Types of interferences, Introduction to Co-Channel Interference
, real time Co-Channel interference, Co-Channel measurement, Co-channel Interference Reduction Factor, desired C/I from a normal case in a omni directional Antenna system, design of Antenna system, antenna parameters and their effects, diversity receiver, non-cochannel interference-different
FREQUENCY MANAGEMENT AND CHANNEL ASSIGNMENT:
Numbering and grouping, setup access and paging channels, channel assignments to cell sites and mobile units: fixed channel and non-fixed channel assignment, channel sharing and borrowing, overlaid cells.
CELL COVERAGE FOR SIGNAL AND TRAFFIC:
Signal reflections in flat and hilly terrain, effect of human made structures, phase difference between direct and reflected paths, straight line path loss slope, general formula for mobile propagation over water and flat open area, near and long distance propagation, antenna height gain
, form of a point to point model.
CELL SITE AND MOBILE ANTENNAS :
Sum and difference patterns and their synthesis, omni directional antennas, directional antennas for interference reduction, space diversity antennas, umbrella pattern antennas, minimum separation of cell site antennas, high gain antennas.
Concept of Handoff, types of handoff, handoff initiation, delaying handoff, forced handoff, mobile assigned handoff, intersystem handoff, vehicle locating methods, dropped call rates and their evaluation.
DIGITAL CELLULAR NETWORKS: GSM architecture, GSM channels, multiple access schemes; TDMA, CDMA, OFDMA; architecture of 3G cellular systems.
Mobile Cellular Telecommunications – W.C.Y. Lee, Tata McGraw Hill, 2rd Edn., 2006.
Principles of Mobile Communications – Gordon L. Stuber, Springer International 2nd Edition, 2007.
Wireless Communications – Theodore. S. Rapport, Pearson education, 2nd Edn., 2002.
Wireless and Mobile Communications – Lee McGraw Hills, 3rd Edition, 2006.
Mobile Cellular Communication – G Sasibhushana Rao Pearson
Wireless Communication and Networking – Jon W. Mark and Weihua Zhqung, PHI, 2005.
Wireless Communication Technology – R. Blake, Thompson Asia Pvt. Ltd., 2004.
At the end of this course the student can able to:
Identify the limitations of conventional mobile telephone systems; understand the concepts of cellular systems.
Understand the frequency management, channel assignment strategies and antennas in cellular systems.
Understand the concepts of handoff and architectures of various cellular systems.
IV Year - II Semester
L T P C
4 0 0 3
ELECTRONIC MEASUREMENTS AND INSTRUMENTATION
Performance characteristics of instruments, Static characteristics, Accuracy, Resolution, Precision, Expected value, Error, Sensitivity. Errors in Measurement, Dynamic Characteristics-speed of response, Fidelity, Lag and Dynamic error. DC Voltmeters- Multi-range, Range extension/Solid state and differential voltmeters, AC voltmeters- multi range, range extension, shunt. Thermocouple type RF ammeter, Ohmmeters series type, shunt type, Multi-meter for Voltage, Current and resistance measurements.
Signal Generator- fixed and variable, AF oscillators, Standard and AF sine and square wave signal generators, Function Generators, Square pulse, Random noise, sweep, Arbitrary waveform. Wave Analyzers, Harmonic Distortion Analyzers, Spectrum Analyzers, Digital Fourier Analyzers.
Oscilloscopes CRT features, vertical amplifiers, horizontal deflection system
, sweep, trigger pulse, delay line, sync selector circuits, simple CRO, triggered sweep CRO, Dual beam CRO, . Dual trace oscilloscope, sampling oscilloscope, storage oscilloscope, digital readout oscilloscope, digital storage oscilloscope, Lissajous method of frequency measurement, standard specifications of CRO, probes for CRO- Active & Passive, attenuator type.
AC Bridges Measurement of inductance- Maxwell’s bridge, Anderson bridge. Measurement of capacitance - Schearing Bridge. Wheat stone bridge. Wien Bridge, Errors and precautions in using bridges. Q-meter.
Transducers- active & passive transducers : Resistance, Capacitance, inductance; Strain gauges, LVDT, Piezo Electric transducers, Resistance Thermometers
, Thermocouples, Thermistors, Sensistors.
Measurement of physical parameters force, pressure, velocity, humidity, moisture, speed, proximity and displacement. Data acquisition systems.
Electronic instrumentation, second edition - H.S.Kalsi, Tata McGraw Hill, 2004.
Modern Electronic Instrumentation and Measurement Techniques – A.D. Helfrick and W.D. Cooper, PHI, 5th Edition, 2002.
Electronic Instrumentation & Measurements - David A. Bell, PHI, 2nd Edition, 2003.
Electronic Test Instruments, Analog and Digital Measurements - Robert A.Witte, Pearson Education, 2nd Ed., 2004.
Electronic Measurements & Instrumentations by K. Lal Kishore, Pearson Education - 2005.
The student will be able to
Select the instrument to be used based on the requirements.
Understand and analyze different signal generators and analyzers.
Understand the design of oscilloscopes for different applications.
Design different transducers for measurement of different parameters.
The student will be introduced to:
Understand the basic concepts, applications, frequencies used and types of satellite communications.
Understand the concept of look angles, launches and launch vehicles and orbital effects in satellite communications.
Understand the various satellite subsystems and its functionality.
Understand the concepts of satellite link design and calculation of C/N ratio.
Understand the concepts of multiple access and various types of multiple access techniques in satellite systems.
Understand the concepts of satellite navigation, architecture and applications of GPS.
INTRODUCTION  :
Origin of Satellite Communications, Historical Back-ground, Basic Concepts of Satellite Communications, Frequency allocations for Satellite Services, Applications, Future Trends of Satellite Communications.
ORBITAL MECHANICS AND LAUNCHERS :
Orbital Mechanics, Look Angle determination, Orbital perturbations, Orbit determination, launches and launch vehicles, Orbital effects in communication systems performance.
SATELLITE SUBSYSTEMS :
Attitude and orbit control system, telemetry, tracking
, Command and monitoring, power systems, communication subsystems, Satellite antenna Equipment reliability and Space qualification.
SATELLITE LINK DESIGN :
Basic transmission theory, system noise temperature and G/T ratio, Design of down links, up link design, Design of satellite links for specified C/N, System design example.
MULTIPLE ACCESS :
Frequency division multiple access (FDMA) Intermodulation, Calculation of C/N. Time division Multiple Access (TDMA) Frame structure, Examples. Satellite Switched TDMA Onboard processing, DAMA, Code Division Multiple access (CDMA),Spread spectrum transmission and
EARTH STATION TECHNOLOGY :
Introduction, Transmitters, Receivers, Antennas, Tracking systems, Terrestrial interface, Primary power test methods.
LOW EARTH ORBIT AND GEO-STATIONARY SATELLITE SYSTEMS :
Orbit consideration, coverage and frequency considerations, Delay & Throughput considerations, System considerations, Operational NGSO constellation Designs
SATELLITE NAVIGATION & THE GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM  : Radio and Satellite
Navigation, GPS Position Location principles, GPS Receivers and codes, Satellite signal acquisition, GPS Navigation Message, GPS signal levels, GPS receiver operation, GPS C/A code accuracy, Differential GPS.
Satellite Communications – Timothy Pratt, Charles Bostian and Jeremy Allnutt, WSE, Wiley Publications, 2nd Edition, 2003.
Satellite Communications Engineering – Wilbur L. Pritchard, Robert A Nelson and Henri G.Suyderhoud, 2nd Edition, Pearson Publications, 2003.
Satellite Communications : Design Principles – M. Richharia, BS Publications, 2nd Edition, 2003.
Satellite Communication - D.C Agarwal, Khanna Publications, 5th Ed.
Fundamentals of Satellite Communications – K.N. Raja Rao, PHI, 2004
Satellite Communications – Dennis Roddy, McGraw Hill, 2nd Edition, 1996.
At the end of this course the student can able to:
Understand the concepts, applications and subsystems of Satellite communications.
Derive the expression for G/T ratio and to solve some analytical problems on satellite link design.
Understand the various types of multiple access techniques and architecture of earth station design.
Understand the concepts of GPS and its architecture.
IV Year - II Semester
WIRELESS SENSORS AND NETWORKS ELECTIVE-III
L T P C
4 0 0 3
OVERVIEW OF WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS:
Key definitions of sensor networks, Advantages of sensor Networks, Unique constraints an challenges, Driving Applications, Enabling Technologies for Wireless Sensor Networks.
Single-Node Architecture - Hardware Components, Energy Consumption of Sensor Nodes, Operating Systems and Execution Environments, Network Architecture -Sensor Network Scenarios, Optimization Goals and Figures of Merit, Gateway Concepts.
Physical Layer and Transceiver Design Considerations, Personal area networks (PANs), hidden node and exposed node problem, Topologies of PANs, MANETs, WANETs.
MAC Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks
Issues in Designing a MAC protocol for Ad Hoc Wireless Networks, Design goals of a MAC Protocol for Ad Hoc Wireless Networks, Classifications of MAC Protocols, Contention - Based Protocols, Contention - Based Protocols with reservation Mechanisms, Contention – Based MAC Protocols with Scheduling Mechanisms, MAC Protocols that use Directional Antennas, Other MAC Protocols.
Introduction, Issues in Designing a Routing Protocol for Ad Hoc Wireless Networks, Classification of Routing Protocols, Table –Driven Routing Protocols, On – Demand Routing Protocols, Hybrid Routing Protocols, Routing Protocols with Efficient Flooding Mechanisms, Hierarchical Routing Protocols, Power – Aware Routing Protocols, Proactive Routing
TRANSPORT LAYER AND SECURITY PROTOCOLS
Introduction, Issues in Designing a Transport Layer Protocol for Ad Hoc Wireless Networks, Design Goals of a Transport Layer Protocol for Ad Hoc Wireless Networks, Classification of Transport Layer Solutions, TCP Over Ad Hoc Wireless Networks, Other Transport Layer Protocol for Ad Hoc Wireless Networks,
SECURITY IN WSNs
Security in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks, Network Security Requirements, Issues and Challenges in Security Provisioning, Network Security Attacks, Key Management, Secure Routing in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks.
SENSOR NETWORK PLATFORMS AND TOOLS:
Sensor Node Hardware – Berkeley Motes, Programming Challenges, Node-level software platforms, Node-level Simulators, State-centric programming.
APPLICATIONS of WSN:
Ultra wide band radio communication, Wireless fidelity systems. Future directions, Home automation, smart metering Applications
Ad Hoc Wireless Networks: Architectures and Protocols - C. Siva Ram Murthy and B.S.Manoj, 2004, PHI
Wireless Ad- hoc and Sensor Networks: Protocols, Performance and Control – Jagannathan Sarangapani, CRC Press
Holger Karl & Andreas Willig, “Protocols And Architectures for Wireless Sensor Networks", John Wiley, 2005.
Kazem Sohraby, Daniel Minoli, & Taieb Znati, “Wireless Sensor Networks- Technology, Protocols, and Applications”, John Wiley, 2007.
Feng Zhao & Leonidas J. Guibas, “Wireless Sensor Networks- An Information Processing Approach", Elsevier, 2007.
Ad- Hoc Mobile Wireless Networks: Protocols & Systems, C.K. Toh ,1 ed. Pearson Education.
Wireless Sensor Networks - C. S. Raghavendra, Krishna M. Sivalingam, 2004, Springer
Wireless Sensor Networks – S Anandamurugan , Lakshmi Publications
DIGITAL IC DESIGN ELECTIVE-III
The student will be able to understand the MOS Design.
In this course, students can study Combinational MOS Logic Circuits and Sequential MOS Logic Circuits.
Another main object of this course is to motivate the graduate students to design and to develop the Digital Integreated Circuits for different Applications.
The concepts of Semiconductor Memories, Flash Memory, RAM array organization.
MOS Design: Pseudo NMOS Logic – Inverter, Inverter threshold voltage, Output high voltage, Output Low voltage, Gain at gate threshold voltage, Transient response, Rise time, Fall time, Pseudo NMOS logic gates, Transistor equivalency, CMOS Inverter logic.
Combinational MOS Logic Circuits: MOS logic circuits with NMOS loads, Primitive CMOS logic gates – NOR & NAND gate, Complex Logic circuits design – Realizing Boolean expressions using NMOS gates and CMOS gates , AOI and OIA gates, CMOS full adder, CMOS transmission gates, Designing with Transmission gates.
Sequential MOS Logic Circuits: Behaviour of bistable elements, SR Latch, Clocked latch and flip flop circuits, CMOS D latch and edge triggered flip-flop.
Dynamic Logic Circuits: Basic principle, Voltage Bootstrapping, Synchronous dynamic pass transistor circuits, Dynamic CMOS transmission gate logic, High performance Dynamic CMOS circuits.
Interconnect: Capacitive Parasitics, Resistive Parasitics, Inductive Parasitics, Advanced Interconncet Techniques.
Semiconductor Memories: Memory Types, RAM array organization, DRAM – Types, Operation, Leakage currents in DRAM cell and refresh operation, SRAM operation Leakage currents in SRAM cells, Flash Memory- NOR flash and NAND flash.
Digital Integrated Circuits – A Design Perspective, Jan M. Rabaey, Anantha Chandrakasan, Borivoje Nikolic, 2nd Ed., PHI.
Digital Integrated Circuit Design – Ken Martin, Oxford University Press, 2011.
CMOS Digital Integrated Circuits Analysis and Design – Sung-Mo Kang, Yusuf Leblebici, TMH, 3rd Ed., 2011.
CMOS VLSI Design – Neil H.E Weste, David harris, Ayan Banerjee 3rd Edition, Pearson
After going through this course the student will be able to
Understand the concepts of MOS Design.
Design and analysis of Combinational and Sequential MOS Circuits.
Extend the Digital IC Design to Different Applications.
Understand the Concepts of Semiconductor Memories, Flash Memory, RAM array organization.
OPERATING SYSTEMS ELECTIVE-III
Study the basic concepts and functions of operating systems.
Understand the structure and functions of OS.
Learn about Processes, Threads and Scheduling algorithms.
Understand the principles of concurrency and Deadlocks.
Learn various memory management schemes.
Study I/O management and File systems.
Learn the basics of Linux system and perform administrative tasks on Linux Servers.
Introduction to Operating System Concept: Types of operating systems, operating systems concepts, operating systems services, Introduction to System call, System call types.
Process Management – Process concept, The process, Process State Diagram , Process control block, Process Scheduling- Scheduling Queues, Schedulers, Operations on Processes, Interprocess Communication, Threading Issues, Scheduling-Basic Concepts, Scheduling Criteria, Scheduling Algorithms.
Memory Management: Swapping, Contiguous Memory Allocation, Paging, structure of the Page Table, Segmentation
Virtual Memory Management:
Virtual Memory, Demand Paging, Page-Replacement Algorithms, Thrashing
Concurrency: ProcessSynchronization, The Critical- Section Problem, Synchronization Hardware, Semaphores, Classic Problems of Synchronization, Monitors, Synchronization examples
Principles of deadlock – System Model, Deadlock Characterization, Deadlock Prevention, Detection and Avoidance, Recovery form Deadlock
File system Interface- the concept of a file, Access Methods, Directory structure, File system mounting, file sharing, protection.
File System implementation- File system structure, allocation methods, free-space management
Mass-storage structure overview of Mass-storage structure, Disk scheduling, Device drivers,
Linux System: Components of LINUX, Interprocess Communication, Synchronisation, Interrupt, Exception and System Call.
Android Software Platform: Android Architecture, Operating System Services, Android Runtime Application Development, Application Structure, Application Process management
Design various Scheduling algorithms.
Apply the principles of concurrency.
Design deadlock, prevention and avoidance algorithms.
Compare and contrast various memory management schemes.
Design and Implement a prototype file systems.
Perform administrative tasks on Linux Servers
Introduction to Android Operating System Internals
Operating System Concepts,Abraham Silberschatz, Peter Baer Galvin and Greg Gagne 9th Edition, John Wiley and Sons Inc., 2012.
Operating Systems – Internals and Design Principles, William Stallings, 7th Edition, Prentice Hall, 2011.
Operating Systems-S Halder, Alex A Aravind Pearson Education Second Edition 2016 .
Modern Operating Systems, Andrew S. Tanenbaum, Second Edition, Addison Wesley, 2001.
Operating Systems: A Design-Oriented Approach,Charles Crowley, Tata Mc Graw Hill Education”, 1996.
Operating Systems: A Concept-Based Approach, D M Dhamdhere, Second Edition, Tata Mc Graw-Hill Education, 2007.