Wordsworth stated that Romantic poetry was marked by a “spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings” (263). Romantic poetry is characterized by the “spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings” (Wordsworth 263). Wordsworth extensively explored the role of emotion in the creative process (263).
Print Source with Author
For the following print source
Burke, Kenneth. Language as Symbolic Action: Essays on Life, Literature,
and Method. U of California P, 1966.
If the essay provides a signal word or phrase—usually the author’s last name—the citation does not need to also include that information.
Humans have been described by Kenneth Burke as “symbol-using animals” (3).
Humans have been described as “symbol-using animals” (Burke 3).
How to cite a work with no known author:
We see so many global warming hotspots in North America likely because this region has “more readily accessible climatic data and more comprehensive programs to monitor and study environmental change…” (“Impact of Global Warming” 6).
“The Impact of Global Warming in North America.” Global Warming: Early Signs. 1999. Accessed 23 Mar. 2009.
With Unknown Author
Works with Multiple Editions
Marx and Engels described human history as marked by class struggles (79; ch. 1).
Authors with Same Last Names
Although some medical ethicists claim that cloning will lead to designer
children (R. Miller 12), others note that the advantages for medical research outweigh this consideration (A. Miller 46).
Other In-Text Citations 1
Work by Multiple Authors
Smith et al. argues that tougher gun control is not needed in the United States (76).
The authors state: “Tighter gun control in the United States erodes Second Amendment rights” (Smith et al. 76).
A 2016 study suggests that stricter gun control in the United States will significantly prevent accidental shootings (Strong and Ellis 23).
Other In-Text Citations 2
Multiple Works by the Same Author
Lightenor has argued that computers are not useful tools for small children (“Too Soon” 38), though he has acknowledged elsewhere that early exposure to computer games does lead to better small motor skill development in a child's second and third year (“Hand-Eye Development” 17).
Visual studies, because it is such a new discipline, may be “too easy” (Elkins, “Visual Studies” 63).
Other In-Text Citations 3
Citing Multivolume Works
… as Quintilian wrote in Institutio Oratoria (1: 14-17).
Citing the Bible
Ezekiel saw “what seemed to be four living creatures,” each with the faces of a man, a lion, an ox, and an eagle (New Jerusalem Bible, Ezek. 1:5-10).
Other In-Text Citations 4
Citing Indirect Sources
Ravitch argues that high schools are pressured to act as “social service centers, and they don't do that well” (qtd. in Weisman 259).
Romeo and Juliet presents an opposition between two worlds: “the world of the everyday… and the world of romance.” Although the two lovers are part of the world of romance, their language of love nevertheless becomes “fully responsive to the tang of actuality” (Zender 138, 141).
Other In-Text Citations 5
Works in time-based media
Buffy’s promise that “there’s not going to be any incidents like at my old school” is obviously not one on which she can follow through (“Buffy” 00:03:16-17).
According to some, dreams express “profound aspects of personality” (Foulkes 184), though others disagree.
According to Foulkes's study, dreams may express “profound aspects of personality” (184).
Is it possible that dreams may express “profound aspects of personality” (Foulkes 184)?
Quoting four or more lines of prose
Nelly Dean treats Heathcliff poorly and dehumanizes him throughout her narration:
They entirely refused to have it in bed with them, or even in their room, and I had no more sense, so, I put it on the landing of the stairs, hoping it would be gone on the morrow. By chance, or else attracted by hearing his voice, it crept to Mr. Earnshaw's door, and there he found it on quitting his chamber. Inquiries were made as to how it got there; I was obliged to confess, and in recompense for my cowardice and inhumanity was sent out of the house. (Bronte 78)
Formatting Long Quotations (in Prose)
Formatting Short Quotations in Poetry
Quoting 1-3 lines of poetry
Properzia Rossi tells the statue that it will be a container for her feelings: “The bright work grows / Beneath my hand, unfolding, as a rose” (lines 31-32).
In “The Thorn,” Wordsworth’s narrator locates feelings of horror in the landscape: “The little babe was buried there, / Beneath that hill of moss so fair. // I’ve heard the scarlet moss is red” (stanzas xx-xxi).
Formatting Long Quotations in Poetry
Use block quotations for four or more lines of poetry.
If a source is part of a numbered sequence, such as a multi-volume book, or journal with both volume and issue numbers, those numbers must be listed in your citation.
Baron, Naomi S. “Redefining Reading: The Impact of Digital
Communication Media.” PMLA, vol. 128, no. 1, Jan. 2013, pp. 193-200.
“Hush.” Buffy the Vampire Slayer, created by Joss Whedon, performance by Sarah Michelle Gellar, season 4, episode 10, Mutant Enemy, 1999.
Wellek, René. A History of Modern Criticism, 1750-1950. Vol. 5, Yale UP, 1986.
Works-cited List: Number
The publisher produces or distributes the source to the public. If there is more than one publisher, and they are all are relevant to your research, list them in your citation, separated by a forward slash (/).
Harris, Charles “Teenie.” Woman in a Paisley Shirt behind Counter in
Record Store. Teenie Harris Archive, Carnegie Museum of Art, Pittsburgh, teenie.cmoa.org/interactive/index.html#date08.
Jacobs, Alan. The Pleasures of Reading in an Age of Distraction. Oxford
Kuzui, Fran Rubel, director. Buffy the Vampire Slayer. Twentieth Century
Works-cited List: Publisher
The same source may have been published on more than one date, such as an online version of an original source. When the source has more than one date, use the date that is most relevant to your use of it.
Belton, John. “Painting by the Numbers: The Digital Intermediate.”
Film Quarterly, vol. 61, no. 3, Spring 2008, pp. 58-65.
“Hush.” Buffy the Vampire Slayer, created by Joss Whedon,
performance by Sarah Michelle Gellar, season 4, Mutant Enemy,
Works-cited List: Publication Date
Be as specific as possible in identifying a work’s location.
Adiche, Chimamanda Ngozi. “On Monday of Last Week.” The Thing
around Your Neck, Alfred A. Knopf, 2009, pp. 74-94.
Deresiewicz, William. “The Death of the Artist—and the Birth of the Creative Entrepreneur.” The Atlantic, 28 Dec. 2014,