“The childhood shows the man, As morning shows the day.” (Book iv. Line 220).
“Athens, the eye of Greece, mother of arts And eloquence.”
(Book iv. Line 240).
John Milton (1608-1674)
Milton’s “Paradise Lost” tells a biblical story of Adam and Eve, with God, and Lucifer (Satan), who is thrown out of Heaven to corrupt humankind. Milton created a powerful and sympathetic portrait of Lucifer. This view influenced deeply Romantic poets William Blake and Percy Bysshe Shelley, who saw Satan as the real hero of the poem and a rebel against the tyranny of Heaven.
Areopagitica is a passionate defense of freedom of the press, which was originally a speech to the Long Parliament on the question of licensing printers. Milton's erudite and his comprehensive survey of the history of public censorship is seen as one of the foundations of modern political liberty, and of democracy.
“The scientific method, which required using independent judgment and observing nature as a means of seeking truth, simulated the enthusiasm of… sense realists.”
Van Dalen & Bennett (1971, p. 171)
Francis Bacon Quotations
“There is a wisdom in this beyond the rules of physic. A man's own observation, what he finds good of and what he finds hurt of, is the best physic to preserve health.”
“Cleanness of body was ever deemed to proceed from a due reverence to God.”
Richard Mulcaster (1531-1611)
English schoolmaster educated at Eton, Cambridge, and Oxford whose pedagogical views, such as, special university training for teachers, comparable to that for doctors or lawyers, careful selection of teachers and adequate salaries, assignment of the best teachers to the lowest grades, and close association between teachers and parents were not generally accepted until at least 250 years after his death.
Comenius came up with a concept he called Pansophy: "men, seeing in a clear light the ends of all things, and the means to those ends, and the correct use of those means, might be able to direct all that they have to good ends.”
John Locke, a political and social philosopher of 17th century England, more than any other thinker influenced the author of the Declaration of Independence and the Framers of the American Constitution.
Locke held that "the minds of children [are] as easily turned, this way or that, as water itself." He underrated innate differences: "we are born with faculties and powers, capable almost of anything;" and, "as it is in the body, so it is in the mind, practice makes it what it is." Along with this view went a profound conviction of the importance of education, and of the breadth of its aim. It has to fit men for life -- for the world, rather than for the university. Instruction in knowledge does not exhaust it; it is essentially a training of character.
“It is a lamentable mistake to imagine that bodily activity hinders the working of the mind, as if these two kinds of activity ought not to advance hand in hand, and as if the one were not intended to act as guide to the other…to learn to think we must therefore exercise our limbs, our senses, and our bodily organs, which are tools of the intellect; and to get the best use out of these tools, the body which supplies us with them must be strong and healthy.”