms and Word Statements. Conditions at a Boundary Surface : Dielectric-Dielectric and Dielectric-Conductor Interfaces. Illustrative Problems. [1,2] UNIT III: EM Wave Characteristics - I: Wave Equations for Conducting and Perfect Dielectric Media, Uniform Plane Waves – Definition, All Relations Between E & H, Sinusoidal Variations, Wave Propagation in Lossy dielectrics, lossless dielectrics, free space, wave propagation in good conductors, skin depth, Polarization & Types. Illustrative Problems. [1,2,3] UNIT IV: EM Wave Characteristics – II: Reflection and Refraction of Plane Waves – Normal and Oblique Incidences, for both Perfect Conductor and Perfect Dielectrics, Brewster Angle, Critical Angle and Total Internal Reflection, Surface Impedance. Poynting Vector and Poynting Theorem – Applications, Power Loss in a Plane Conductor. Illustrative Problems. [2,3,4] UNIT V: Transmission Lines - I : Types, Parameters, T&π Equivalent Circuits, Transmission Line Equations, Primary & Secondary Constants, Expressions for Characteristic Impedance, Propagation Constant, Phase and Group Velocities, Infinite Line, Lossless lines, distortion less lines, Loading - Types of Loading. Illustrative Problems. [1,7] UNIT VI: Transmission Lines – II : Input Impedance Relations, SC and OC Lines, Reflection Coefficient, VSWR. Low loss radio frequency lines and UHF Transmission lines, UHF Lines as Circuit Elements; Impedance Transformations λ/4, λ /2, λ/8 Lines –. Smith Chart – Construction and Applications, Quarter wave transformer, Stub Matching-single & double, Illustrative Problems. [1,7]

TEXT BOOKS:

Elements of Electromagnetic – Matthew N.O. Sadiku, Oxford Univ. Press, 3rd ed.,2001.

Electromagnetic Waves and Radiating Systems – E.C. Jordan and K.G. Balmain, PHI, 2^{nd} Edition, 2000.

REFERENCEBOOKS:

Electromagnetic Fields and Wave Theory –GSN Raju, Pearson Education2006

AMPLITUDE MODULATION : Introduction to communication system, Need for modulation, Frequency Division Multiplexing , Amplitude Modulation, Definition, Time domain and frequency domain description, single tone modulation, power relations in AM waves, Generation of AM waves, square law Modulator, Switching modulator, Detection of AM Waves; Square law detector, Envelope detector.

UNIT II

DSB & SSB MODULATION : Double side band suppressed carrier modulators, time domain and frequency domain description, Generation of DSBSC Waves, Balanced Modulators, Ring Modulator, Coherent detection of DSB-SC Modulated waves, COSTAS Loop. Frequency domain description, Frequency discrimination method for generation of AM SSB Modulated Wave, Time domain description, Phase discrimination method for generating AM SSB Modulated waves. Demodulation of SSB Waves, Vestigial side band modulation: Frequency description, Generation of VSB Modulated wave, Time domain description, Envelope detection of a VSB Wave pulse Carrier, Comparison of AM Techniques, Applications of different AMSystems.