Earth Structure/Composition Core Mantle – Crust – mineralogy? tmperatures? depth in miles/kilometers?



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EXAM 3 STUDY GUIDE – PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY




Earth Structure/Composition

Core - Mantle – Crust – mineralogy? tmperatures? depth in miles/kilometers?


What is the Lithosphere? What is the Asthenosphere? Minerals? Formation? Temperature? Depth?

Continental Crust - Oceanic Crust – What are the Differences between Continental and Oceanic Crusts?

Alfred Wegener’s Theory of Continental Drift? Mechanism for movement? What is Plate Tectonics? What are the evidences used to prove Plate Tectonics?

What are Hot Spots/Mantle Plumes? Can you name examples of volcanoes that are identified as “Hot Spot” volcanoes?

What are the Three types of Lithospheric Plate Boundaries: Which plate boundaries produce Volcanism? Which plate boundaries produce Earthquakes? Which plate boundaries produce deep trenches (either on the sea floor or along the edge of the continent)

What is a Convergent Boundary: (# of types? Give examples and description of landforms possible) What is a Subduction Zone? What is a Collision Zone? What are typical surface features found at a Subduction Zone? What are typical surface features found at a Collision Zone? If two oceanic plates collide – what happens? Who gets subducted? If an oceanic plate and a continental plate collide – what happens? Who gets subducted? If two continental plates collide – what happens?

What is a Divergent boundary? ( # of types? Description/Examples) What’s a Rift Valley? Can you identify a Rift Valley in the world today? What is “Sea Floor Spreading” and how does that pertain to new ocean floors being formed?

What is a Transform Boundary? (Description/Examples) Can you give an example?

Earth Processes/Landforms


Volcanoes

Can you define and give an example of each of the three types of volcanoes? Shield - Stratovolcano (composite, plug dome) - Cinder Cone How are they different from each other? Which one is the least

explosive? Which one is the most explosive? Which ones have fluid basalt flows? Which ones have little

lava, but lots of pyroclastic flows?

What are pyroclastic flows and why are they so dangerous?

Can you identify the explosivity controls for volcanoes – such as ‘viscosity’, temperature and silica content?

How does the presence of SILICA affect volcanic eruptions?

What is the difference between Felsic Magma vs Mafic Magma - which one is ‘cooler’, which one is ‘hotter’,

Which one is more likely to be ‘explosive’ and destroy the volcano?

Can you define what Calderas are ? What and where is Krakatau? What and where is Mt. Mazama (Crater Lake)? What and where is the Long Valley Caldera?



Diastrophism: Folding and Faulting of Earth’s Surface

Isotasy Folding: What is an Anticline? What is a Syncline? What is a Recumbent fold? What is an Overturned fold? How are folds formed? What forces are at work?



Faulting : Scarp? Can you define what is a Normal Fault? Can you define a Reverse Fault? What is a Reverse Thrust? Transform/Transcurrent Fault?

How are faults formed? What forces are at work?

Can you give an example of Fault Block Mountains? Can you give an example of Folded Mountains?

What are Earthquakes? What are: P-waves, S-waves? How does the Epicenter differ from the Focus (hypocenter)?

What is the difference between how Richter vs. Mercalli measure earthquakes? Which one measures

the magnitude of energy released during an earthquake? Which one measure the intensity of shaking

during an earthquake?

What were some of the most significant EQ in recent North American history?

Can you define and describe some typical earthquake effects: tsumani, liquefaction, displacement, seiches?
Earth Materials:

Elements in the crust: Oxygen, Silicon, Aluminum, Iron, Calcium, Potassium, Sodium and Magnesium

Minerals: Non-Silicates: and Silicates: Commercial value for Minerals? Which minerals are most abundant in the crust?

SILICATES:

Felsic: Quartz, Feldspars Mafic: Biotite Mica, Hornblende Ultramafic: Olivine

NON-SILICATES:

Evaporites: Halite (salt)

Precipitates: Gypsum

Igneous: Where formed? Environments?

(Plutonic) Intrusive,: Granite (Felsic); Diorite (Intermediate); Gabbro (Mafic)

(Volcanic) Extrusive,: Rhyolite (Felsic); Andesite (Intermediate); Basalt (Mafic)

Sedimentary: Environments: Formation: Minerals

Clastic: Sandstone; Mudstone; Siltstone; Claystone (SHALE)

Chemically Precipitated: Inorganic: Limestone; Chert (Jasper, Agate)

Organic: Coral, Chalk, Coquina

Organic: Coal (PeatLigniteBituminousAnthracite)

Metamorphic: Environments for metamorphism?

Foliated: Slate, Schist, Gneiss (Parent rock to metamorphic rock)

Non-foliated: Marble, Quartzite
PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY PRACTICE TEST –


  1. In relation to Earth’s surface, the term ‘tectonic plates’ refers to the:

    1. Mid-Ocean ridges

    2. Rocks that form visible portion of continents

    3. Rocks that form the ocean basin

    4. Large moving sections of Earth’s crust




  1. Earth’s inner core is composed of:

    1. Molten lava

    2. Molten iron and nickel

    3. Solid iron and nickel

    4. Solid basalt




  1. The greatest concentration of destructive earthquakes occur:

    1. Along the mid-ocean ridges

    2. Around the Pacific Ring of Fire

    3. In California

    4. In the Appalachians




  1. The portion of the Earth that is composed of plastic, high temperature rock:

    1. Inner core

    2. Outer core

    3. Mesosphere

    4. Asthenosphere




  1. Which of these layers of the Earth’s interior may have convection currents that transport the crustal plates?

    1. Asthenosphere b. Inner core c. Outer core




  1. Igneous rocks that are cooled and solidified at the Earth’s surface are considered to be

    1. Plutonic b. Volcanic c. Intrusive d. Metamorphic

7. The most common mineral group found in Earth’s crust is:



  1. Silicates b. Oxides c. Carbonates d. Bromides

8. Which of the following is not a Chemical Sedimentary rock?



  1. Limestone b. Dolomite c. Coal d. Chert

9. _____________ sedimentary rocks are formed of inorganic rock and mineral fragments.



  1. Chemical b. Clastic c. Organic d. Plastic

10. The second most abundant element of the Earth’s crust is aluminum



  1. True b. False



KEY: 1. d 2. c 3. b 4. d 5. a 6. b 7. a 8. c 9. b 10. b

POSSIBLE ESSAY QUESTIONS FOR EXAM 3





  1. What is a stratovolcano? Describe its characteristic shape AND Name a geographic example. Where are these types of volcanoes found? What type of material do they erupt? What type of eruption is most common? hOW DO STRATOVOLCANOES DIFFER FROM OTHER VOLCANOES? WHAT CONDITIONS ARE NECESSARY FOR FORMATION?




  1. dESCRIBE AND IDENTIFY the three types of convergent plate boundaries. iNCLUDE IN YOUR DISCUSSION anY landforms, TOPOGRAPHIC FEATURES, ROCK-TYPE, OR OTHER PHYSICAL PROCESSES that may result along these boundaries. Name a geographic example of each.




  1. Describe the three grade of metamorphism. Name the rock type that forms with each grade, and the parent rock for each metamorphic rock formed. iNCLUDE IN YOUR ESSAY, A DISCUSSION OF POSSIBLE GEOGRAPHIC LOCATONS FOR EACH METAMORPHIC PROCESS, AS WELL AS CONTRASTING FOLIATED AND NON-FOLIATED METAMORPHIC ROCKS.




  1. Compare and contrast Extrusive Igneous rocks and Intrusive Igneous Rocks (i.e., texture, cooling rates, names). INCLUDE IN YOUR ESSAY THE POSSIBLE GEOGRAPHIC LOCATIONS FOR THE FORMATION OF EACH TYPE OF IGNEOUS ROCK.




  1. HOW DOES SILICA CONTENT IN MAGMA CONTROL EXPLOSIVITY IN A VOLCANIC ERUPTION? WHICH TYPE OF MAGMA HAS A HIGHER SILICA CONTENT? DOES SILICA AFFECT VISCOSITY OF MAGMA?




  1. HOW DOES SEDIMENT (WEATHERED, TRANSPORTED, DEPOSITED AND BURIED) BECOME A SEDIMENTARY ROCK? CAN YOU DESCRIBE LITHIFICATION PROCESSES OF COMPACTION AND CEMENTATION?




  1. What is the difference between a normal fault and a reverse fault? identify the forces that produce normal and reverse faults. what are the characteristics typical of each?




  1. identify and describe the two basic methods for measuring earthquakes: mercalli and richter scale. how are they different? what does each of them measure? how do geologists and seismologist use these scales in measuring earthquakes?




  1. describe fault block mountains, volcanic mountains, and folded mountains. what are the forces involved that create these types of mountains? where would volcanic mountains be found? where would fault block mountains be found? where would folded mountains be found? include a geographic example of each type of mountain.





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