Early Civilizations First Civilizations: Africa and Asia
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First Civilizations: Africa and Asia First Civilizations: Africa and Asia Warm up #8 What role do rivers play in the shaping of civilizations living in arid conditions? First Civilizations: Africa and Asia Essential Questions: What role did rivers play in the shaping of the first civilizations of Egypt and Mesopotamia? How did trade, and migration spread ideas among early civilizations? What were the major accomplishments of ancient Egyptian leaders? How did religion effect ancient Egyptian society? How did ancient Egyptians communicate? First Civilizations: Africa and Asia Essential questions (continued) How did ancient Egyptians Communicate with the common person? Who did the ancient Egyptians record their history? What was the Rosetta stone and why was it important? How can you write and read hieroglyphics? Geography in the Nile Valley Egypt is _________________– Herodotus (Greek historian) Without the Nile Egypt would be a _________________ Egypt is mostly desert Nile Valley All through history villages line the banks of the Nile because it is the ___________ area of the region ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ Nile Valley Nile formed a delta at its mouth to the __________________________________ Yearly Floods ____________________________________ Great for farming Periods During these periods power passed from one ruling family to another Land remained united under one ruler _____________________ ______________________ ______________________ Old Kingdom of Egypt Organized _________________________ Pharaohs ruled ____________________________________ Justice and order __________________________________ When pharaohs built the majestic pyramids ________________________________________ Took years/decades to build Middle Kingdom of Egypt Old Kingdom collapsed because of __________________________________(pyramids) Middle Kingdom ___________________ Lots of corruption; rebellions common ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ New Kingdom of Egypt Started when Hyksos were driven out ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Expanded power to modern day Iraq Queen Hatshepsut Began by ruling in the name of a _________ Declared herself Pharaoh and won support of key leaders _____________________________________________________________________________________ Things to know from the Video 1- Why was Egypt in turmoil prior to the formation of the empire? 2- What was the view most Egyptians had toward foreigners? 3- Who were some of the unique and famous leaders of early Egypt? 4- What were the major accomplishment of these leaders? Map Activity #1 Complete map activity handed out in class Next slide for instructions Instructions for Map Activity Title Map Make a key Find, identify, label, color the following: Hittite Empire, Mesopotamia, Babylonian Empire, Tigris River, Euphrates River, Nile River, Old Egyptian Kingdom, New Egyptian Kingdom, Sumer, Red Sea, Persian Gulf, Thebes, and the Mediterranean Sea Amennhotep III Amennhotep III ruled for almost 40 years during the 18th Dynasty of Egypt's history ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Amennhotep III ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ Also a period of lavish luxury at the royal court ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Amennhotep III ____________________________________________________________________ The people in general did not _________________________________ _________________________________ Akhenaten ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ Declared that Aten was not merely the supreme god, _________________ Akhenaten ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Inscriptions of the plural 'gods' were also removed Akhenaten's chief wife was Nefertiti Nefertiti Mother-in-law and probable stepmother of the ____________ ____________________________________________________________________ the name Ankhkheprure Neferneferuaten Nefertiti Nefertiti and her husband were ______________________________________________________________________________________________________. They believed only in one god, Aten Nefertiti Nefertiti was also known throughout Egypt for her beauty. ____________________________________________________________________ Invented her own makeup using the Galena plant. Nefertiti About Year 14 of Akhenaten's reign (1336 BC), Nefertiti vanishes from the historical record, and there is no word of her after that date ____________________________________________________________________ Tutankhamen __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Tried to reverse the religious changes made by Akhenaten Tutankhamen The 1922 discovery by ____________________of Tutankhamen's intact tomb received worldwide press coverage and sparked a renewed public interest in ancient Egypt, for which Tutankhamen's burial mask remains the popular face Ramses II _____________________________________________________________________________________ Expanded Egypt toward modern day _______________ Fought the Hittites in Turkey Decline of the New Kingdom After Ramses dies Egypt is plagued by many weak Pharaohs __________________________________ ______________________________ Greek _______________________________ _________________ _________________ Inherited their religious beliefs from their earliest ancestors Egyptian Gods Chief god was the sun god __________ linked to the sun god ___________________________________________________________________ Only the pharaoh could conduct ceremonies for the sun god Other Gods Osiris – ____________________________________________________________________ Ruled the underworld God of the Nile Isis Other Gods Set ________________________________________________________________________ Vilified __________________ Belief in the Afterlife There are three elements to the Egyptian concept of soul __________________ __________________ __________________(and its opposite Mut) Ka Ka ________________________________________________________________________ The royal Ka symbolized a pharaoh’s right to rule, a universal force that passed from one pharaoh to the next. Ba Ba _______________________________________________________________________. The face of Ba was __________________________________________________________________________________________ Akh _____________________________________________________________________________________ The transfigured spirit of a person that ____________ with light after death Mut The opposite of Akh is Mut (dead), the ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Mummification (ref National Geographic Magazine) ____________________________________________________________________ More than 5,000 years ago, after burying their dead, the ancient Egyptians learned that the burning desert sands desiccated corpses Instead of turning to dust, the skin shriveled up and clung to the bones Mummification (ref National Geographic Magazine) ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ Those who could afford to had their bodies painstakingly embalmed Mummification (ref National Geographic Magazine) Step one __________________________________________________________________________________________ Looks like a ______________________________________________________ Mummification (ref National Geographic Magazine) Step Two ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Place organs in __________________ Mummification (ref National Geographic Magazine) Step Three ________________________________________________________________________ Took moisture from the flesh and reduced odors Some was stuffed inside the abdominal cavity __________________ Mummification (ref National Geographic Magazine) Step Four 35 days later __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Mummification (ref National Geographic Magazine) Step Five ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ A small amulet was placed over the only organ left inside, the __________________ Mummification (ref National Geographic Magazine) __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Prayer: “You are young again. You live again. You are young again. You live again. Forever.” Ancient Egyptian prayer for the dead Egyptian Society –1 Has a class system #1 Pharaoh is both God and earthly leader #2 High Priests and Priestesses #3 Nobles #4 Tiny class of merchants, artisans & scribes #5 Peasant farmers __________________________________ Egyptian Society - 2 __________________________________ Some farmers are slaves ____________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Egyptian Society - 3 Role of women _________________________________ _________________________________ __________________________________ _________________________________ Could get divorced Accomplishments of the Egyptians -1 Medicine Magic ___________________________________ ___________________________________ Astronomy Mapped constellations Calendar ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Accomplishments of the Egyptians - 2 Arts and literature Painting and sculpture Statues ____________________________________ Communication _____________________________________________________________________________________ Believed that the ________________ as they thought it emerged from the ball of dung it lived in Communication ____________________________________________________________________ Small scarabs were sent for ___________________________________________________ Rosetta Stone Key to understanding ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics _________________________________ Had the same message in three types of script (__________________________________________________________________ ) Rosetta Stone Egyptian Writing Called Hieroglyphics _________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Hieroglyphics A modern type of hieroglyphic writings would be a rebus. A rebus is a picture puzzle that can be "sounded out" by reading the sounds symbolized by the pictures. When these sounds are read aloud together, the statements often becomes obvious. ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ Hieroglyphics Egyptian Numbers Hieroglyphic Exercise Tasking Individually write name using hieroglyphics In pairs Decipher messages you are given Go further in pairs Write a several sentence message that relates a fact about History in hieroglyphics and present it to class Homework Finish hieroglyphics message and be prepared to present Early Civilizations - 2 First Civilizations: Africa and Asia Part 2 City States of Ancient Sumer (Mesopotamia) Essential Questions How did the geographic features encourage the rise of civilization in the fertile crescent? How were the Sumerian government and society organized? What were the main accomplishments of the Sumerian society? City States of Ancient Sumer (Mesopotamia) Essential Questions (continued) How did the civilizations in Mesopotamia develop? How did powerful rulers like Hammurabi influence the development of ancient societies? What was the code of Hammurabi? City States of Ancient Sumer –1 Geography __________________________________ Between the __________________________ ______________ means “between the rivers” These rivers are similar in function to the Nile in Egypt Floods ________________________________________ City States of Ancient Sumer–2 _____________________________________________________________________________________ 3500 BC Babylon 500 BC Ancient Sumer - 1 Ancient Sumer - 2 Sumer had few natural resources First cities Rectangular in size ______________________________________________________ Pyramid design _________________________________________________________ Ancient Sumer - 3 People ____________________________________ Most common people lived in small houses Economic life _________________ _________________ Used river for transportation Ancient Sumer – 4 Sumer and the Wheel ________________________________________________________________________ Government ____________________________________ Each had a ruler Each had armies and war leaders Ancient Sumer Social Classes Each city-state had a distinct social class structure and hierarchy #1 ___________________________ #2 Leading officials and high priests #3 Small middle class of merchants and artisans #4 Most people peasant farmers Not in a class - Slaves ________________________________________________________________________________ Women in Sumer Early myths Women were goddesses of the earth ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ Men gained more power and rights Sumer Religion _________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ Highest duty people had was to keep the gods happy Believed in an afterlife ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Sumer School First writing ____________________________________________________________________ Cuneiform developed Grew out of ________________________ Evolved from 3200 BC to 500 BC Cuneiform Hammurabi -1 Born: 19th century BC Birthplace: Babylon (now central Iraq) Died: c. 1750 BC Best known as: ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Hammurabi - 2 Ruled Babylon nearly 4 millennia ago (1792-1750BC) ___________________________________________________ First years of his reign were spent consolidating his rule Hammurabi - 3 Conquered his neighbors and untied all of Mesopotamia under his leadership Organized captured territories ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Code of Hammurabi - 1 One of the earliest known examples of human laws being defined and written down in an orderly way ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Some laws are general (anyone caught committing robbery shall be put to death) and others are very specific (If anyone hire an ox driver, he shall pay him six gur of corn per year) The Code Code of Hammurabi - 2 In the introduction to the code, the King declares his desire to “_______________” and at the end he declares that through his enactments, “____________________________________________________________________________________________________” Hammurabi stands out as one of the great ____________________ figures in history Code Activity - 1 You are given a situation Using your best judgment determine what you believe to be the outcome of the situation Use primary source document (The Code) to see what Hammurabi would do Write/type a Five (5) paragraph essay explaining how your opinion and that of Hammurabi’s differ or agree Present to class Code Activity - 2 Introduction Give background on situation Paragraph two What your determination is and why Paragraph three Hammurabi’s determination and why Paragraph four Differences and/or similarities Conclusion Sumer Summary Early Civilizations - 3 Other Group Contributions Other Group Contributions Essential Questions What contributions to civilization did other groups like the Phoenicians and the Hebrews make to civilization? Warfare and the Spread of Ideas-1 ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ However some, like the Hittites, sought to incorporate the ideas of those they defeated into their own society and culture ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ Empire of the Hittites -1 Started18th century BC _________________________________, encompassing a large part of present day Turkey, north-western Syria and eastward into upper Mesopotamia Declined dramatically, after ca. 1180 BC, there were only some Hittite city-states Two views of the Hittite Empire Warfare and Spread of Ideas -2 Ironworking ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ Iron Stronger and cheaper than bronze or copper Assyrians Expanded from the Fertile Crescent ___________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ Assyrian Empire-1 Encompassed the Fertile Crescent, most of Egypt, Israel, Syria and Lebanon and southern Turkey Assyrian Empire-2 Not just brutal ____________________________________________________________________ Assyrian Empire -3 ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Babylonian Empire started soon after 612 _______________________________ one of its greatest leaders Nebuchadnezzar and the Babylonian Empire Nebuchadnezzar Effective ruler _____________________________________________________________________________________ Advanced the study of Astronomy Persian Empire - 1 Persian Empire - 2 Grew during 500BC Took Babylon Made up the biggest empire in the known world for a time Turkey to India Entire Middle East Persian Empire - 2 Expanded tremendously under the leadership of Darius the Great _________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ Had a single code of laws Used propaganda well Darius the Great Persian Empire - 3 Economics under Darius _______________________________ Replaced barter system _______________________________ Built up communications _______________________________ Persian Religion Zoroaster Born: 628 B.C. Birthplace: Iran Died: 551 B.C. ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ Persian Religion: Zoroastrianism -1 It emphasizes that _____________________________________________, in the form of Ormuzd (_________________________) and Ahriman (_________________________), both ultimately descended from the Wise Lord, _____________ Active participation in life through good thoughts, good words and good deeds is necessary to ensure happiness and to keep the chaos at bay. This active participation is a central element in Zoroaster's concept of ____________________ Persian Religion: Zoroastrianism - 2 ______________________________________ In the final renovation, all of creation—even the souls of the dead that were initially banished to "darkness"—will be reunited in Ahura Mazda returning to life in the undead form. ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Persian Religion: Zoroastrianism -3 __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ The holy book of Zoroastrianism is the Avesta, which includes the hymns of Zoroaster ( The Gathas, from which most of his biographical information comes), liturgical texts and prayers Persian Religion: Zoroastrianism -4 The Phoenicians Gained fame as sailors and traders ________________________________ Needed a quick way to wrote and hieroglyphics and cuneiform were to cumbersome __________________________________ Greeks later added __________________ Phoenicia ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________. Colonized: Syria, Cyprus, Libya, Tunisia, Italy, Malta, Algeria, Morocco and Spain, they were never warlords. Phoenician Colonies Phoenicia - 2 _______________________________________________________________________________________ Had a cultural identity between the peoples, mainly because of a ____________________________ Phoenicia - 3 Every main city was ruled by a king, who had to cooperate with strong representatives of merchant families Over time these representatives developed into councils that in the 1st millennium BC would dethrone the kings Phoenician Classes #1 wealthy merchant aristocrats #2, lesser businessmen, craftsmen, dealers, shopkeepers and entrepreneurs #3, normal working man The bottom, slaves ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Essential Questions: What were the main events that shaped the civilization and culture of the ancient Hebrews? How were the religious beliefs of the Hebrews unique in the ancient world? What moral values did the Hebrew prophets preach and how did they effect modern civilization? Covenant with God _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Ark of the Covenant _________________ Ancient Hebrew People - 1 Among the many groups who lived in the “Fertile Crescent” ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Originally a nomadic people Migrated to Egypt and were enslaved Moses led them out; 40 years wandering in the Sinai Ancient Hebrew People - 2 Eventually settled and conquered Canaan ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ Set up the ancient ___________________________________________________________________ Hebrew exodus from Egypt to Canaan Skillful Rulers - 1 David ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ Became King and united the tribes of Israel into one nation Skillful Rulers - 2 Solomon David’s son __________________________________ Build huge temple to God in Jerusalem __________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ Skillful Rulers - 3 Largest extent of Israel under King Solomon Division After death off Solomon, Kingdom of Israel was divided into two kingdoms _____________________________________________________________________________________ Conquest of the Hebrew Kingdoms Israel fell to Assyrians in 722 BC Judah fell to Nebuchadnezzar (Babylon) Great Temple destroyed Many Hebrews forced into exile in Babylon ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ Convenient with God Revisited Hebrew history and religion are interconnected _________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Ten Commandments ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Laws set out the ____________________________________________________________________ Profound effect upon Christianity Ten Commandments Other Laws Torah _____________________________________________________________________________________ Words of prophets Women in Hebrew Society In very ancient Hebrew society Women were often leaders ________________________________________________________________________ Women often not allowed to participate in religious ceremonies Scattering of the Jewish People ________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ Judaism Considered one of the great religions because it tremendously influenced both Christianity and Islam Summary
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