DR. kanupriya chaturvedi



Download 46,72 Kb.
Date conversion04.06.2017
Size46,72 Kb.
  • To know about the epidemiology of the disease
  • To understand the pathogenesis of rheumatic heart disease
  • To know about the clinical features: cardiac & non-cardiac manifestations
  • To learn about the laboratory studies for RHD
  • To understand the principles of management

Autoimmune consequence of infection with Group A streptococcal infection

  • Autoimmune consequence of infection with Group A streptococcal infection
  • Results in a generalised inflammatory response affecting brains, joints, skin, subcutaneous tissues and the heart.
  • The clinical presentation can be vague and difficult to diagnose.
  • Currently, the modified Duckett-Jones criteria form the basis of the diagnosis of the condition.

Rheumatic diseases are defined by the constellation of results of the physical examination, autoimmune marker and other serologic tests, tissue pathology, and imaging.

  • Rheumatic diseases are defined by the constellation of results of the physical examination, autoimmune marker and other serologic tests, tissue pathology, and imaging.
  • Recognition of clinical patterns remains essential for diagnosis because there is no single diagnostic test and results may be positive in the absence of disease.

Rheumatic Heart Disease is the permanent heart valve damage resulting from one or more attacks of ARF.

  • Rheumatic Heart Disease is the permanent heart valve damage resulting from one or more attacks of ARF.
  • It is thought that 40-60% of patients with ARF will go on to developing RHD.
  • The commonest valves affecting are the mitral and aortic, in that order. However all four valves can be affected

Rheumatic fever is thought to result from an inflammatory autoimmune response.

  • Rheumatic fever is thought to result from an inflammatory autoimmune response.
  • Rheumatic fever only develops in children and adolescents following group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal pharyngitis, and only streptococcal infections of the pharynx initiate or reactivate rheumatic fever.
  • Genetic studies show strong correlation between progression to rheumatic heart disease and human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR class II alleles and the inflammatory protein-encoding genes MBL2 and TNFA.

Both clones of heart tissue–infiltrating T cells and antibodies have been found to be cross-reactive with beta-hemolytic streptococcus.

  • Both clones of heart tissue–infiltrating T cells and antibodies have been found to be cross-reactive with beta-hemolytic streptococcus.
  • Interferon (IFN)-gamma, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, and interleukin (IL)-10-(+) cells are consistently predominant in valvular tissue, whereas IL-4 regulatory cytokine expression is consistently low.
  • The proposed pathophysiology for development of rheumatic heart disease is as follows:
    • Cross-reactive antibodies bind to cardiac tissue facilitating infiltration of streptococcal-primed CD4+ T cells, which then trigger an autoimmune reaction releasing inflammatory cytokines (including TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma).
    • Because few IL-4–producing cells are present in valvular tissue, inflammation persists, leading to valvular lesions

In 0.3-3% of cases, infection leads to rheumatic fever several weeks after the sore throat has resolved.

  • In 0.3-3% of cases, infection leads to rheumatic fever several weeks after the sore throat has resolved.
  • The organism spreads by direct contact with oral or respiratory secretions, and spread is enhanced by crowded living conditions.
  • Patients remain infected for weeks after symptomatic resolution of pharyngitis and may serve as a reservoir for infecting others.

Group A Streptococcus is a gram-positive coccus that frequently colonizes the skin and oropharynx. This organism may cause suppurative disease, such as pharyngitis, impetigo, cellulitis, myositis, pneumonia, and puerperal sepsis.

  • Group A Streptococcus is a gram-positive coccus that frequently colonizes the skin and oropharynx. This organism may cause suppurative disease, such as pharyngitis, impetigo, cellulitis, myositis, pneumonia, and puerperal sepsis.
  • It also may be associated with nonsuppurative disease, such as rheumatic fever and acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis.
  • Group A streptococci elaborate the cytolytic toxins streptolysins S and O.
  • Of these, streptolysin O induces persistently high antibody titers that provide a useful marker of group A streptococcal infection and its nonsuppurative complications

Rheumatic fever develops in some children and adolescents following pharyngitis with group A beta-hemolytic Streptococcus

  • Rheumatic fever develops in some children and adolescents following pharyngitis with group A beta-hemolytic Streptococcus
  • The organisms attach to the epithelial cells of the upper respiratory tract and produce a battery of enzymes allowing them to damage and invade human tissues.
  • After an incubation period of 2-4 days, the invading organisms elicit an acute inflammatory response with 3-5 days of sore throat, fever, malaise, headache, and an elevated leukocyte count

Group A Streptococcus, as identified using the Lancefield classification, has a group A carbohydrate antigen in the cell wall that is composed of a branched polymer of L- rhamnose and N- acetyl-D-glucosamine in a 2:1 ratio.

  • Group A Streptococcus, as identified using the Lancefield classification, has a group A carbohydrate antigen in the cell wall that is composed of a branched polymer of L- rhamnose and N- acetyl-D-glucosamine in a 2:1 ratio.
  • Group A streptococci may be subserotyped by surface proteins on the cell wall of the organism.
  • The presence of the M protein is the most important virulence factor for group A streptococcal infection in humans

Acute rheumatic heart disease often produces a pancarditis characterized by endocarditis, myocarditis, and pericarditis.

  • Acute rheumatic heart disease often produces a pancarditis characterized by endocarditis, myocarditis, and pericarditis.
  • Endocarditis is manifested as valve insufficiency.
  • The mitral valve is most commonly and severely affected (65-70% of patients), and the aortic valve is second in frequency (25%).
  • The tricuspid valve is deformed in only 10% of patients and is almost always associated with mitral and aortic lesions.
  • The pulmonary valve is rarely affected.
  • Pericarditis, when present, rarely affects cardiac function or results in constrictive pericarditis

Chronic manifestations due to residual and progressive valve deformity occur in 9-39% of adults with previous rheumatic heart disease.

  • Chronic manifestations due to residual and progressive valve deformity occur in 9-39% of adults with previous rheumatic heart disease.
  • Fusion of the valve apparatus resulting in stenosis or a combination of stenosis and insufficiency develops 2-10 years after an episode of acute rheumatic fever, and recurrent episodes may cause progressive damage to the valves.
  • Fusion occurs at the level of the valve commissures, cusps, chordal attachments, or any combination of these.
  • Rheumatic heart disease is responsible for 99% of mitral valve stenosis in adults in the United States

At this time, rheumatic fever is uncommon among children in the United States.

  • At this time, rheumatic fever is uncommon among children in the United States.
  • Incidence of rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease has decreased in the United States and other industrialized countries in the past 80 years.
  • Decreased incidence of rheumatic fever has been attributed to the introduction of penicillin or a change in the virulence of the Streptococcus.

Mortality/Morbidity

  • Mortality/Morbidity
    • Rheumatic heart disease is the major cause of morbidity from rheumatic fever and the major cause of mitral insufficiency and stenosis in the United States and the world.
    • Variables that correlate with severity of valve disease include the number of previous attacks of rheumatic fever, the length of time between the onset of disease and start of therapy, and sex.
    • The disease is more severe in females than in males. Insufficiency from acute rheumatic valve disease resolves in 60-80% of patients who adhere to antibiotic prophylaxis

Race

  • Race
    • Native Hawaiian and Maori (both of Polynesian descent) have a higher incidence of rheumatic fever (13.4 per 100,000 hospitalized children per year), even with antibiotic prophylaxis of streptococcal pharyngitis. Otherwise, race (when controlled for socioeconomic variables) has not been documented to influence disease incidence.
  • Sex
    • Rheumatic fever occurs in equal numbers in males and females, but the prognosis is worse for females than for males.
  • Age
    • Rheumatic fever is principally a disease of childhood, with a median age of 10 years, although it also occurs in adults (20% of cases).
  • Prevalence of RHD -0.67/1000 to 0.12/1000 children
  • (Periwal et al Bikaner) 2006
  • RHD prevalence of 0.5 per 1000 children
  • (Misra et al. 2003 -2006)

The incidence of RF in Developing countries is 27-100/1 lac /yr

  • The incidence of RF in Developing countries is 27-100/1 lac /yr
  • (G.S.Sainani 2006)
  • The incidence of rheumatic fever (RF) varies from 0.2 to 0.75/1000/ year in schoolchildren 5–15 years of age (2001 Govt. Census)
  • (Anil Grover,Padamavati S et al, et.al INJ 2002)

A diagnosis of rheumatic heart disease is made after confirming antecedent rheumatic fever.

  • A diagnosis of rheumatic heart disease is made after confirming antecedent rheumatic fever.
  • The modified Jones criteria (revised in 1992) provide guidelines for the diagnosis of rheumatic fever.
  • The Jones criteria require the presence of 2 major or 1 major and 2 minor criteria for the diagnosis of rheumatic fever.
  • The major diagnostic criteria include carditis, polyarthritis, chorea, subcutaneous nodules, and erythema marginatum.
  • The minor diagnostic criteria include fever, arthralgia, prolonged PR interval on ECG, elevated acute phase reactants (increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate, presence of C-reactive protein, and leukocytosis.
  • One of the following must be present:
    • -Positive throat culture or rapid streptococcal antigen test result
    • -Elevated or rising streptococcal antibody titer
    • -History of previous rheumatic fever or rheumatic heart disease

Physical findings in a patient with rheumatic heart disease include cardiac and noncardiac manifestations of acute rheumatic fever.

  • Physical findings in a patient with rheumatic heart disease include cardiac and noncardiac manifestations of acute rheumatic fever.
  • Some patients develop cardiac manifestations of chronic rheumatic heart disease

Pancarditis is the most serious and second most common complication of rheumatic fever (50%).

  • Pancarditis is the most serious and second most common complication of rheumatic fever (50%).
  • In advanced cases, patients may complain of dyspnea, mild-to-moderate chest discomfort, pleuritic chest pain, edema, cough, or orthopnea.
  • Upon physical examination, carditis is most commonly detected by a new murmur and tachycardia out of proportion to fever.
  • New or changing murmurs are considered necessary for a diagnosis of rheumatic valvulitis.
  • Other cardiac manifestations include congestive heart failure and pericarditis.

The murmurs of acute rheumatic fever are typically due to valve insufficiency.

  • The murmurs of acute rheumatic fever are typically due to valve insufficiency.
  • The following murmurs are most commonly observed during acute rheumatic fever:
    • Apical pansystolic murmur is a high-pitched, blowing-quality murmur of mitral regurgitation that radiates to the left axilla.
    • Apical diastolic murmur (also known as a Carey-Coombs murmur) is heard with active carditis and accompanies severe mitral insufficiency..
    • Basal diastolic murmur is an early diastolic murmur of aortic regurgitation and is high-pitched, blowing, decrescendo, and heard best along the right upper and mid-left sternal border after deep expiration while the patient is leaning forward.

Congestive heart failure

  • Congestive heart failure
    • Heart failure may develop secondary to severe valve insufficiency or myocarditis.
    • The physical findings associated with heart failure include tachypnea, orthopnea, jugular venous distention, rales, hepatomegaly, a gallop rhythm, edema, and swelling of the peripheral extremities.
  • Pericarditis
    • A pericardial friction rub indicates that pericarditis is present.
    • Increased cardiac dullness to percussion and muffled heart sounds are consistent with pericardial effusion.
    • A paradoxical pulse (and accentuated fall in systolic blood pressure with inspiration) with decreased systemic pressure and perfusion and evidence of diastolic indentation of the right ventricle on echocardiogram reflect impending pericardial tamponade.

Common noncardiac (and diagnostic) manifestations of acute rheumatic fever include polyarthritis, chorea, erythema marginatum, and subcutaneous nodules.

  • Common noncardiac (and diagnostic) manifestations of acute rheumatic fever include polyarthritis, chorea, erythema marginatum, and subcutaneous nodules.
  • Other clinical, noncardiac manifestations include abdominal pain, arthralgias, epistaxis, fever, and rheumatic pneumonia.
    • Polyarthritis is the most common symptom and is frequently the earliest manifestation of acute rheumatic fever (70-75%).
    • The arthritis reaches maximum severity in 12-24 hours, persists for 2-6 days (rarely more than 3 wk) at each site, and rapidly responds to aspirin.
    • Sydenham chorea occurs in 10-30% of patients with rheumatic fever.
    • Physical findings include hyperextended joints, hypotonia, diminished deep tendon reflexes, tongue fasciculations

A long latency period (1-6 mo) between streptococcal pharyngitis and the onset of chorea is observed.

  • A long latency period (1-6 mo) between streptococcal pharyngitis and the onset of chorea is observed.
  • Patients with chorea often do not demonstrate other Jones criteria.It is also known as rheumatic chorea, Sydenham chorea, chorea minor, and St Vitus dance.
  • Daily handwriting samples can be used as an indicator of progression or resolution of disease.
  • Complete resolution of the symptoms typically occurs with improvement in 1-2 weeks and full recovery in 2-3 months.

Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS) may be associated with chorea.

  • Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS) may be associated with chorea.
  • Children have been identified in whom group A streptococcal infection appears to have triggered a relapsing-remitting symptom complex characterized by obsessive-compulsive disorder), and neurologic abnormalities, such as cognitive defects and motoric hyperactivity.
  • The symptoms are prepubertal in onset and may include emotional lability, separation anxiety, and oppositional behaviors.
  • Streptococcal infection has been proposed to trigger the formation of antibodies that cross-react with the basal ganglia of genetically susceptible hosts in a manner similar to the proposed mechanism for Sydenham chorea, thus causing the symptom complex.

Erythema marginatum, also known as erythema annulare, is a characteristic rash that occurs in 5-13% of patients with acute rheumatic fever.

  • Erythema marginatum, also known as erythema annulare, is a characteristic rash that occurs in 5-13% of patients with acute rheumatic fever.
  • It begins as 1-3 cm in diameter, pink-to-red nonpruritic macules or papules located on the trunk and proximal limbs but never on the face.
  • The lesions spread outward to form a serpiginous ring with erythematous raised margins and central clearing.
  • The rash may fade and reappear within hours and is exacerbated by heat.
  • If the lesions are not well visualized, they can be accentuated by the application of warm towels, a hot bath, or the use of tangential lighting.
  • The rash occurs early in the course of the disease and remains long past the resolution of other symptoms

Subcutaneous nodules are currently an infrequent manifestation of rheumatic fever.

  • Subcutaneous nodules are currently an infrequent manifestation of rheumatic fever.
  • When present, the nodules appear over the extensor surfaces of the elbows, knees, ankles, knuckles, and on the scalp and spinous processes of the lumbar and thoracic vertebrae where they are attached to the tendon sheath.
  • They are firm, nontender, and free from attachments to the overlying skin and range in size from a few mm to 1-2 cm.
  • They vary in number from one to dozens (mean 3-4). Subcutaneous nodules generally occur several weeks into the disease and resolve within a month.
  • These nodules are strongly associated with severe rheumatic carditis, and, in the absence of carditis, the diagnosis of subcutaneous nodules should be questioned.

Abdominal pain usually occurs at the onset of acute rheumatic fever.

  • Abdominal pain usually occurs at the onset of acute rheumatic fever.
  • This pain resembles abdominal pain from other conditions with acute microvascular mesenteric inflammation and may mimic acute appendicitis.
  • Epistaxis may be associated with severe protracted rheumatic carditis.
  • Fevers above 39°C with no characteristic pattern are initially present in almost every case of acute rheumatic fever.
  • Patients with rheumatic pneumonia present with the same signs as patients with infectious pneumonia.
  • Rheumatic pneumonia should be differentiated from respiratory distress related to congestive heart failure

Valve deformities, thromboembolism, cardiac hemolytic anemia, and atrial arrhythmias are the most common cardiac manifestations of chronic rheumatic heart disease.

  • Valve deformities, thromboembolism, cardiac hemolytic anemia, and atrial arrhythmias are the most common cardiac manifestations of chronic rheumatic heart disease.
  • Mitral stenosis occurs in 25% of patients with chronic rheumatic heart disease and in association with mitral insufficiency in another 40%.
  • Progressive fibrosis (ie, thickening and calcification of the valve) takes place over time, resulting in enlargement of the left atrium and formation of mural thrombi in that chamber.
  • The stenotic valve is funnel-shaped, with a "fish mouth" resemblance. Upon auscultation, S1 is initially accentuated but becomes reduced as the leaflets thicken. P2 becomes accentuated, and the splitting of S2 decreases as pulmonary hypertension develops.
  • An opening snap of the mitral valve often is heard at the apex, where a diastolic filling murmur also is heard.

Aortic stenosis from chronic rheumatic heart disease is typically associated with aortic insufficiency.

  • Aortic stenosis from chronic rheumatic heart disease is typically associated with aortic insufficiency.
  • The valve commissures and cusps become adherent and fused, and the valve orifice becomes small with a round or triangular shape.
  • Upon auscultation, S2 may be single because the aortic leaflets are immobile and do not produce an aortic closure sound.
  • The systolic and diastolic murmurs of aortic valve stenosis and insufficiency are heard best at the base of the heart.
  • Thromboembolism occurs as a complication of mitral stenosis.
  • It is more likely to occur when the left atrium is dilated, cardiac output is decreased, and the patient is in atrial fibrillation

Cardiac hemolytic anemia is related to disruption of the RBCs by a deformed valve.

  • Cardiac hemolytic anemia is related to disruption of the RBCs by a deformed valve.
  • Increased destruction and replacement of platelets also may occur.
  • Atrial arrhythmias are typically related to a chronically enlarged left atrium.
  • Successful cardioversion of atrial fibrillation to sinus rhythm is more likely to be successful if the left atrium is not markedly enlarged, the mitral stenosis is mild, and the patient has been in atrial fibrillation for less than 6 months.

Throat culture

  • Throat culture
    • Throat culture findings for group A beta hemolytic Streptococcus are usually negative by the time symptoms of rheumatic fever or rheumatic heart disease appear.
  • Rapid antigen detection test
    • This test allows rapid detection of group A streptococcal antigen and allows the diagnosis of streptococcal pharyngitis and the initiation of antibiotic therapy while the patient is still in the physician's office.

Antistreptococcal antibodies

  • Antistreptococcal antibodies
    • The clinical features of rheumatic fever begin at the time antistreptococcal antibody levels are at their peak.
    • The elevated level of antistreptococcal antibodies is useful, particularly in patients that present with chorea as the only diagnostic criterion.
    • Sensitivity for recent infections can be improved by testing for several antibodies.
    • Antibody titers should be checked at 2-week intervals in order to detect a rising titer.
    • The most common extracellular antistreptococcal antibodies tested include antistreptolysin O (ASO), antideoxyribonuclease (DNAse) B, antihyaluronidase, antistreptokinase, antistreptococcal esterase, and anti-DNA.

Antibody tests for cellular components of group A streptococcal antigens include antistreptococcal polysaccharide, antiteichoic acid antibody, and anti–M protein antibody.

    • Antibody tests for cellular components of group A streptococcal antigens include antistreptococcal polysaccharide, antiteichoic acid antibody, and anti–M protein antibody.
    • In general, the ratio of antibodies to extracellular streptococcal antigens rises during the first month after infection and then plateaus for 3-6 months before returning to normal levels after 6-12 months.
    • When the ASO titer peaks (2-3 wk after the onset of rheumatic fever), the sensitivity of this test is 80-85%.
    • The anti-DNAse B has a slightly higher sensitivity (90%) for detecting rheumatic fever or acute glomerulonephritis.
    • Antihyaluronidase results are frequently abnormal in rheumatic fever patients with a normal level of ASO titer and may rise earlier and persist longer than elevated ASO titers during rheumatic fever

Acute phase reactants

  • Acute phase reactants
    • The C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate are elevated in rheumatic fever due to the inflammatory nature of the disease. Both tests have a high sensitivity but low specificity for rheumatic fever..
  • Heart reactive antibodies
    • Tropomyosin is elevated in acute rheumatic fever.
  • Rapid detection test for D8/17
    • This immunofluorescence technique for identifying the B cell marker D8/17 is positive in 90% of patients with rheumatic fever

Chest roentgenography

  • Chest roentgenography
    • Cardiomegaly, pulmonary congestion, and other findings consistent with heart failure may be seen on chest radiography.
    • When the patient has fever and respiratory distress, chest radiography helps differentiate heart failure from rheumatic pneumonia.
  • Doppler-echocardiogram
    • In acute rheumatic heart disease, Doppler-echocardiography identifies and quantitates valve insufficiency and ventricular dysfunction.
    • With mild carditis, Doppler evidence of mitral regurgitation may be present during the acute phase of disease but resolves in weeks to months.
    • The most important echocardiographic features of mitral regurgitation from acute rheumatic valvulitis are annular dilatation, elongation of the chordae to the anterior leaflet, and a posterolaterally directed mitral regurgitation jet.
    • During acute rheumatic fever, the left ventricle is frequently dilated in association with a normal or increased fractional shortening.
    • In chronic rheumatic heart disease, echocardiography may be used to track the progression of valve stenosis and may help determine the time for surgical intervention.

Heart catheterization

  • Heart catheterization
    • In acute rheumatic heart disease, this procedure is not indicated.
    • With chronic disease, heart catheterization has been performed to evaluate mitral and aortic valve disease and to balloon stenotic mitral valves.
    • Postcatheterization precautions include hemorrhage, pain, nausea and vomiting, and arterial or venous obstruction from thrombosis or spasm.
    • Complications may include mitral insufficiency after balloon dilation of the mitral valve, tachyarrhythmias, bradyarrhythmias, and vascular occlusion

On ECG, sinus tachycardia most frequently accompanies acute rheumatic heart disease. Alternatively, some children develop sinus bradycardia from increased vagal tone.

  • On ECG, sinus tachycardia most frequently accompanies acute rheumatic heart disease. Alternatively, some children develop sinus bradycardia from increased vagal tone.
  • First-degree atrioventricular (AV) block (prolongation of the PR interval) is observed in some patients with rheumatic heart disease.
  • First-degree AV block is a nonspecific finding and should not be used as a criterion for the diagnosis of rheumatic heart disease.

Second-degree (intermittent) and third-degree (complete) AV block with progression to ventricular standstill have been described

  • Second-degree (intermittent) and third-degree (complete) AV block with progression to ventricular standstill have been described
  • When acute rheumatic fever is associated with pericarditis, ST segment elevation may be present and is marked most in lead II, III, aVF, and V4 -V6.
  • Patients with rheumatic heart disease also may develop atrial flutter, multifocal atrial tachycardia, or atrial fibrillation from chronic mitral valve disease and atrial dilation.

On ECG, sinus tachycardia most frequently accompanies acute rheumatic heart disease.

  • On ECG, sinus tachycardia most frequently accompanies acute rheumatic heart disease.
  • Alternatively, some children develop sinus bradycardia from increased vagal tone. No correlation between bradycardia and the severity of the carditis is noted.
  • First-degree atrioventricular (AV) block (prolongation of the PR interval) is observed in some patients with rheumatic heart disease.
  • This abnormality may be related to localized myocardial inflammation involving the AV node or to vasculitis involving the AV nodal artery. First-degree AV block is a nonspecific finding and should not be used as a criterion for the diagnosis of rheumatic heart disease.
  • Its presence does not correlate with the development of chronic rheumatic heart disease.

Second-degree (intermittent) and third-degree (complete) AV block with progression to ventricular standstill have been described.

  • Second-degree (intermittent) and third-degree (complete) AV block with progression to ventricular standstill have been described.
  • Heart block in the setting of rheumatic fever, however, typically resolves with the rest of the disease process.
  • When acute rheumatic fever is associated with pericarditis, ST segment elevation may be present and is marked most in lead II, III, aVF, and V4 -V6.
  • Patients with rheumatic heart disease also may develop atrial flutter, multifocal atrial tachycardia, or atrial fibrillation from chronic mitral valve disease and atrial dilation.

Pathologic examination of the insufficient valves may reveal verrucous lesions at the line of closure.

  • Pathologic examination of the insufficient valves may reveal verrucous lesions at the line of closure.
  • Aschoff bodies (perivascular foci of eosinophilic collagen surrounded by lymphocytes, plasma cells, and macrophages) are found in the pericardium, perivascular regions of the myocardium, and endocardium.
  • Anitschkow cells are plump macrophages within Aschoff bodies.
  • In the pericardium, fibrinous and serofibrinous exudates may produce an appearance of "bread and butter" pericarditis

Medical therapy in rheumatic heart disease includes attempts to prevent rheumatic fever (and thus rheumatic heart disease).

  • Medical therapy in rheumatic heart disease includes attempts to prevent rheumatic fever (and thus rheumatic heart disease).
  • In patients who develop rheumatic heart disease, therapy is directed toward eliminating the group A streptococcal pharyngitis (if still present), suppressing inflammation from the autoimmune response, and providing supportive treatment for congestive heart failure.
  • Following the resolution of the acute episode, subsequent therapy is directed towards preventing recurrent rheumatic heart disease in children and monitoring for the complications and sequelae of chronic rheumatic heart disease in adults.

For patients with GABHS pharyngitis, a meta-analysis supports a protective effect against rheumatic fever when penicillin is used following the diagnosis.[7]

  • For patients with GABHS pharyngitis, a meta-analysis supports a protective effect against rheumatic fever when penicillin is used following the diagnosis.[7]
  • Oral (PO) penicillin V remains the drug of choice for treatment of GABHS pharyngitis, but ampicillin and amoxicillin are equally effective.
  • When PO penicillin is not feasible or dependable, a single dose of intramuscular benzathine penicillin G or benzathine/procaine penicillin combination is therapeutic.
  • For patients who are allergic to penicillin, administer erythromycin or a first-generation cephalosporin. Other options include clarithromycin for 10 days, azithromycin for 5 days, or a narrow-spectrum (first-generation) cephalosporin for 10 days. As many as 15% of patients who are allergic to penicillin are also allergic to cephalosporins.
  • Do not use tetracyclines or sulfonamides to treat GABHS pharyngitis.

For recurrent group A streptococci (GAS) pharyngitis, a second 10-day course of the same antibiotic may be repeated. Alternate drugs include narrow-spectrum cephalosporins, amoxicillin-clavulanate, dicloxacillin, erythromycin, or other macrolides.

  • For recurrent group A streptococci (GAS) pharyngitis, a second 10-day course of the same antibiotic may be repeated. Alternate drugs include narrow-spectrum cephalosporins, amoxicillin-clavulanate, dicloxacillin, erythromycin, or other macrolides.
  • Control measures for patients with GABHS pharyngitis are as follows:
  • Hospitalized patients: Place hospitalized patients with GABHS pharyngitis of pneumonia on droplet precautions, as well as standard precautions, until 24 hours after initiation of appropriate antibiotics.
  • Exposed persons: People in contact with patients having documented cases of streptococcal infection first should undergo appropriate laboratory testing if they have clinical evidence of GABHS infection and should undergo antibiotic therapy if infected.
  • School and childcare centers: Children with GABHS infection should not attend school or childcare centers for the first 24 hours after initiating antimicrobial therapy.

For recurrent group A streptococci (GAS) pharyngitis, a second 10-day course of the same antibiotic may be repeated.

  • For recurrent group A streptococci (GAS) pharyngitis, a second 10-day course of the same antibiotic may be repeated.
  • Alternate drugs include narrow-spectrum cephalosporins, amoxicillin-clavulanate, dicloxacillin, erythromycin, or other macrolides.
  • Control measures for patients with GABHS pharyngitis are as follows:
    • Hospitalized patients: Place hospitalized patients with GABHS pharyngitis of pneumonia on droplet precautions, as well as standard precautions, until 24 hours after initiation of appropriate antibiotics.
    • Exposed persons: People in contact with patients having documented cases of streptococcal infection first should undergo appropriate laboratory testing if they have clinical evidence of GABHS infection and should undergo antibiotic therapy if infected.
    • School and childcare centers: Children with GABHS infection should not attend school or childcare centers for the first 24 hours after initiating antimicrobial therapy.

Therapy is directed towards eliminating the GABHS pharyngitis (if still present), suppressing inflammation from the autoimmune response, and providing supportive treatment of congestive heart failure.

  • Therapy is directed towards eliminating the GABHS pharyngitis (if still present), suppressing inflammation from the autoimmune response, and providing supportive treatment of congestive heart failure.
  • Treat residual GABHS pharyngitis as outlined above, if still present.
  • Treatment of the acute inflammatory manifestations of acute rheumatic fever consists of salicylates and steroids.
  • Aspirin in anti-inflammatory doses effectively reduces all manifestations of the disease except chorea, and the response is typically dramatic.
  • If rapid improvement is not observed after 24-36 hours of therapy, question the diagnosis of rheumatic fever.

Attempt to obtain aspirin blood levels from 20-25 mg/dL, but stable levels may be difficult to achieve during the inflammatory phase because of variable GI absorption of the drug.

  • Attempt to obtain aspirin blood levels from 20-25 mg/dL, but stable levels may be difficult to achieve during the inflammatory phase because of variable GI absorption of the drug.
  • Maintain aspirin at anti-inflammatory doses until the signs and symptoms of acute rheumatic fever are resolved or residing (6-8 wk) and the acute phase reactants (APRs) have returned to normal.
  • Anti-inflammatory doses of aspirin may be associated with abnormal liver function tests and GI toxicity, and adjusting the aspirin dosage may be necessary.
  • When discontinuing therapy, withdraw aspirin gradually over weeks while monitoring the APRs for evidence of rebound.
  • Chorea is most frequently self-limited but may be alleviated or partially controlled with phenobarbital or diazepam

If moderate to severe carditis is present as indicated by cardiomegaly, third-degree heart block or congestive heart failure, substitute PO prednisone for salicylate therapy.

  • If moderate to severe carditis is present as indicated by cardiomegaly, third-degree heart block or congestive heart failure, substitute PO prednisone for salicylate therapy.
  • Continue prednisone for 2-6 weeks depending on the severity of the carditis, and taper prednisone during the final week(s) of therapy.
  • Weaning prednisone therapy after a shorter period (2-4 weeks) while initiating and maintaining salicylates for several weeks can minimize adverse effects of the steroids while preventing rebound of the carditis.

Include digoxin and diuretics, afterload reduction, supplemental oxygen, bed rest, and sodium and fluid restriction as additional treatment for patients with acute rheumatic fever and heart failure.

  • Include digoxin and diuretics, afterload reduction, supplemental oxygen, bed rest, and sodium and fluid restriction as additional treatment for patients with acute rheumatic fever and heart failure.
  • The diuretics most commonly used in conjunction with digoxin for children with heart failure include furosemide and spironolactone.
  • Initiate digoxin only after checking electrolytes and correcting hypokalemia.
  • Include digoxin and diuretics, afterload reduction, supplemental oxygen, bed rest, and sodium and fluid restriction as additional treatment for patients with acute rheumatic fever and heart failure.
  • The diuretics most commonly used in conjunction with digoxin for children with heart failure include furosemide and spironolactone.
  • Initiate digoxin only after checking electrolytes and correcting hypokalemia

The total digitalizing dose is 20-30 mcg/kg PO, with 50% of the dose administered initially, followed by 25% of the dose 12 hours and 24 hours after the initial dose.

  • The total digitalizing dose is 20-30 mcg/kg PO, with 50% of the dose administered initially, followed by 25% of the dose 12 hours and 24 hours after the initial dose.
  • Maintenance doses typically are 8-10 mcg/kg/d PO in 2 divided doses.
  • For older children and adults, the total loading dose is 1.25-1.5 mg PO, and the maintenance dose is 0.25-0.5 mg PO every day.
  • Therapeutic digoxin levels are present at trough levels of 1.5-2 ng/mL.

Afterload reduction (ie, using ACE inhibitor captopril) may be effective in improving cardiac output, particularly in the presence of mitral and aortic insufficiency.

  • Afterload reduction (ie, using ACE inhibitor captopril) may be effective in improving cardiac output, particularly in the presence of mitral and aortic insufficiency.
  • Start these agents judiciously. Use a small, initial test dose (some patients have an abnormally large response to these agents), and administer only after correcting hypovolemia.
  • When heart failure persists or progresses during an episode of acute rheumatic fever in spite of aggressive medical therapy, surgery is indicated and may be life-saving for severe mitral and/or aortic insufficiency.

Treatment for patients following rheumatic heart disease (RHD)

  • Treatment for patients following rheumatic heart disease (RHD)
    • Preventive and prophylactic therapy is indicated after rheumatic fever and acute rheumatic heart disease to prevent further damage to valves.
    • Primary prophylaxis (initial course of antibiotics administered to eradicate the streptococcal infection) also serves as the first course of secondary prophylaxis (prevention of recurrent rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease).
    • .

An injection of 0.6-1.2 million units of benzathine penicillin G intramuscularly every 4 weeks is the recommended regimen for secondary prophylaxis for most US patients.

    • An injection of 0.6-1.2 million units of benzathine penicillin G intramuscularly every 4 weeks is the recommended regimen for secondary prophylaxis for most US patients.
    • Administer the same dosage every 3 weeks in areas where rheumatic fever is endemic, in patients with residual carditis, and in high-risk patients.
    • Although PO penicillin prophylaxis is also effective, data from the World Health Organization indicate that the recurrence risk of GABHS pharyngitis is lower when penicillin is administered parentally

The duration of antibiotic prophylaxis is controversial.

  • The duration of antibiotic prophylaxis is controversial.
  • Continue antibiotic prophylaxis indefinitely for patients at high risk (eg, health care workers, teachers, daycare workers) for recurrent GABHS infection.
  • Patients with rheumatic fever with carditis and valve disease should receive antibiotics for at least 10 years or until age 40 years.

Patients with rheumatic heart disease and valve damage require a single dose of antibiotics 1 hour before surgical and dental procedures to help prevent bacterial endocarditis.

  • Patients with rheumatic heart disease and valve damage require a single dose of antibiotics 1 hour before surgical and dental procedures to help prevent bacterial endocarditis.
  • Patients who had rheumatic fever without valve damage do not need endocarditis prophylaxis.
  • Do not use penicillin, ampicillin, or amoxicillin for endocarditis prophylaxis in patients already receiving penicillin for secondary rheumatic fever prophylaxis (relative resistance of PO streptococci to penicillin and aminopenicillins.

Alternate drugs recommended by the American Heart Association for these patients include PO clindamycin (20 mg/kg in children, 600 mg in adults) and PO azithromycin or clarithromycin (15 mg/kg in children, 500 mg in adults).

  • Alternate drugs recommended by the American Heart Association for these patients include PO clindamycin (20 mg/kg in children, 600 mg in adults) and PO azithromycin or clarithromycin (15 mg/kg in children, 500 mg in adults).
  • The guidelines for endocarditis prophylaxis in patients with valve damage from rheumatic heart disease have changed. Antibiotic prophylaxis is no longer recommended.
  • A recent study investigated the difference in clinical manifestations and outcomes between first episode and recurrent rheumatic fever.
  • The study concluded that subclinical carditis occurred only in patients experiencing the first episode, and that all deaths occurred in patients with recurrent rheumatic fever, emphasizing the need for secondary prophylaxis.

When heart failure persists or worsens after aggressive medical therapy for acute rheumatic heart disease, surgery to decrease valve insufficiency may be life-saving.

  • When heart failure persists or worsens after aggressive medical therapy for acute rheumatic heart disease, surgery to decrease valve insufficiency may be life-saving.
  • Forty percent of patients with acute rheumatic heart disease subsequently develop mitral stenosis as adults.
  • In patients with critical stenosis, mitral valvulotomy, percutaneous balloon valvuloplasty, or mitral valve replacement may be indicated.
  • Due to high rates of recurrent symptoms after annuloplasty or other repair procedures, valve replacement appears to be the preferred surgical option


The database is protected by copyright ©sckool.org 2016
send message

    Main page