| EIGHT THINGS THIS BOOK WILL
HELP YOU ACHIEVE
1. Get out of a mental rut, think new thoughts, acquire
new visions, discover new ambitions.
2. Make friends quickly and easily.
3. Increase your popularity.
4. Win people to your way of thinking.
5. Increase your influence, your prestige, your ability
to get things done.
6. Handle complaints, avoid arguments, keep your
human contacts smooth and pleasant.
7. Become a better speaker, a more entertaining
8. Arouse enthusiasm among your associates.
This book has done all these things for more than ten
million readers in thirty-six languages.
This Book Is Dedicated to a Man
Who Doesn’t Need to Read It:-
My Cherished Friend
Editorial Consultant: Dorothy Carnegie
Editorial Assistance: Arthur R. Pell, Ph.D.
SIMON AND SCHUSTER
Copyright 1936 by Dale Carnegie, copyright renewed © 1964
by Donna Dale Carnegie and Dorothy Carnegie
Revised Edition copyright © 1981 by Donna Dale Carnegie and
All rights reserved
including the right of reproduction
in whole or in part in any form
Published by Simon and Schuster
A Division of Gulf & Western Corporation
Simon & Schuster Building
1230 Avenue of the Americas
New York, New York 10020
SIMON AND SCHUSTER and colophon are trademarks of Simon & Schuster
Designed by Stanley S. Drate
Manufactured in the United States of America
17 19 20 18
Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data
Carnegie, Dale, 1888-1955.
How to win friends and influence people.
1. Success. I. Title.
BF637.S8C37 1981 158’. 1 80-28759
to Revised Edition
How to Win Friends and Influence People was first published
in 1937 in an edition of only five thousand copies.
Neither Dale Carnegie nor the publishers, Simon and
Schuster, anticipated more than this modest sale. To
their amazement, the book became an overnight sensation,
and edition after edition rolled off the presses to
keep up with the increasing public demand. Now to Win
Friends and InfEuence People took its place in publishing
history as one of the all-time international best-sellers.
It touched a nerve and filled a human need that was
more than a faddish phenomenon of post-Depression
days, as evidenced by its continued and uninterrupted
sales into the eighties, almost half a century later.
Dale Carnegie used to say that it was easier to make a
million dollars than to put a phrase into the English language.
How to Win Friends and Influence People became
such a phrase, quoted, paraphrased, parodied,
used in innumerable contexts from political cartoon to
novels. The book itself was translated into almost every
known written language. Each generation has discovered
it anew and has found it relevant.
Which brings us to the logical question: Why revise a
book that has proven and continues to prove its vigorous
and universal appeal? Why tamper with success?
To answer that, we must realize that Dale Carnegie
himself was a tireless reviser of his own work during his
lifetime. How to Win Friends and Influence People was
written to be used as a textbook for his courses in Effective
Speaking and Human Relations and is still used in
those courses today. Until his death in 1955 he constantly
improved and revised the course itself to make it
applicable to the evolving needs of an every-growing
public. No one was more sensitive to the changing currents
of present-day life than Dale Carnegie. He constantly
improved and refined his methods of teaching;
he updated his book on Effective Speaking several
times. Had he lived longer, he himself would have revised
How to Win Friends and Influence People to better
reflect the changes that have taken place in the world
since the thirties.
Many of the names of prominent people in the book,
well known at the time of first publication, are no longer
recognized by many of today’s readers. Certain examples
and phrases seem as quaint and dated in our social
climate as those in a Victorian novel. The important message
and overall impact of the book is weakened to that
Our purpose, therefore, in this revision is to clarify
and strengthen the book for a modern reader without
tampering with the content. We have not “changed”
How to Win Friends and Influence People except to
make a few excisions and add a few more contemporary
examples. The brash, breezy Carnegie style is intact-even
the thirties slang is still there. Dale Carnegie wrote
as he spoke, in an intensively exuberant, colloquial,
So his voice still speaks as forcefully as ever, in the
book and in his work. Thousands of people all over the
world are being trained in Carnegie courses in increasing
numbers each year. And other thousands are reading
and studying How to Win Friends and lnfluence People
and being inspired to use its principles to better their
lives. To all of them, we offer this revision in the spirit
of the honing and polishing of a finely made tool.
(Mrs. Dale Carnegie)
How This Book Was
by Dale Carnegie
During the first thirty-five years of the twentieth century,
the publishing houses of America printed more
than a fifth of a million different books. Most of them
were deadly dull, and many were financial failures.
“Many,” did I say? The president of one of the largest
publishing houses in the world confessed to me that his
company, after seventy-five years of publishing experience,
still lost money on seven out of every eight books
Why, then, did I have the temerity to write another
book? And, after I had written it, why should you bother
to read it?
Fair questions, both; and I'll try to answer them.
I have, since 1912, been conducting educational
courses for business and professional men and women
in New York. At first, I conducted courses in public
speaking only - courses designed to train adults, by actual
experience, to think on their feet and express their
ideas with more clarity, more effectiveness and more
poise, both in business interviews and before groups.
But gradually, as the seasons passed, I realized that as
sorely as these adults needed training in effective speaking,
they needed still more training in the fine art of
getting along with people in everyday business and social
I also gradually realized that I was sorely in need of
such training myself. As I look back across the years, I
am appalled at my own frequent lack of finesse and
understanding. How I wish a book such as this had been
placed in my hands twenty years ago! What a priceless
boon it would have been.
Dealing with people is probably the biggest problem
you face, especially if you are in business. Yes, and that
is also true if you are a housewife, architect or engineer.
Research done a few years ago under the auspices of the
Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching
uncovered a most important and significant fact - a fact
later confirmed by additional studies made at the Carnegie
Institute of Technology. These investigations revealed
that even in such technical lines as engineering,
about 15 percent of one's financial success is due to
one’s technical knowledge and about 85 percent is due
to skill in human engineering-to personality and the
ability to lead people.
For many years, I conducted courses each season at
the Engineers’ Club of Philadelphia, and also courses
for the New York Chapter of the American Institute of
Electrical Engineers. A total of probably more than fifteen
hundred engineers have passed through my
classes. They came to me because they had finally realized,
after years of observation and experience, that the
highest-paid personnel in engineering are frequently
not those who know the most about engineering. One
can for example, hire mere technical ability in engineering,
accountancy, architecture or any other profession
at nominal salaries. But the person who has
technical knowledge plus the ability to express ideas, to
assume leadership, and to arouse enthusiasm among
people-that person is headed for higher earning power.
In the heyday of his activity, John D. Rockefeller said
that “the ability to deal with people is as purchasable a
commodity as sugar or coffee.” “And I will pay more for
that ability,” said John D., “than for any other under the
Wouldn’t you suppose that every college in the land
would conduct courses to develop the highest-priced
ability under the sun? But if there is just one practical,
common-sense course of that kind given for adults in
even one college in the land, it has escaped my attention
up to the present writing.
The University of Chicago and the United Y.M.C.A.
Schools conducted a survey to determine what adults
want to study.
That survey cost $25,000 and took two years. The last
part of the survey was made in Meriden, Connecticut. It
had been chosen as a typical American town. Every
adult in Meriden was interviewed and requested to answer
156 questions-questions such as “What is your
business or profession? Your education? How do you
spend your spare time? What is your income? Your hobbies?
Your ambitions? Your problems? What subjects are
you most interested in studying?” And so on. That survey
revealed that health is the prime interest of adults
and that their second interest is people; how to understand
and get along with people; how to make people
like you; and how to win others to your way of thinking.
So the committee conducting this survey resolved to
conduct such a course for adults in Meriden. They
searched diligently for a practical textbook on the subject
and found-not one. Finally they approached one of
the world’s outstanding authorities on adult education
and asked him if he knew of any book that met the needs
of this group. “No,” he replied, "I know what those
adults want. But the book they need has never been
I knew from experience that this statement was true,
for I myself had been searching for years to discover a
practical, working handbook on human relations.
Since no such book existed, I have tried to write one
for use in my own courses. And here it is. I hope you
In preparation for this book, I read everything that I
could find on the subject- everything from newspaper
columns, magazine articles, records of the family courts,
the writings of the old philosophers and the new
psychologists. In addition, I hired a trained researcher to
spend one and a half years in various libraries reading
everything I had missed, plowing through erudite tomes
on psychology, poring over hundreds of magazine articles,
searching through countless biographies, trying to
ascertain how the great leaders of all ages had dealt with
people. We read their biographies, We read the life stories
of all great leaders from Julius Caesar to Thomas Edison.
I recall that we read over one hundred biographies
of Theodore Roosevelt alone. We were determined
to spare no time, no expense, to discover every
practical idea that anyone had ever used throughout the
ages for winning friends and influencing people.
I personally interviewed scores of successful people,
some of them world-famous-inventors like Marconi
and Edison; political leaders like Franklin D. Roosevelt
and James Farley; business leaders like Owen D.
Young; movie stars like Clark Gable and Mary Pickford;
and explorers like Martin Johnson-and tried to discover
the techniques they used in human relations.
From all this material, I prepared a short talk. I called
it “How to Win Friends and Influence People.” I say
“short.” It was short in the beginning, but it soon
expanded to a lecture that consumed one hour and thirty
minutes. For years, I gave this talk each season to the
adults in the Carnegie Institute courses in New York.
I gave the talk and urged the listeners to go out and
test it in their business and social contacts, and then
come back to class and speak about their experiences
and the results they had achieved. What an interesting
assignment! These men and women, hungry for self-
improvement, were fascinated by the idea of working in a
new kind of laboratory - the first and only laboratory of
human relationships for adults that had ever existed.
This book wasn’t written in the usual sense of the
word. It grew as a child grows. It grew and developed
out of that laboratory, out of the experiences of thousands
Years ago, we started with a set of rules printed on a
card no larger than a postcard. The next season we
printed a larger card, then a leaflet, then a series of booklets,
each one expanding in size and scope. After fifteen
years of experiment and research came this book.
The rules we have set down here are not mere theories
or guesswork. They work like magic. Incredible as
it sounds, I have seen the application of these principles
literally revolutionize the lives of many people.
To illustrate: A man with 314 employees joined one of
these courses. For years, he had driven and criticized
and condemned his employees without stint or discretion.
Kindness, words of appreciation and encouragement
were alien to his lips. After studying the principles
discussed in this book, this employer sharply altered his
philosophy of life. His organization is now inspired with
a new loyalty, a new enthusiasm, a new spirit of team-
work. Three hundred and fourteen enemies have been
turned into 314 friends. As he proudly said in a speech
before the class: “When I used to walk through my establishment,
no one greeted me. My employees actually
looked the other way when they saw me approaching.
But now they are all my friends and even the janitor
calls me by my first name.”
This employer gained more profit, more leisure and
-what is infinitely more important-he found far more
happiness in his business and in his home.
Countless numbers of salespeople have sharply increased
their sales by the use of these principles. Many
have opened up new accounts - accounts that they had
formerly solicited in vain. Executives have been given
increased authority, increased pay. One executive reported
a large increase in salary because he applied
these truths. Another, an executive in the Philadelphia
Gas Works Company, was slated for demotion when he
was sixty-five because of his belligerence, because of his
inability to lead people skillfully. This training not only
saved him from the demotion but brought him a promotion
with increased pay.
On innumerable occasions, spouses attending the banquet
given at the end of the course have told me that
their homes have been much happier since their husbands
or wives started this training.
People are frequently astonished at the new results
they achieve. It all seems like magic. In some cases, in
their enthusiasm, they have telephoned me at my home
on Sundays because they couldn’t wait forty-eight hours
to report their achievements at the regular session of the
One man was so stirred by a talk on these principles
that he sat far into the night discussing them with other
members of the class. At three o’clock in the morning,
the others went home. But he was so shaken by a realization
of his own mistakes, so inspired by the vista of a
new and richer world opening before him, that he was
unable to sleep. He didn’t sleep that night or the next
day or the next night.
Who was he? A naive, untrained individual ready to
gush over any new theory that came along? No, Far from
it. He was a sophisticated, blasé dealer in art, very much
the man about town, who spoke three languages fluently
and was a graduate of two European universities.
While writing this chapter, I received a letter from a
German of the old school, an aristocrat whose forebears
had served for generations as professional army officers
under the Hohenzollerns. His letter, written from a
transatlantic steamer, telling about the application of
these principles, rose almost to a religious fervor.
Another man, an old New Yorker, a Harvard graduate,
a wealthy man, the owner of a large carpet factory, declared
he had learned more in fourteen weeks through
this system of training about the fine art of influencing
people than he had learned about the same subject during
his four years in college. Absurd? Laughable? Fantastic?
Of course, you are privileged to dismiss this
statement with whatever adjective you wish. I am
merely reporting, without comment, a declaration made
by a conservative and eminently successful Harvard
graduate in a public address to approximately six
hundred people at the Yale Club in New York on the
evening of Thursday, February 23, 1933.
“Compared to what we ought to be,” said the famous
Professor William James of Harvard, “compared to what
we ought to be, we are only half awake. We are making
use of only a small part of our physical and mental resources.
Stating the thing broadly, the human individual
thus lives far within his limits. He possesses powers of
various sorts which he habitually fails to use,”
Those powers which you “habitually fail to use”! The
sole purpose of this book is to help you discover, develop
and profit by those dormant and unused assets,
“Education,” said Dr. John G. Hibben, former president
of Princeton University, “is the ability to meet life’s
If by the time you have finished reading the first three
chapters of this book- if you aren’t then a little better
equipped to meet life’s situations, then I shall consider
this book to be a total failure so far as you are concerned.
For “the great aim of education,” said Herbert Spencer,
“is not knowledge but action.”
And this is an action book.