Electronics and communication engineering

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I Year - II Semester











This course covers the topics related to analysis of various electrical circuits, operation of various electrical machines, various electronic components to perform well in their respective fields.

Learning Objectives:

    • To learn the basic principles of electrical law’s and analysis of networks.

    • To understand the principle of operation and construction details of DC machines.

    • To understand the principle of operation and construction details of transformer.

    • To understand the principle of operation and construction details of alternator and 3-Phase induction motor.

    • To Understand the principles and construction of various measuring instruments.

Unit - I

DC Machines:

Principle of operation of DC generator – emf equation – types of DC machine – torque equation of DC motor – applications – three point starter, speed control methods – OCC of DC generator

Transformers: Principle of operation of single phase transformers – e.m.f equation – losses –efficiency and regulation.

Unit - II

AC Rotating Machines:

Principle of operation of alternators – regulation by synchronous impedance method –principle of operation of 3- Phase induction motor – slip-torque characteristics - efficiency – applications.

Unit III

Measuring Instruments:

Classification – Deflection, controlling, damping torque, ammeter, voltmeter, wattmeter, MI, MC instruments – Energy meter – Construction of CRO.

Learning Outcomes:

    • Able to analyse the various electrical networks.

    • Able to understand the operation of DC generator, DC Motor ,3-point starter and Speed control methods.

    • Able to analyse the performance of transformer.

    • Able to explain the operation of 3-phase alternator and 3-phase induction motors.

    • Able to explain the working principle of various measuring instruments.


Learning Objectives: The content of this course shall provide the student the basic concepts of various mechanical systems and exposes the student to a wide range of equipment and their utility in a practical situation. It shall provide the fundamental principles of fuels, I.C. Engines, transmission systems, heat transfer fundamentals and various manufacturing operations usually exist in any process plant.


Energy Sources: Renewable and non renewable energy resources, renewable energy forms and conversions. Thermodynamic principles and laws.

Internal combustion engines: classification – working principle - engine components. Four stroke and two stroke petrol and diesel engines, comparisons. Performance parameters: IP, BP, FP, SFC, BTE, ITE, ME.


Heat Transfer: Modes of heat transfer- heat transfer parameters, various thermo physical properties. Conduction - heat transfer for extended surfaces, Types of fins, Fin equation for rectangular fin, Fin efficiency, Fin effectiveness. Convection – Mechanism, Natural and Forced Convection. Heat Transfer in laminar and turbulent flow over a flat plate. Radiation heat transfer: Thermal radiation, Blackbody radiation, Radiation intensity, Radiative properties, Basic laws of radiation.


Transmission of power and manufacturing methods:

Belt, rope and chain drives- Different types - power transmission by belts and ropes, initial tensions in the belt. Gears: classification of gears, applications.

Metal joining: arc welding, resistance welding, gas welding, brazing and soldering Metal forming: forging – operations, rolling and extrusion principles

Machine tool: lathe classification, specifications, and operations.


After completing the course, the student shall be able to understand:

      • Working of I.C. Engines

      • Modes of Heat transfer

      • Power transmission by drives and different manufacturing methods.

Text Books:

  1. Electrical Technology by Surinder Pal Bali, Pearson Publications.

  2. Electrical Circuit Theory and Technology by John Bird, Routledge Taylor &Francis Group

  3. Mechanical Engineering Science K R Gopala Krishna, Subhas publications

  4. Elements of Mechanical Engineering, M.L. Mathur, F.S.Metha & R.P.Tiwari Jain Brothers Publs., 2009.

  5. Heat transfer by P.K. Nag, Tata McGraw-Hill

Reference Books:

  1. Basic Electrical Engineering by M.S.Naidu and S.Kamakshiah, TMH Publications

  2. Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering by Rajendra Prasad, PHI Publications, 2nd edition

  3. Basic Electrical Engineering by Nagsarkar, Sukhija, Oxford Publications, 2nd edition

  4. Electrical Engineering – Prasad, Sivanagaraju, Cengage Learning

  5. Theory of machines by Rattan McGraw-Hill publications

  6. Production Technology by P.N.Rao by I & II McGraw-Hill publications

I Year - II Semester



4 0 0 3

Course Learning Objectives:

The objectives of the course is to impart

    • Overall understanding of the natural resources

    • Basic understanding of the ecosystem and its diversity

    • Acquaintance on various environmental challenges induced due to unplanned anthropogenic activities

    • An understanding of the environmental impact of developmental activities

    • Awareness on the social issues, environmental legislation and global treaties

Course Outcomes:

The student should have knowledge on

    • The natural resources and their importance for the sustenance of the life and recognize the need to conserve the natural resources

    • The concepts of the ecosystem and its function in the environment. The need for protecting the producers and consumers in various ecosystems and their role in the food web

    • The biodiversity of India and the threats to biodiversity, and conservation practices to protect the biodiversity

    • Various attributes of the pollution and their impacts and measures to reduce or control the pollution along with waste management practices

    • Social issues both rural and urban environment and the possible means to combat the challenges

    • The environmental legislations of India and the first global initiatives towards sustainable development.

    • About environmental assessment and the stages involved in EIA and the environmental audit.

    • Self Sustaining Green Campus with Environment Friendly aspect of – Energy, Water and Wastewater reuse Plantation, Rain water Harvesting, Parking Curriculum.


UNIT – I Multidisciplinary nature of Environmental Studies: Definition, Scope and Importance –Sustainability: Stockholm and Rio Summit–Global Environmental Challenges: Global warming and climate change, Carbon Credits, acid rains, ozone layer depletion, population growth and explosion, effects. Role of information Technology in Environment and human health.

Ecosystems: Concept of an ecosystem. - Structure and function of an ecosystem. - Producers, consumers and decomposers. - Energy flow in the ecosystem - Ecological succession. - Food chains, food webs and ecological pyramids. - Introduction, types, characteristic features, structure and function of Forest ecosystem, Grassland ecosystem, Desert ecosystem, Aquatic ecosystems.

UNIT – II Natural Resources: Natural resources and associated problems
Forest resources – Use and over – exploitation, deforestation – Timber extraction – Mining, dams and other effects on forest and tribal people

Water resources – Use and over utilization of surface and ground water – Floods, drought, conflicts over water, dams – benefits and problems

Mineral resources: Use and exploitation, environmental effects of extracting and using mineral resources, Sustainable mining of Granite, Literate, Coal, Sea and River sands.

Food resources: World food problems, changes caused by non-agriculture activities-effects of modern agriculture, fertilizer-pesticide problems, water logging, salinity

Energy resources: Growing energy needs, renewable and non-renewable energy sources use of alternate energy sources Vs Oil and Natural Gas Extraction.

Land resources: Land as a resource, land degradation, Wasteland reclamation, man induced landslides, soil erosion and desertification. Role of an individual in conservation of natural resources. Equitable use of resources for sustainable lifestyles.

UNIT – III Biodiversity and its conservation: Definition: genetic, species and ecosystem diversity- classification

- Value of biodiversity: consumptive use, productive use, social-Biodiversity at national and local levels. India as a mega-diversity nation - Hot-spots of biodiversity - Threats to biodiversity: habitat loss, man-wildlife conflicts - Endangered and endemic species of India – Conservation of biodiversity: conservation of biodiversity.

UNIT – IV Environmental Pollution: Definition, Cause, effects and control measures of Air pollution, Water pollution, Soil pollution, Noise pollution, Nuclear hazards. Role of an individual in prevention of pollution. - Pollution case studies, Sustainable Life Studies.

Solid Waste Management: Sources, Classification, effects and control measures of urban and industrial solid wastes. Consumerism and waste products, Biomedical, Hazardous and e – waste management.
UNIT – V Social Issues and the Environment: Urban problems related to energy -Water conservation, rain water harvesting-Resettlement and rehabilitation of people; its problems and concerns. Environmental ethics: Issues and possible solutions. Environmental Protection Act -Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act. –Water (Prevention and control of Pollution) Act -Wildlife Protection Act -Forest Conservation Act-Issues involved in enforcement of environmental legislation. -Public awareness.
UNIT – VI Environmental Management: Impact Assessment and its significance various stages of EIA, preparation of EMP and EIS, Environmental audit. Ecotourism, Green Campus – Green business and Green politics.

The student should Visit an Industry/Ecosystem and submit a report individually on any issues related to Environmental Studies course and make a power point presentation.

Text Books:

  1. Environmental Studies, K.V. S. G. Murali Krishna, VGS Publishers, Vijayawada

  2. Environmental Studies , R. Rajagopalan, 2nd Edition, 2011, Oxford University Press.

  3. Environmental Studies, P.N. Palanisamy, P. Manikandan, A. Geetha, and K. Manjula Rani; Pearson Education, Chennai


  1. Text Book of Environmental Studies, Deeshita Dave & P. Udaya Bhaskar, Cengage Learning.

  2. A Textbook of Environmental Studies, Shaashi Chawla, TMH, New Delhi

  3. Environmental Studies, Benny Joseph, Tata McGraw Hill Co, New Delhi

  4. “Perspectives in Environment Studies” Anubha Kaushik, C P Kaushik, New Age International Publishers, 2014

I Year - II Semester



4 0 0 3


  • To be familiar with basic techniques handling problems with Data structures

  • Solve problems using data structures such as linear lists, stacks, queues, hash tables


Abstract Data Type, The Array as an Abstract Data Type, The Polynomial Abstract Data type-Polynomial Representation- Polynomial Addition. Spares Matrices, Introduction- Sparse Matrix Representation- Transposing a Matrix- Matrix Multiplication, Representation of Arrays.


The Stack Abstract Data Type, The Queue Abstract Data Type, Evaluation of Expressions, Expression- Postfix Notation- Infix to Postfix.


Single Linked List and Chains, Circular Lists, Available Space Lists, Linked Stacks and Queues, Polynomials, Polynomial Representation- Adding Polynomials- Circular List Representation of Polynomials, Equivalence Classes, Sparse Matrices, Sparse Matrix Representation- Sparse Matrix Input- Deleting a Sparse Matrix, Doubly Linked Lists, Generalized Lists, Representation of Generalized Lists- Recursive Algorithms for Lists- Reference Counts, Shared and Recursive Lists


Representation of Trees, Binary Trees, The Abstract Data Type, Properties of Binary Tress, Binary Tree Representations, Binary Tree Traversal, Introduction, Inorder Traversal Preorder Traversal, Postorder Traversal, Thread Binary Trees, Threads, Inorder Traversal of a Threaded Binary Tree, Inserting a Node into a Threaded Binary Tree, Heaps, Priority Queues, Definition of a Max Heap, Insertion into a Max Heap, Deletion from a Max Heap, Binary Search Trees, Definition, Searching a Binary Search Tree, Insertion into a Binary Search Tree, Deletion from a Binary Search Tree, Height of Binary Search Tree.


The Graph Abstract Data Type, Introduction, Definition, Graph Representation, Elementary Graph Operation, Depth First Search, Breadth First Search, Connected Components, Spanning Trees, Biconnected Components, Minimum Cost Spanning Trees, Kruskal S Algorithm, Prim s Algorithm, Sollin’s Algorithm, Shortest Paths and Transitive Closure, Single Source/All Destination: Nonnegative Edge Cost, Single Source/All Destination: General Weights, All-Pairs Shortest Path, Transitive Closure.


Insertion Sort, Quick Sort, Merge Sort Merging, Iterative Merge Sort, Recursive Merge Sort, Heap Sort, Summary of Internal Sorting


    • Apply advanced data structure strategies for exploring complex data structures.

    • Compare and contrast various data structures and design techniques in the area Of Performance.

    • Implement all data structures like stacks, queues, trees, lists and graphs and compare their Performance and trade offs

Text Books:

  1. Data structures, Algorithms and Applications in C++, S.Sahni, University Press (India) Pvt.Ltd, 2nd edition, Universities Press Orient Longman Pvt. Ltd.

  2. Data structures and Algorithm Analysis in C++, Mark Allen Weiss, Pearson Education. Ltd., Second Edition.

  3. Data structures and algorithms in C++, 3rd Edition, Adam Drozdek, Thomson□

Reference Books:

  1. Data structures and Algorithm Analysis in C++, Mark Allen Weiss, Pearson Education. Ltd., Second Edition.□

  2. Data structures using C and C++, Langsam, Augenstein and Tanenbaum, PHI.□

  3. Problem solving with C++, The OOP, Fourth edition, W.Savitch, Pearson education.

I Year - II Semester










  1. Introduction to Chemistry laboratory – Molarity, Normality, Primary, secondary standard solutions, Volumetric titrations, Quantitative analysis, Qualitative analysis, etc.

  1. Trial experiment - Determination of HCl using standard Na2CO3 solution.

  1. Determination of alkalinity of a sample containing Na2CO3 and NaOH.

  1. Determination of KMnO4 using standard Oxalic acid solution.

  1. Determination of Ferrous iron using standard K2Cr2O7 solution.

  1. Determination of Copper using standard K2Cr2O7 solution.

  1. Determination of temporary and permanent hardness of water using standard EDTA solution.

  1. Determination of Copper using standard EDTA solution.

  1. Determination of Iron by a Colorimetric method using thiocynate as reagent.

  1. Determination of pH of the given sample solution using pH meter.

  1. Conductometric titration between strong acid and strong base.

  1. Conductometric titration between strong acid and weak base.

  1. Potentiometric titration between strong acid and strong base.

  1. Potentiometric titration between strong acid and weak base.

  1. Determination of Zinc using standard EDTA solution.

  1. Determination of Vitamin – C.

Outcomes: The students entering into the professional course have practically very little exposure to lab classes. The experiments introduce volumetric analysis; redox titrations with different indicators; EDTA titrations; then they are exposed to a few instrumental methods of chemical analysis. Thus at the end of the lab course, the student is exposed to different methods of chemical analysis and use of some commonly employed instruments. They thus acquire some experimental skills.

Reference Books

  1. A Textbook of Quantitative Analysis, Arthur J. Vogel.

  2. Dr. Jyotsna Cherukuris (2012) Laboratory Manual of engineering chemistry-II, VGS Techno Series

  3. Chemistry Practical Manual, Lorven Publications K. Mukkanti (2009) Practical Engineering Chemistry,

B.S. Publication.

I Year - II Semester


0 0 3 2


'INTERACT: English Lab Manual for Undergraduate Students' Published by Orient Blackswan Pvt Ltd. OBJECTIVES:

To enable the students to learn demonstratively the communication skills of listening, speaking, reading and writing.


A study of the communicative items in the laboratory will help the students become successful in the competitive world.

The course content along with the study material is divided into six units.


1. Debating - Practice work


1. Group Discussions -- Practice work


1. Presentation Skills - Practice work


1. Interview Skills - Practice work


1. Email, Curriculum Vitae - Practice work


  1. Idiomatic Expressions

  2. Common Errors in English - Practice work

Reference Books:

  1. Strengthen your communication skills by Dr M Hari Prasad, Dr Salivendra Raju and Dr G Suvarna Lakshmi, Maruti Publications.

  2. English for Professionals by Prof Eliah, B.S Publications, Hyderabad.

  3. Unlock, Listening and speaking skills 2, Cambridge University Press

  4. Spring Board to Success, Orient BlackSwan

  5. A Practical Course in effective english speaking skills, PHI

  6. Word power made handy, Dr shalini verma, Schand Company

  7. Let us hear them speak, Jayashree Mohanraj, Sage texts

  8. Professional Communication, Aruna Koneru, Mc Grawhill Education

  9. Cornerstone, Developing soft skills, Pearson Education

  1. Year - II Semester



0 0 3 2


  • Understand the basic concept of C Programming, and its different modules that includes conditional and looping expressions, Arrays, Strings, Functions, Pointers, Structures and File programming.

  • Acquire knowledge about the basic concept of writing a program.

  • Role of constants, variables, identifiers, operators, type conversion and other building blocks of C Language.

  • Use of conditional expressions and looping statements to solve problems associated with conditions and repetitions.

  • Role of Functions involving the idea of modularity.

Programming Exercise - 1 Basics

    1. What is an OS Command, Familiarization of Editors - vi, Emacs

    2. Using commands like mkdir, ls, cp, mv, cat, pwd, and man

    3. C Program to Perform Adding, Subtraction, Multiplication and Division of two numbers From Command line

Exercise - 2 Basic Math

  1. Write a C Program to Simulate 3 Laws at Motion

  2. Write a C Program to convert Celsius to Fahrenheit and vice versa

Exercise - 3 Control Flow - I

a)Write a C Program to Find Whether the Given Year is a Leap Year or not. b)Write a C Program to Add Digits & Multiplication of a number

Exercise – 4 Control Flow - II

  1. Write a C Program to Find Whether the Given Number is

    1. Prime Number

    2. Armstrong Number

  2. Write a C program to print Floyd Triangle

  3. Write a C Program to print Pascal Triangle

Exercise – 5 Functions

  1. Write a C Program demonstrating of parameter passing in Functions and returning values.

  2. Write a C Program illustrating Fibonacci, Factorial with Recursion without Recursion

Exercise – 6 Control Flow - III

  1. Write a C Program to make a simple Calculator to Add, Subtract, Multiply or Divide Using switch…case

  2. Write a C Program to convert decimal to binary and hex (using switch call function the function)

Exercise – 7 Functions - Continued

Write a C Program to compute the values ofsin x and cos x and e^x values using Series expansion. (use factorial function)

Exercise – 8 Arrays Demonstration of arrays

  1. Search-Linear.

  2. Sorting-Bubble, Selection.

  3. Operations on Matrix.

Exercises - 9 Structures

  1. Write a C Program to Store Information of a Movie Using Structure

  2. Write a C Program to Store Information Using Structures with Dynamically Memory Allocation

  3. Write a C Program to Add Two Complex Numbers by Passing Structure to a Function

Exercise - 10 Arrays and Pointers

  1. Write a C Program to Access Elements of an Array Using Pointer

  2. Write a C Program to find the sum of numbers with arrays and pointers.

Exercise – 11 Dynamic Memory Allocations

  1. Write a C program to find sum of n elements entered by user. To perform this program, allocate memory dynamically using malloc () function.

  1. Write a C program to find sum of n elements entered by user. To perform this program, allocate memory dynamically using calloc () function.

Understand the difference between the above two programs

Exercise – 12 Strings

  1. Implementation of string manipulation operations with library function.

    1. copy

    2. concatenate

    3. length

    4. compare

  2. Implementation of string manipulation operations without library function.

    1. copy

    2. concatenate

    3. length

    4. compare

Exercise -13 Files

a)Write a C programming code to open a file and to print it contents on screen. b)Write a C program to copy files

Exercise - 14 Files Continued

a) Write a C program merges two files and stores their contents in another file. b)Write a C program to delete a file.


  • Apply and practice logical ability to solve the problems.

  • Understand C programming development environment, compiling, debugging, and linking and executing a program using the development environment

  • Analyzing the complexity of problems, Modularize the problems into small modules and then convert them into programs

  • Understand and apply the in-built functions and customized functions for solving the problems.

  • Understand and apply the pointers, memory allocation techniques and use of files for dealing with variety of problems.

  • Document and present the algorithms, flowcharts and programs in form of user-manuals

  • Identification of various computer components, Installation of software


  1. All the Programs must be executed in the Linux Environment. (Mandatory)

  2. The Lab record must be a print of the LATEX (.tex) Format.

  1. Year - I Semester



4 0 0 3

The main objectives of this course are:

  • The basic concepts of semiconductor physics are to be reviewed.

  • Study the physical phenomena such as conduction, transport mechanism and electrical characteristics of different diodes.

  • The application of diodes as rectifiers with their operation and characteristics with and without filters are discussed.

  • The principal of working and operation of Bipolar Junction Transistor and Field Effect Transistor and their characteristics are explained.

  • The need of transistor biasing and its significance is explained. The quiescent point or operating point is explained.

  • Small signal equivalent circuit analysis of BJT and FET transistor amplifiers in different configuration is explained.


UNIT-I:Semi Conductor Physics : Insulators, Semi conductors, and Metals classification using energy band diagrams, mobility and conductivity, electrons and holes in intrinsic semi conductors, extrinsic semi conductors, drift and diffusion, charge densities in semiconductors, Hall effect, continuity equation, law of junction, Fermi Dirac function, Fermi level in intrinsic and extrinsic Semiconductors

UNIT- II: Junction Diode Characteristics : Open circuited p-n junction, Biased p-n junction, p-n junction diode, current components in PN junction Diode, diode equation, V-I Characteristics, temperature dependence on V-I characteristics, Diode resistance, Diode capacitance, energy band diagram of PN junction Diode.

Special Semiconductor Diodes: Zener Diode, Breakdown mechanisms, Zener diode applications, LED, Photo diode, Tunnel Diode, SCR, UJT. Construction, operation and characteristics of all the diodes are required to be considered.

UNIT- III: Rectifiers and Filters: Basic Rectifier setup, half wave rectifier, full wave rectifier, bridge rectifier, derivations of characteristics of rectifiers, rectifier circuits-operation, input and output waveforms, Filters, Inductor filter, Capacitor filter, comparison of various filter circuits in terms of ripple factors.

UNIT- IV: Transistor Characteristics:

BJT: Junction transistor, transistor current components, transistor equation, transistor configurations, transistor as an amplifier, characteristics of transistor in Common Base, Common Emitter and Common Collector configurations, Ebers-Moll model of a transistor, punch through/ reach through, Photo transistor, typical transistor junction voltage values.

FET: FET types, construction, operation, characteristics, parameters, MOSFET-types, construction, operation, characteristics, comparison between JFET and MOSFET.

UNIT- V: Transistor Biasing and Thermal Stabilization : Need for biasing, operating point, load line analysis, BJT biasing- methods, basic stability, fixed bias, collector to base bias, self bias, Stabilization against variations in VBE, Ic, and β, Stability factors, (S, S', S'’), Bias compensation, Thermal runaway, Thermal stability.

FET Biasing- methods and stabilization.

UNIT- VI: Small Signal Low Frequency Transistor Amplifier Models:

BJT: Two port network, Transistor hybrid model, determination of h-parameters, conversion of h-parameters, generalized analysis of transistor amplifier model using h-parameters, Analysis of CB, CE and CC amplifiers using exact and approximate analysis, Comparison of transistor amplifiers.

FET: Generalized analysis of small signal model, Analysis of CG, CS and CD amplifiers, comparison of FET amplifiers.

Text Books:

  1. Electronic Devices and Circuits- J. Millman, C. Halkias, Tata Mc-Graw Hill, Second Edition.

  2. Integrated Electronics- Jacob Millman, C. Halkies, C.D.Parikh, Tata Mc-Graw Hill, 2009.


  1. Electronic Devices and Circuits-K. Satya Prasad, VGS Book Links.

  2. Electronic Devices and Circuits-Salivahanan, Kumar, Vallavaraj, Tata Mc-Graw Hill, Second Edition

  3. Electronic Devices and Circuits – Bell, Oxford


At the end of this course the student can able to:

    • Understand the basic concepts of semiconductor physics.

    • Understand the formation of p-n junction and how it can be used as a p-n junction as diode in different modes of operation.

    • Know the construction, working principle of rectifiers with and without filters with relevant expressions and necessary comparisons.

    • Understand the construction, principle of operation of transistors, BJT and FET with their V-I characteristics in different configurations.

    • Know the need of transistor biasing, various biasing techniques for BJT and FET and stabilization concepts with necessary expressions.

    • Perform the analysis of small signal low frequency transistor amplifier circuits using BJT and FET in different configurations.

II Year - I Semester











  1. Representation of numbers of different radix, conversation from one radix to another radix, r-1’s compliments and r’s compliments of signed members, problem solving.

  2. 4 bit codes, BCD, Excess-3, 2421, 84-2-1 9’s compliment code etc.,

  3. Logic operations and error detection & correction codes; Basic logic operations -NOT, OR, AND, Universal building blocks, EX-OR, EX-NOR - Gates, Standard SOP and POS, Forms, Gray code, error detection, error correction codes (parity checking, even parity, odd parity, Hamming code) NAND-NAND and NOR-NOR realizations.


Boolean theorems, principle of complementation & duality, De-morgan theorems, minimization of logic functions using Boolean theorems, minimization of switching functions using K-Map up to 6 variables, tabular minimization, problem solving (code-converters using K-Map etc..).


Design of Half adder, full adder, half subtractor, full subtractor, applications of full adders, 4-bit binary subtractor, adder-subtractor circuit, BCD adder circuit, Excess 3 adder circuit, look-a-head adder circuit, Design of decoder, demultiplexer, 7 segment decoder, higher order demultiplexing, encoder, multiplexer, higher order multiplexing, realization of Boolean functions using decoders and multiplexers, priority encoder, 4-bit digital comparator.


PROM, PAL, PLA-Basics structures, realization of Boolean function with PLDs, programming tables of PLDs, merits & demerits of PROM, PAL, PLA comparison, realization of Boolean functions using PROM, PAL, PLA, programming tables of PROM, PAL, PLA.


Classification of sequential circuits (synchronous and asynchronous); basic flip-flops, truth tables and excitation tables (nand RS latch, nor RS latch, RS flip-flop, JK flip-flop, T flip-flop, D flip-flop with reset and clear terminals). Conversion from one flip-flop to flip-flop. Design of ripple counters, design of synchronous counters, Johnson counter, ring counter. Design of registers - Buffer register, control buffer register, shift register, bi-directional shift register, universal shift register.


Finite state machine; Analysis of clocked sequential circuits, state diagrams, state tables, reduction of state tables and state assignment, design procedures. Realization of circuits using various flip-flops. Meelay to Moore conversion and vice-versa.


  1. Switching Theory and Logic Design by Hill and Peterson Mc-Graw Hill TMH edition.

  2. Switching Theory and Logic Design by A. Anand Kumar

  3. Digital Design by Mano PHI.


  1. Modern Digital Electronics by RP Jain, TMH

  2. Fundamentals of Logic Design by Charles H. Roth Jr, Jaico Publishers

  3. Micro electronics by Milliman MH edition.

II Year - I Semester



4 0 0 3

The main objectives of this course are given below:

    • To introduce the terminology of signals and systems.

    • To introduce Fourier tools through the analogy between vectors and signals.

    • To introduce the concept of sampling and reconstruction of signals.

    • To analyze the linear systems in time and frequency domains.

    • To study z-transform as mathematical tool to analyze discrete-time signals and systems.

UNIT- I: INTRODUCTION: Definition of Signals and Systems, Classification of Signals, Classification of Systems, Operations on signals: time-shifting, time-scaling, amplitude-shifting, amplitude-scaling. Problems on classification and characteristics of Signals and Systems. Complex exponential and sinusoidal signals, Singularity functions and related functions: impulse function, step function signum function and ramp function. Analogy between vectors and signals, orthogonal signal space, Signal approximation using orthogonal functions, Mean square error, closed or complete set of orthogonal functions, Orthogonality in complex functions.


Fourier series representation of continuous time periodic signals, properties of Fourier series, Dirichlet’s conditions, Trigonometric Fourier series and Exponential Fourier series, Complex Fourier spectrum. Deriving Fourier transform from Fourier series, Fourier transform of arbitrary signal, Fourier transform of standard signals, Fourier transform of periodic signals, properties of Fourier transforms, Fourier transforms involving impulse function and Signum function. Introduction to Hilbert Transform.
UNIT –III: SAMPLING THEOREM – Graphical and analytical proof for Band Limited Signals, impulse sampling, Natural and Flat top Sampling, Reconstruction of signal from its samples, effect of under sampling – Aliasing, Introduction to Band Pass sampling.
UNIT-IV: ANALYSIS OF LINEAR SYSTEMS: Linear system, impulse response, Response of a linear system, Linear time invariant (LTI) system, Linear time variant (LTV) system, Concept of convolution in time domain and frequency domain, Graphical representation of convolution, Transfer function of a LTI system. Filter characteristics of linear systems. Distortion less transmission through a system, Signal bandwidth, system bandwidth, Ideal LPF, HPF and BPF characteristics, Causality and Poly-Wiener criterion for physical realization, relationship between bandwidth and rise time.
Cross-correlation and auto-correlation of functions, properties of correlation function, Energy density spectrum, Parseval’s theorem, Power density spectrum, Relation between auto correlation function and energy/power spectral density function. Relation between convolution and correlation, Detection of periodic signals in the presence of noise by correlation, Extraction of signal from noise by filtering.
UNIT –V: LAPLACE TRANSFORMS : Review of Laplace transforms, Partial fraction expansion, Inverse Laplace transform, Concept of region of convergence (ROC) for Laplace transforms, constraints on ROC for various classes of signals, Properties of L.T’s, Relation between L.T’s, and F.T. of a signal. Laplace transform of certain signals using waveform synthesis.

UNIT –VI: Z–TRANSFORMS : Fundamental difference between continuous-time and discrete-time signals, discrete time signal representation using complex exponential and sinusoidal components, Periodicity of discrete time using complex exponential signal, Concept of Z- Transform of a discrete sequence. Distinction between Laplace, Fourier and Z transforms. Region of convergence in

    1. ransform, constraints on ROC for various classes of signals, Inverse Z-transform, properties of Z-transforms.


      1. Signals, Systems & Communications - B.P. Lathi, BS Publications, 2003.

      2. Signals and Systems - A.V. Oppenheim, A.S. Willsky and S.H. Nawab, PHI, 2nd Edn.

      3. Signals & Systems- Narayan Iyer and K Satya Prasad, Cenage Pub.


  1. Signals & Systems - Simon Haykin and Van Veen, Wiley, 2nd Edition.

  2. Principles of Linear Systems and Signals – BP Lathi, Oxford University Press, 2015

  3. Signals and Systems – K Raja Rajeswari, B VisweswaraRao, PHI, 2009

  4. Fundamentals of Signals and Systems- Michel J. Robert, MGH International Edition, 2008.

  5. Signals and Systems – T K Rawat , Oxford University press, 2011


At the end of this course the student will able to:

    • Characterize the signals and systems and principles of vector spaces, Concept of orthgonality.

    • Analyze the continuous-time signals and continuous-time systems using Fourier series, Fourier transform and Laplace transform.

    • Apply sampling theorem to convert continuous-time signals to discrete-time signal and reconstruct back.

    • Understand the relationships among the various representations of LTI systems

    • Understand the Concepts of convolution, correlation, Energy and Power density spectrum and their relationships.

    • Apply z-transform to analyze discrete-time signals and systems.

II Year - I Semester



4 0 0 3


Introduction to Electrical Circuits : Network elements classification, Electric charge and current, Electric energy and potential, Resistance parameter – series and parallel combination, Inductance parameter – series and parallel combination, Capacitance parameter – series and parallel combination. Energy sources: Ideal, Non-ideal, Independent and dependent sources, Source transformation, Kirchoff’s laws, Mesh analysis and Nodal analysis problem solving with resistances only including dependent sources also. (Text Books: 1,2,3, Reference Books: 3)

    1. Fundamentals and Network Topology: Definitions of terms associated with periodic functions: Time period, Angular velocity and frequency, RMS value, Average value, Form factor and peak factor- problem solving, Phase angle, Phasor representation, Addition and subtraction of phasors, mathematical representation of sinusoidal quantities, explanation with relevant theory, problem solving. Principal of Duality with examples.

Network Topology: Definitions of branch, node, tree, planar, non-planar graph, incidence matrix, basic tie set schedule, basic cut set schedule. (Text Books: 2,3, Reference Books: 3)


Steady State Analysis of A.C Circuits : Response to sinusoidal excitation - pure resistance, pure inductance, pure capacitance, impedance concept, phase angle, series R-L, R-C, R-L-C circuits problem solving. Complex impedance and phasor notation for R-L, R-C, R-L-C problem solving using mesh and nodal analysis, Star-Delta conversion, problem solving. (Text Books: 1,2, Reference Books: 3)


Coupled Circuits : Coupled Circuits: Self inductance, Mutual inductance, Coefficient of coupling, analysis of coupled circuits, Natural current, Dot rule of coupled circuits, Conductively coupled equivalent circuits- problem solving.

Resonance: Introduction, Definition of Q, Series resonance, Bandwidth of series resonance, Parallel resonance, Condition for maximum impedance, current in anti resonance, Bandwidth of parallel resonance, general case- resistance present in both branches, anti resonance at all frequencies. (Text Books:2,3, Reference Books: 3)


Network Theorems: Thevinin’s, Norton’s, Milliman’s, Reciprocity, Compensation, Substitution, Superposition, Max Power Transfer, Tellegens- problem solving using dependent sources also. (Text Books: 1,2,3, Reference Books: 2)


Two-port networks : Relationship of two port networks, Z-parameters, Y-parameters, Transmission line parameters, h-parameters, Inverse h-parameters, Inverse Transmission line parameters, Relationship between parameter sets, Parallel connection of two port networks, Cascading of two port networks, series connection of two port networks, problem solving including dependent sources also. (Text Books: 1,2, Reference Books: 1,3)


Transients : First order differential equations, Definition of time constants, R-L circuit, R-C circuit with DC excitation, Evaluating initial conditions procedure, second order differential equations, homogeneous, non- homogenous, problem solving using R-L-C elements with DC excitation and AC excitation, Response as related to s-plane rotation of roots. Solutions using Laplace transform method. (Text Books: 1,2,3, Reference Books: 1,3)


      1. Network Analysis – ME Van Valkenburg, Prentice Hall of India, 3rd Edition, 2000.

      2. Network Analysis by K.Satya Prasad and S Sivanagaraju, Cengage Learning

      3. Electric Circuit Analysis by Hayt and Kimmarle, TMH


  1. Network lines and Fields by John. D. Ryder 2nd edition, Asia publishing house.

  2. Basic Circuit Analysis by DR Cunninghan, Jaico Publishers.

  3. Network Analysis and Filter Design by Chadha, Umesh Publications.


  1. To understand the basic concepts on RLC circuits.

  2. To know the behavior of the steady states and transients states in RLC circuits.

  3. To know the basic Laplace transforms techniques in periods’ waveforms.

  4. To understand the two port network parameters.

  5. To understand the properties of LC networks and filters.


  1. gain the knowledge on basic network elements.

  2. will analyze the RLC circuits behavior in detailed.

  3. analyze the performance of periodic waveforms.

  4. gain the knowledge in characteristics of two port network parameters (Z, Y, ABCD, h & g).

  5. analyze the filter design concepts in real world applications.

II Year - I Semester


4 0 0 3



  • To give students an introduction to elementary probability theory, in preparation for courses on statistical analysis, random variables and stochastic processes.

  • To mathematically model the random phenomena with the help of probability theory concepts.

  • To introduce the important concepts of random variables and stochastic processes.

  • To analyze the LTI systems with stationary random process as input.

  • To introduce the types of noise and modelling noise sources.


THE RANDOM VARIABLE : Introduction, Review of Probability Theory, Definition of a Random Variable, Conditions for a Function to be a Random Variable, Discrete, Continuous and Mixed Random Variables, Distribution and Density functions, Properties, Binomial, Poisson, Uniform, Gaussian, Exponential, Rayleigh, Conditional Distribution, Conditional Density, Properties.


OPERATION ON ONE RANDOM VARIABLE – EXPECTATIONS : Introduction, Expected Value of a Random Variable, Function of a Random Variable, Moments about the Origin, Central Moments, Variance and Skew, Chebychev’s Inequality, Characteristic Function, Moment Generating Function, Transformations of a Random Variable: Monotonic Transformations for a Continuous Random Variable, Nonmonotonic Transformations of Continuous Random Variable.


MULTIPLE RANDOM VARIABLES : Vector Random Variables, Joint Distribution Function, Properties of Joint Distribution, Marginal Distribution Functions, Conditional Distribution and Density, Statistical Independence, Sum of Two Random Variables, Sum of Several Random Variables, Central Limit Theorem: Unequal Distribution, Equal Distributions.

OPERATIONS ON MULTIPLE RANDOM VARIABLES: Joint Moments about the Origin, Joint Central Moments, Joint Characteristic Functions, Jointly Gaussian Random Variables: Two Random Variables case, N Random Variables case, Properties, Transformations of Multiple Random Variables, Linear Transformations of Gaussian Random Variables.


RANDOM PROCESSES – TEMPORAL CHARACTERISTICS: The Random Process Concept, Classification of Processes, Deterministic and Nondeterministic Processes, Distribution and Density Functions, Concept of Stationarity and Statistical Independence. First-Order Stationary Processes, Second-order and Wide-Sense Stationarity, Nth-order and Strict-Sense Stationarity, Time Averages and Ergodicity, Autocorrelation Function and its Properties, Cross-Correlation Function and its Properties, Covariance Functions, Gaussian Random Processes, Poisson Random Process.


RANDOM PROCESSES – SPECTRAL CHARACTERISTICS: The Power Density Spectrum: Properties, Relationship between Power Density Spectrum and Autocorrelation Function, The Cross-Power Density Spectrum, Properties, Relationship between Cross-Power Density Spectrum and Cross-Correlation Function.


LINEAR SYSTEMS WITH RANDOM INPUTS : Random Signal Response of Linear Systems: System Response – Convolution, Mean and Mean-squared Value of System Response, Autocorrelation Function of Response, Cross-Correlation Functions of Input and Output, Spectral Characteristics of System Response: Power Density Spectrum of Response, Cross-Power Density Spectra of Input and Output, Band pass, Band-Limited and Narrowband Processes, Properties, Modeling of Noise Sources: Resistive (Thermal) Noise Source, Arbitrary Noise Sources, Effective Noise Temperature, Average Noise Figure, Average Noise Figure of cascaded networks.


  1. Probability, Random Variables & Random Signal Principles, Peyton Z. Peebles, TMH, 4th Edition, 2001.

  2. Probability, Random Variables and Stochastic Processes, Athanasios Papoulis and S.Unnikrisha, PHI, 4th Edition, 2002.


  1. Probability Theory and Stochastic Processes – B. Prabhakara Rao, BS Publications

  2. Probability and Random Processes with Applications to Signal Processing, Henry Stark and John W. Woods, Pearson Education, 3rd Edition.

  3. Schaum's Outline of Probability, Random Variables, and Random Processes.

  4. An Introduction to Random Signals and Communication Theory, B.P. Lathi, International Textbook, 1968.

  5. Random Process – Ludeman , John Wiley

  6. Probability Theory and Random Processes, P. Ramesh Babu, McGrawHill, 2015.


After completion of the course, the student will be able to

    • Mathematically model the random phenomena and solve simple probabilistic problems.

    • Identify different types of random variables and compute statistical averages of these random variables.

    • Characterize the random processes in the time and frequency domains.

    • Analyze the LTI systems with random inputs.

    • Apply these techniques to analyze the systems in the presence of different types of noise.

II Year - I Semester


4 0 0 3


  • Course Objectives:

(Common to all Branches)

  • The Learning objectives of this paper is to understand the concept and nature of Managerial Economics and its relationship with other disciplines and also to understand the Concept of Demand and Demand forecasting, Production function, Input Output relationship, Cost-Output relationship and Cost-Volume-Profit Analysis.

  • To understand the nature of markets, Methods of Pricing in the different market structures and to know the different forms of Business organization and the concept of Business Cycles.

  • To learn different Accounting Systems, preparation of Financial Statement and uses of different tools for performance evaluation. Finally, it is also to understand the concept of Capital, Capital Budgeting and the techniques used to evaluate Capital Budgeting proposals.


Introduction to Managerial Economics and demand Analysis:

Definition of Managerial Economics –Scope of Managerial Economics and its relationship with other subjects – Concept of Demand, Types of Demand, Determinants of Demand- Demand schedule, Demand curve, Law of Demand and its limitations- Elasticity of Demand, Types of Elasticity of Demand and Measurement- Demand forecasting and Methods of forecasting..


Production and Cost Analyses:

Concept of Production function- Cobb-Douglas Production function- Leontief production function - Law of Variable proportions-Isoquants and Isocosts and choice of least cost factor combination-Concepts of Returns to scale and Economies of scale-Different cost concepts: opportunity costs, explicit and implicit costs- Fixed costs, Variable Costs and Total costs –Cost –Volume-Profit analysis-Determination of Breakeven point(simple problems)- Managerial significance and limitations of Breakeven point.


Introduction to Markets, Theories of the Firm & Pricing Policies:

Market Structures: Perfect Competition, Monopoly, Monopolistic competition and Oligopoly – Features – Price and Output Determination – Managerial Theories of firm: Marris and Williamson’s models – other Methods of Pricing: Average cost pricing, Limit Pricing, Market Skimming Pricing, Internet Pricing: Flat Rate Pricing, Usage sensitive pricing and Priority Pricing.


Types of Business Organization and Business Cycles:

Features and Evaluation of Sole Trader, Partnership, Joint Stock Company – State/Public Enterprises and their forms – Business Cycles : Meaning and Features – Phases of Business Cycle.


Introduction to Accounting & Financing Analysis:

Introduction to Double Entry Systems – Preparation of Financial Statements-Analysis and Interpretation of Financial Statements-Ratio Analysis – Preparation of Funds flow and cash flow statements (Simple Problems)


Capital and Capital Budgeting: Capital Budgeting: Meaning of Capital-Capitalization-Meaning of Capital Budgeting-Time value of money- Methods of appraising Project profitability: Traditional Methods(pay back period, accounting rate of return) and modern methods(Discounted cash flow method, Net Present Value method, Internal Rate of Return Method and Profitability Index)

Course Outcome:

*The Learner is equipped with the knowledge of estimating the Demand and demand elasticities for a product and the knowledge of understanding of the Input-Output-Cost relationships and estimation of the least cost combination of inputs.

* One is also ready to understand the nature of different markets and Price Output determination under various market conditions and also to have the knowledge of different Business Units.

*The Learner is able to prepare Financial Statements and the usage of various Accounting tools for Analysis and to evaluate various investment project proposals with the help of capital budgeting techniques for decision making.


  1. Dr. N. AppaRao, Dr. P. Vijay Kumar: ‘Managerial Economics and Financial Analysis’, Cengage Publications, New Delhi – 2011

  2. Dr. A. R. Aryasri – Managerial Economics and Financial Analysis, TMH 2011

  3. Prof. J.V.Prabhakararao, Prof. P. Venkatarao. ‘Managerial Economics and Financial Analysis’, Ravindra Publication.


  1. Dr. B. Kuberudu and Dr. T. V. Ramana: Managerial Economics & Financial Analysis, Himalaya Publishing House, 2014.

  2. V. Maheswari: Managerial Economics, Sultan Chand.2014

  3. Suma Damodaran: Managerial Economics, Oxford 2011.

  4. VanithaAgarwal: Managerial Economics, Pearson Publications 2011.

  5. Sanjay Dhameja: Financial Accounting for Managers, Pearson.

  6. Maheswari: Financial Accounting, Vikas Publications.

  7. S. A. Siddiqui& A. S. Siddiqui: Managerial Economics and Financial Analysis, New Age International Publishers, 2012

  8. Ramesh Singh, Indian Economy, 7th Edn., TMH2015

  9. Pankaj Tandon A Text Book of Microeconomic Theory, Sage Publishers, 2015

  10. Shailaja Gajjala and Usha Munipalle, Univerties press, 2015

II Year - I Semester










Note: The students are required to perform the experiment to obtain the V-I characteristics and to determine the relevant parameters from the obtained graphs.

Electronic Workshop Practice:

    1. Identification, Specifications, Testing of R, L, C Components (Colour Codes), Potentiometers, Coils, Gang Condensers, Relays, Bread Boards.

    2. Identification, Specifications and Testing of active devices, Diodes, BJTs, JFETs, LEDs, LCDs, SCR, UJT.

    3. Soldering Practice- Simple circuits using active and passive components.

    4. Study and operation of Ammeters, Voltmeters, Transformers, Analog and Digital Multimeter, Function Generator, Regulated Power Supply and CRO..

List of Experiments: (Minimum of Ten Experiments has to be performed)

  1. P-N Junction Diode Characteristics

Part A: Germanium Diode (Forward bias& Reverse bias) Part B: Silicon Diode (Forward Bias only)

  1. Zener Diode Characteristics Part A: V-I Characteristics

Part B: Zener Diode as Voltage Regulator

  1. Rectifiers (without and with c-filter) Part A: Half-wave Rectifier

Part B: Full-wave Rectifier

  1. BJT Characteristics(CE Configuration) Part A: Input Characteristics

Part B: Output Characteristics

  1. FET Characteristics(CS Configuration) Part A: Drain Characteristics

Part B: Transfer Characteristics

  1. SCR Characteristics

  2. UJT Characteristics

  3. Transistor Biasing

  4. CRO Operation and its Measurements

  5. BJT-CE Amplifier

  6. Emitter Follower-CC Amplifier

  7. FET-CS Amplifier

Equipment required:

  1. Regulated Power supplies

  2. Analog/Digital Storage Oscilloscopes

  3. Analog/Digital Function Generators

  4. Digital Multimeters

  5. Decade Résistance Boxes/Rheostats

  6. Decade Capacitance Boxes

  7. Ammeters (Analog or Digital)

  8. Voltmeters (Analog or Digital)

  9. Active & Passive Electronic Components

II Year - I Semester


0 0 3 2


Learning Objectives:

    • To determine resonance frequency, Q-factor of RLC network.

    • To analysis time response of first orders RC/RL network for non-sinusoidal inputs.

    • To estimate parameters of two port networks

    • To understand the concept network theorems in network reduction of electrical networks.

    • To determine efficiency of dc shunt machine with actual loading.

    • To analyse performance of 3 phase induction motor

    • To understand the significance of regulation of an alternators through synchronous impedance method.

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