Early Civilizations First Civilizations: Africa and Asia



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Early Civilizations

  • First Civilizations: Africa and Asia

First Civilizations: Africa and Asia

  • Warm up #8
    • What role do rivers play in the shaping of civilizations living in arid conditions?

First Civilizations: Africa and Asia

  • Essential Questions:
    • What role did rivers play in the shaping of the first civilizations of Egypt and Mesopotamia?
    • How did trade, and migration spread ideas among early civilizations?
    • What were the major accomplishments of ancient Egyptian leaders?
    • How did religion effect ancient Egyptian society?
    • How did ancient Egyptians communicate?

First Civilizations: Africa and Asia

  • Essential questions (continued)
    • How did ancient Egyptians Communicate with the common person?
    • Who did the ancient Egyptians record their history?
    • What was the Rosetta stone and why was it important?
    • How can you write and read hieroglyphics?

Geography in the Nile Valley

  • Egypt is _________________– Herodotus (Greek historian)
  • Without the Nile Egypt would be a _________________
  • Egypt is mostly desert

Nile Valley

  • All through history villages line the banks of the Nile because it is the ___________ area of the region
    • ______________________________________________________
    • ______________________________________________________

Nile Valley

  • Nile formed a delta at its mouth to the __________________________________
    • Delta very fertile
  • Yearly Floods
    • ____________________________________
    • Great for farming

History of Egypt

  • Periods
  • During these periods power passed from one ruling family to another
  • Land remained united under one ruler
    • _____________________
      • 2700BC – 2200 BC
    • ______________________
      • 2050 BC – 1800 BC
    • ______________________
      • 1550 BC – 1100 BC

Old Kingdom of Egypt

  • Organized _________________________
  • Pharaohs ruled
    • ____________________________________
  • Justice and order
    • Vizier (Chief Minister)
  • __________________________________
    • When pharaohs built the majestic pyramids
      • ________________________________________
      • Took years/decades to build

Middle Kingdom of Egypt

  • Old Kingdom collapsed because of __________________________________(pyramids)
  • Middle Kingdom ___________________
  • Lots of corruption; rebellions common
  • ______________________________________________________________________________________________________

New Kingdom of Egypt

  • Started when Hyksos were driven out
  • ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
    • Expanded power to modern day Iraq

Queen Hatshepsut

  • Began by ruling in the name of a _________
  • Declared herself Pharaoh and won support of key leaders
  • _____________________________________________________________________________________

Things to know from the Video

  • 1- Why was Egypt in turmoil prior to the formation of the empire?
  • 2- What was the view most Egyptians had toward foreigners?
  • 3- Who were some of the unique and famous leaders of early Egypt?
  • 4- What were the major accomplishment of these leaders?

Map Activity #1

  • Complete map activity handed out in class
  • Next slide for instructions

Instructions for Map Activity

  • Title Map
  • Make a key
  • Find, identify, label, color the following:
    • Hittite Empire, Mesopotamia, Babylonian Empire, Tigris River, Euphrates River, Nile River, Old Egyptian Kingdom, New Egyptian Kingdom, Sumer, Red Sea, Persian Gulf, Thebes, and the Mediterranean Sea

Amennhotep III

  • Amennhotep III ruled for almost 40 years during the 18th Dynasty of Egypt's history
  • ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Amennhotep III

  • ______________________________________________________________________________________________________
  • Also a period of lavish luxury at the royal court
  • ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Amennhotep III

  • ____________________________________________________________________
  • The people in general did not
  • _________________________________
  • _________________________________

Akhenaten

  • ______________________________________________________________________________________________________
  • Declared that Aten was not merely the supreme god, _________________

Akhenaten

  • ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  • Inscriptions of the plural 'gods' were also removed
  • Akhenaten's chief wife was Nefertiti

Nefertiti

  • Mother-in-law and probable stepmother of the ____________
  • ____________________________________________________________________ the name Ankhkheprure Neferneferuaten

Nefertiti

  • Nefertiti and her husband were ______________________________________________________________________________________________________. They believed only in one god, Aten

Nefertiti

  • Nefertiti was also known throughout Egypt for her beauty. ____________________________________________________________________
  • Invented her own makeup using the Galena plant.

Nefertiti

  • About Year 14 of Akhenaten's reign (1336 BC), Nefertiti vanishes from the historical record, and there is no word of her after that date
  • ____________________________________________________________________

Tutankhamen

  • __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  • Tried to reverse the religious changes made by Akhenaten

Tutankhamen

  • The 1922 discovery by ____________________of Tutankhamen's intact tomb received worldwide press coverage and sparked a renewed public interest in ancient Egypt, for which Tutankhamen's burial mask remains the popular face

Ramses II

  • _____________________________________________________________________________________
  • Expanded Egypt toward modern day _______________
  • Fought the Hittites in Turkey

Decline of the New Kingdom

  • After Ramses dies Egypt is plagued by many weak Pharaohs
  • __________________________________
    • ______________________________
    • Greek
    • _______________________________

Egyptian Religion

  • _________________
  • _________________
  • Inherited their religious beliefs from their earliest ancestors

Egyptian Gods

  • Chief god was the sun god __________
  • linked to the sun god ___________________________________________________________________
    • Only the pharaoh could conduct ceremonies for the sun god

Other Gods

  • Osiris – ____________________________________________________________________
    • Ruled the underworld
    • God of the Nile
  • Isis
    • ________________

Other Gods

  • Set
    • ________________________________________________________________________
    • Vilified
    • __________________
      • Chopped up Osiris

Belief in the Afterlife

  • There are three elements to the Egyptian concept of soul
    • __________________
    • __________________
    • __________________(and its opposite Mut)

Ka

  • Ka
    • ________________________________________________________________________
    • The royal Ka symbolized a pharaoh’s right to rule, a universal force that passed from one pharaoh to the next.

Ba

  • Ba
    • _______________________________________________________________________.
    • The face of Ba was __________________________________________________________________________________________

Akh

  • _____________________________________________________________________________________
  • The transfigured spirit of a person that ____________ with light after death

Mut

  • The opposite of Akh is Mut (dead), the ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Mummification (ref National Geographic Magazine)

  • ____________________________________________________________________
  • More than 5,000 years ago, after burying their dead, the ancient Egyptians learned that the burning desert sands desiccated corpses
  • Instead of turning to dust, the skin shriveled up and clung to the bones

Mummification (ref National Geographic Magazine)

  • ______________________________________________________________________________________________________
  • Those who could afford to had their bodies painstakingly embalmed

Mummification (ref National Geographic Magazine)

  • Step one
    • __________________________________________________________________________________________
    • Looks like a ______________________________________________________

Mummification (ref National Geographic Magazine)

  • Step Two
    • ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
    • Place organs in __________________

Mummification (ref National Geographic Magazine)

  • Step Three
    • ________________________________________________________________________
    • Took moisture from the flesh and reduced odors
    • Some was stuffed inside the abdominal cavity
    • __________________

Mummification (ref National Geographic Magazine)

  • Step Four
    • 35 days later
    • __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Mummification (ref National Geographic Magazine)

  • Step Five
    • ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
    • A small amulet was placed over the only organ left inside, the __________________

Mummification (ref National Geographic Magazine)

  • __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
    • Prayer: “You are young again. You live again. You are young again. You live again. Forever.”
      • Ancient Egyptian prayer for the dead

Egyptian Society –1

  • Has a class system
  • #1 Pharaoh is both God and earthly leader
  • #2 High Priests and Priestesses
  • #3 Nobles
  • #4 Tiny class of merchants, artisans & scribes
  • #5 Peasant farmers
  • __________________________________

Egyptian Society - 2

  • __________________________________
    • Some farmers are slaves
    • ____________________________________
    • ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Egyptian Society - 3

  • Role of women
  • _________________________________
  • _________________________________
  • __________________________________
  • _________________________________
  • Could get divorced

Accomplishments of the Egyptians -1

  • Medicine
    • Magic
    • ___________________________________
    • ___________________________________
  • Astronomy
    • Mapped constellations
    • Calendar
      • ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Accomplishments of the Egyptians - 2

  • Arts and literature
  • Painting and sculpture
    • Statues
    • ____________________________________

Communication

  • _____________________________________________________________________________________
  • Believed that the ________________ as they thought it emerged from the ball of dung it lived in

Communication

  • ____________________________________________________________________
  • Small scarabs were sent for ___________________________________________________

Rosetta Stone

  • Key to understanding ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics
  • _________________________________
  • Had the same message in three types of script (__________________________________________________________________ )

Rosetta Stone

Egyptian Writing

  • Called Hieroglyphics
  • _________________________________
  • ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Hieroglyphics

  • A modern type of hieroglyphic writings would be a rebus. A rebus is a picture puzzle that can be "sounded out" by reading the sounds symbolized by the pictures. When these sounds are read aloud together, the statements often becomes obvious.
  • ______________________________________________________________________________________________________

Hieroglyphics

Egyptian Numbers

Hieroglyphic Exercise

  • Tasking
  • Individually write name using hieroglyphics
  • In pairs
    • Decipher messages you are given
  • Go further in pairs
    • Write a several sentence message that relates a fact about History in hieroglyphics and present it to class

Homework

  • Finish hieroglyphics message and be prepared to present

Early Civilizations - 2

  • First Civilizations: Africa and Asia Part 2

City States of Ancient Sumer (Mesopotamia)

  • Essential Questions
  • How did the geographic features encourage the rise of civilization in the fertile crescent?
  • How were the Sumerian government and society organized?
  • What were the main accomplishments of the Sumerian society?

City States of Ancient Sumer (Mesopotamia)

  • Essential Questions (continued)
    • How did the civilizations in Mesopotamia develop?
    • How did powerful rulers like Hammurabi influence the development of ancient societies?
    • What was the code of Hammurabi?

City States of Ancient Sumer –1

  • Geography
  • __________________________________
    • Between the __________________________
    • ______________ means “between the rivers”
    • These rivers are similar in function to the Nile in Egypt
      • Floods
      • ________________________________________

City States of Ancient Sumer–2

  • _____________________________________________________________________________________
  • 3500 BC
  • Babylon 500 BC

Ancient Sumer - 1

Ancient Sumer - 2

  • Sumer had few natural resources
  • First cities
    • Rectangular in size
    • ______________________________________________________
      • Pyramid design
      • _________________________________________________________

Ancient Sumer - 3

  • People
    • ____________________________________
    • Most common people lived in small houses
  • Economic life
    • _________________
    • _________________
    • Used river for transportation

Ancient Sumer – 4

  • Sumer and the Wheel
    • ________________________________________________________________________
  • Government
    • ____________________________________
    • Each had a ruler
    • Each had armies and war leaders

Ancient Sumer Social Classes

  • Each city-state had a distinct social class structure and hierarchy
    • #1 ___________________________
    • #2 Leading officials and high priests
    • #3 Small middle class of merchants and artisans
    • #4 Most people peasant farmers
    • Not in a class - Slaves
      • ________________________________________________________________________________

Women in Sumer

  • Early myths
    • Women were goddesses of the earth
  • ______________________________________________________________________________________________________
  • Men gained more power and rights

Sumer Religion

  • _________________________________
  • ____________________________________________________________________
  • Highest duty people had was to keep the gods happy
  • Believed in an afterlife
    • ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Sumer School

  • First writing
  • ____________________________________________________________________
  • Cuneiform developed
  • Grew out of ________________________
  • Evolved from 3200 BC to 500 BC

Cuneiform

Hammurabi -1

  • Born: 19th century BC
  • Birthplace: Babylon (now central Iraq)
  • Died: c. 1750 BC
  • Best known as: ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Hammurabi - 2

  • Ruled Babylon nearly 4 millennia ago (1792-1750BC)
  • ___________________________________________________
  • First years of his reign were spent consolidating his rule

Hammurabi - 3

  • Conquered his neighbors and untied all of Mesopotamia under his leadership
  • Organized captured territories
  • ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Code of Hammurabi - 1

  • One of the earliest known examples of human laws being defined and written down in an orderly way
  • ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  • Some laws are general (anyone caught committing robbery shall be put to death) and others are very specific (If anyone hire an ox driver, he shall pay him six gur of corn per year)

The Code

Code of Hammurabi - 2

  • In the introduction to the code, the King declares his desire to “_______________” and at the end he declares that through his enactments, “____________________________________________________________________________________________________”
  • Hammurabi stands out as one of the great ____________________ figures in history

Code Activity - 1

  • You are given a situation
  • Using your best judgment determine what you believe to be the outcome of the situation
  • Use primary source document (The Code) to see what Hammurabi would do
  • Write/type a Five (5) paragraph essay explaining how your opinion and that of Hammurabi’s differ or agree
  • Present to class

Code Activity - 2

  • Introduction
    • Give background on situation
  • Paragraph two
    • What your determination is and why
  • Paragraph three
    • Hammurabi’s determination and why
  • Paragraph four
    • Differences and/or similarities
  • Conclusion

Sumer Summary

Early Civilizations - 3

  • Other Group Contributions

Other Group Contributions

  • Essential Questions
  • What contributions to civilization did other groups like the Phoenicians and the Hebrews make to civilization?

Warfare and the Spread of Ideas-1

  • ______________________________________________________________________________________________________
  • However some, like the Hittites, sought to incorporate the ideas of those they defeated into their own society and culture
  • ______________________________________________________________________________________________________

Empire of the Hittites -1

  • Started18th century BC
  • _________________________________, encompassing a large part of present day Turkey, north-western Syria and eastward into upper Mesopotamia
  • Declined dramatically, after ca. 1180 BC, there were only some Hittite city-states

Two views of the Hittite Empire

Warfare and Spread of Ideas -2

  • Ironworking
  • ______________________________________________________________________________________________________
  • Iron
    • Stronger and cheaper than bronze or copper

Assyrians

  • Expanded from the Fertile Crescent
  • ___________________________________________________
  • _____________________________________________________________________________________

Assyrian Empire-1

  • Encompassed the Fertile Crescent, most of Egypt, Israel, Syria and Lebanon and southern Turkey

Assyrian Empire-2

  • Not just brutal
  • ____________________________________________________________________

Assyrian Empire -3

  • ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  • Babylonian Empire started soon after 612
  • _______________________________ one of its greatest leaders

Nebuchadnezzar and the Babylonian Empire

  • Nebuchadnezzar
  • Effective ruler
  • _____________________________________________________________________________________
  • Advanced the study of Astronomy

Persian Empire - 1

Persian Empire - 2

  • Grew during 500BC
  • Took Babylon
  • Made up the biggest empire in the known world for a time
    • Turkey to India
    • Entire Middle East

Persian Empire - 2

  • Expanded tremendously under the leadership of Darius the Great
  • _________________________________
  • __________________________________
  • __________________________________
  • Had a single code of laws
  • Used propaganda well

Darius the Great

Persian Empire - 3

  • Economics under Darius
  • _______________________________
  • Replaced barter system
  • _______________________________
  • Built up communications
  • _______________________________

Persian Religion

  • Zoroaster
  • Born: 628 B.C. Birthplace: Iran Died: 551 B.C.
  • ______________________________________________________________________________________________________

Persian Religion: Zoroastrianism -1

  • It emphasizes that _____________________________________________, in the form of Ormuzd (_________________________) and Ahriman (_________________________), both ultimately descended from the Wise Lord, _____________
  • Active participation in life through good thoughts, good words and good deeds is necessary to ensure happiness and to keep the chaos at bay. This active participation is a central element in Zoroaster's concept of ____________________

Persian Religion: Zoroastrianism - 2

  • ______________________________________
  • In the final renovation, all of creation—even the souls of the dead that were initially banished to "darkness"—will be reunited in Ahura Mazda returning to life in the undead form. ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Persian Religion: Zoroastrianism -3

  • __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  • The holy book of Zoroastrianism is the Avesta, which includes the hymns of Zoroaster (The Gathas, from which most of his biographical information comes), liturgical texts and prayers

Persian Religion: Zoroastrianism -4

The Phoenicians

  • Gained fame as sailors and traders
  • ________________________________
    • Needed a quick way to wrote and hieroglyphics and cuneiform were to cumbersome
  • __________________________________
  • Greeks later added __________________

Phoenicia

  • ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________.
  • Colonized: Syria, Cyprus, Libya, Tunisia, Italy, Malta, Algeria, Morocco and Spain, they were never warlords.

Phoenician Colonies

Phoenicia - 2

  • _______________________________________________________________________________________
  • Had a cultural identity between the peoples, mainly because of a ____________________________

Phoenicia - 3

  • Every main city was ruled by a king, who had to cooperate with strong representatives of merchant families
  • Over time these representatives developed into councils that in the 1st millennium BC would dethrone the kings

Phoenician Classes

  • #1 wealthy merchant aristocrats
  • #2, lesser businessmen, craftsmen, dealers, shopkeepers and entrepreneurs
  • #3, normal working man
  • The bottom, slaves
    • ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

The World of the Hebrews

  • Essential Questions:
  • What were the main events that shaped the civilization and culture of the ancient Hebrews?
  • How were the religious beliefs of the Hebrews unique in the ancient world?
  • What moral values did the Hebrew prophets preach and how did they effect modern civilization?

Covenant with God

  • _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  • Ark of the Covenant
  • _________________

Ancient Hebrew People - 1

  • Among the many groups who lived in the “Fertile Crescent”
  • ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  • Originally a nomadic people
    • Migrated to Egypt and were enslaved
    • Moses led them out; 40 years wandering in the Sinai

Ancient Hebrew People - 2

  • Eventually settled and conquered Canaan
    • Present day Israel
  • ______________________________________________________________________________________________________
  • Set up the ancient ___________________________________________________________________

Hebrew exodus from Egypt to Canaan

Skillful Rulers - 1

  • David
  • ______________________________________________________________________________________________________
  • Became King and united the tribes of Israel into one nation

Skillful Rulers - 2

  • Solomon
  • David’s son
  • __________________________________
  • Build huge temple to God in Jerusalem
  • __________________________________
  • ______________________________________________________________________________________________________

Skillful Rulers - 3

  • Largest extent of Israel under King Solomon

Division

  • After death off Solomon, Kingdom of Israel was divided into two kingdoms
  • _____________________________________________________________________________________

Conquest of the Hebrew Kingdoms

  • Israel fell to Assyrians in 722 BC
  • Judah fell to Nebuchadnezzar (Babylon)
    • Great Temple destroyed
    • Many Hebrews forced into exile in Babylon
      • Babylonian captivity
  • ______________________________________________________________________________________________________

Convenient with God Revisited

  • Hebrew history and religion are interconnected
  • _________________________________
  • __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Ten Commandments

  • ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  • Laws set out the ____________________________________________________________________
  • Profound effect upon Christianity

Ten Commandments

Other Laws

  • Torah
  • _____________________________________________________________________________________
  • Words of prophets

Women in Hebrew Society

  • In very ancient Hebrew society
    • Women were often leaders
    • ________________________________________________________________________
    • Women often not allowed to participate in religious ceremonies

Scattering of the Jewish People

  • ________________________________
  • ______________________________________________________________________________________________________
  • ______________________________________________________________________________________________________

Judaism

  • Considered one of the great religions because it tremendously influenced both Christianity and Islam

Summary



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