Documenting Sources: Using apa format
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A workshop brought to you by the Purdue University Writing Lab Why Use APA Format? Allows readers to cross-reference your sources easily Provides consistent format within a discipline Gives you credibility as a writer Protects yourself from plagiarism Cross-Referencing Your Sources Cross-referencing allows readers to locate the publication information of source material. This is of great value for researchers who may want to locate your sources for their own research projects. Using a Consistent Format Using a consistent format helps your reader understand your arguments and the sources they’re built on. It also helps you keep track of your sources as you build arguments. The proper use of APA style shows the credibility of writers; such writers show accountability to their source material. Avoiding Plagiarism Proper citation of your sources in APA style can help you avoid plagiarism, which is a serious offense. It may result in anything from failure of the assignment to expulsion from school. Where Do I Find APA Format? Publication Manual of the American , 5th ed. Psychological Association www.apastyle.org Composition textbooks OWL website: owl.english.purdue.edu Writing Lab Grammar Hotline: 494-3723 Title Page Papers in APA style require a title page. The running head will be used as the header for the whole paper. Include the paper’s title and the author’s name and affiliation. APA Style: Two Main Concerns Reference Page Parenthetical Citations Reference Page A list of every source that you make reference to in your essay. Provides the information necessary for a reader to locate and retrieve any sources cited in your essay. Each retrievable source cited in the essay must appear on the reference page, and vice versa. A Sample Reference Page Reference Page Most citations should contain the following basic information: Author’s name Title of work Publication information References: Some Examples Book Shay, J. (1994). Achilles in Vietnam: Combat trauma . New York: Touchstone. and the undoing of character Article in a Magazine Klein, J. (1998, October 5). Dizzy days. The New Yorker, 40-45. References: Some Examples Web page Poland, D. (1998, October 26). The hot button. Roughcut. Retrieved October 28, 1998 from http://www.roughcut.com References: Some Examples A newspaper article Tommasini, A. (1998, October 27). Master teachers whose artistry glows in private. New , p. B2. York Times A source with no known author Cigarette sales fall 30% as California tax rises. (1999, September 14). New York Times, p. A17. Reference Page What other types of sources might you need to list on your reference page? Study the basics of APA citation format. When something odd comes up, don’t guess. Look it up! When Should You Use Parenthetical Citations? When quoting any words that are not your own When Should You Use Parenthetical Citations? When summarizing facts and ideas from a source Summarizing means to take ideas from a large passage of another source and condense them, using your own words When paraphrasing a source Keys to Parenthetical Citations Author’s last name, publication year, and page number(s) of quote must appear in the text Caruth (1996) states that a traumatic response frequently entails a “delayed, uncontrolled repetitive appearance of hallucinations and other intrusive phenomena” (p.11). A traumatic response frequently entails a “delayed, uncontrolled repetitive appearance of hallucinations and other intrusive phenomena” (Caruth, 1996, p.11). Handling Parenthetical Citations Sometimes additional information is necessary . . . More than one author with the same last name (H. James, 1878); (W. James, 1880) Two or more works in the same parentheses (Caruth, 1996; Fussell, 1975; Showalter, 1997) Work with six or more authors (Smith et al, 1998) Specific part of a source (Jones, 1995, chap. 2) Handling Parenthetical Citations If the source has no known author, then use an abbreviated version of the title: Full Title: “California Cigarette Tax Deters Smokers” Citation: (“California,” 1999) Handling Parenthetical Citations A reference to a personal communication: Source: email message from C. Everett Koop Citation: (C. E. Koop, personal communication, May 16, 1998) A general reference to a web site Source: Purdue University web site Citation: (http://www.purdue.edu) Handling Parenthetical Citations Recently, the history of warfare has been significantly revised by Higonnet et al (1987), Marcus (1989), and Raitt and Tate (1997) to include women’s personal and cultural responses to battle and its resultant traumatic effects. Feminist researchers now concur that “It is no longer true to claim that women's responses to the war have been ignored” (Raitt & Tate, p. 2). Though these studies focus solely on women's experiences, they err by collectively perpetuating the masculine-centered impressions originating in Fussell (1975) and Bergonzi (1996). However, Tylee (1990) further criticizes Fussell, arguing that his study “treated memory and culture as if they belonged to a sphere beyond the existence of individuals or the control of institutions” (p. 6). Handling Quotes in Your Text There are many different combinations and variations within APA citation format. If you run into something unusual, look it up! Where can you go for additional help with APA documentation? Purdue University Writing Lab Heavilon 226 Grammar Hotline: (765) 494-3723 Check our web site: http://owl.english.purdue.edu Email brief questions: firstname.lastname@example.org Purdue University Writing Lab
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