Electronics and communication engineering



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UNIT V


VHF, UHF AND MICROWAVE ANTENNAS : Reflector Antennas : Flat Sheet and Corner Reflectors. Paraboloidal Reflectors – Geometry, characteristics, types of feeds, F/D Ratio, Spill Over, Back Lobes, Aperture Blocking, Off-set Feeds, Cassegrain Feeds.

Horn Antennas – Types, Optimum Horns, Design Characteristics of Pyramidal Horns; Lens Antennas – Geometry, Features, Dielectric Lenses and Zoning, Applications, Antenna Measurements – Patterns Required, Set Up, Distance Criterion, Directivity and Gain Measurements (Comparison, Absolute and 3-Antenna Methods).



UNIT VI


WAVE PROPAGATION : Concepts of Propagation – frequency ranges and types of propagations. Ground Wave Propagation–Characteristics, Parameters, Wave Tilt, Flat and Spherical Earth Considerations. Sky Wave Propagation – Formation of Ionospheric Layers and their Characteristics, Mechanism of Reflection and Refraction, Critical Frequency, MUF and Skip Distance – Calculations for flat and spherical earth cases, Optimum Frequency, LUHF, Virtual Height, Ionospheric Abnormalities, Ionospheric Absorption.

Fundamental Equation for Free-Space Propagation, Basic Transmission Loss Calculations. Space Wave Propagation



– Mechanism, LOS and Radio Horizon. Tropospheric Wave Propagation – Radius of Curvature of path, Effective Earth’s Radius, Effect of Earth’s Curvature, Field Strength Calculations, M-curves and Duct Propagation, Tropospheric Scattering.

TEXT BOOKS


  1. Antennas for All Applications – John D. Kraus and Ronald J. Marhefka, 3rd Edition, TMH, 2003.

  2. Electromagnetic Waves and Radiating Systems – E.C. Jordan and K.G. Balmain, PHI, 2nd Edition, 2000.

REFERENCES


  1. Antenna Theory - C.A. Balanis, John Wiley and Sons, 2nd Edition, 2001.

  2. Antennas and Wave Propagation – K.D. Prasad, Satya Prakashan, Tech India Publications, New Delhi, 2001.

  3. Transmission and Propagation – E.V.D. Glazier and H.R.L. Lamont, The Services Text Book of Radio, vol. 5, Standard Publishers Distributors, Delhi.

  4. Electronic and Radio Engineering – F.E. Terman, McGraw-Hill, 4th Edition, 1955.

  5. Antennas – John D. Kraus, McGraw-Hill, 2nd Edition, 1988.

OUTCOMES


After going through this course the student will be able to

  • Identify basic antenna parameters.

  • Design and analyze wire antennas, loop antennas, reflector antennas, lens antennas, horn antennas and microstrip antennas

  • Quantify the fields radiated by various types of antennas

  • Design and analyze antenna arrays

  • Analyze antenna measurements to assess antenna’s performance

  • Identify the characteristics of radio wave propagation



III Year - I Semester



PULSE & DIGITAL CIRCUITS LAB

L T P C

0 0 3 2



  1. Linear wave shaping.




  1. Non Linear wave shaping – Clippers.




  1. Non Linear wave shaping – Clampers.




  1. Transistor as a switch.




  1. Study of Logic Gates & Some applications.




  1. Study of Flip-Flops & some applications.




  1. Sampling Gates.




  1. Astable Multivibrator.




  1. Monostable Multivibrator.




  1. Bistable Multivibrator.




  1. Schmitt Trigger.




  1. UJT Relaxation Oscillator.




  1. Bootstrap sweep circuit.


Equipment required for Laboratory: 1. RPS - 0 – 30 V

  1. CRO - 0 – 20 M Hz.




  1. Function Generators - 0 – 1 M Hz




  1. Components




  1. Multi Meters





III Year - I Semester

L IC APPLICATIONS LAB
L T P C

0 0 3 2


Minimum Twelve Experiments to be conducted :


  1. Study of OP AMPs – IC 741, IC 555, IC 565, IC 566, IC 1496 – functioning, parameters and Specifications.

  2. OP AMP Applications – Adder, Subtractor, Comparator Circuits.

  3. Integrator and Differentiator Circuits using IC 741.

  4. Active Filter Applications – LPF, HPF (first order)

  5. Active Filter Applications – BPF, Band Reject (Wideband) and Notch Filters.

  6. IC 741 Oscillator Circuits – Phase Shift and Wien Bridge Oscillators.

  7. Function Generator using OP AMPs.

  8. IC 555 Timer – Monostable Operation Circuit.

  9. IC 555 Timer – Astable Operation Circuit.

  10. Schmitt Trigger Circuits – using IC 741 and IC 555.

  11. IC 565 – PLL Applications.

  12. IC 566 – VCO Applications.

  13. Voltage Regulator using IC 723.

  14. Three Terminal Voltage Regulators – 7805, 7809, 7912.



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