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  • All Works Cited entries are uniformly double-spaced throughout.
  • The sources that are used in this PowerPoint are not formatted correctly as Works Cited entries: Sources should have a hanging indent if they continue on to the second or subsequent lines.
  • Slides 32-42 are incorrect in that some sources are not double-spaced and others have incorrect indents.
  • MLA 8th Edition Formatting and Style Guide
  • Purdue OWL Staff
  • Brought to you in cooperation with the Purdue Online Writing Lab
  • MLA (Modern Language Association) Style formatting is often used in various humanities disciplines.
  • In addition to the handbook, MLA also offers The MLA Style Center, a website that provides additional instruction and resources for writing and formatting academic papers. https://style.mla.org/
  • What is MLA?
  • MLA regulates:
  • document format
  • in-text citations
  • works-cited list
  • What does MLA regulate?
  • The 8th edition handbook introduces a new way to cite sources. Instead of a long list of rules, MLA guidelines are now based on a set of principles that may be used to cite any type of source.
  • The three guiding principles:
  • Cite simple traits shared by most works.
  • Remember that there is more than one way to cite the same source.
  • Make your documentation useful to readers.
  • MLA Update 2016
  • This presentation will cover:
    • How to format a paper in MLA style (8th ed.)
      • General guidelines
      • First page format
      • Section headings
    • In-text citations
      • Formatting quotations
    • Documenting sources in MLA style (8th ed.)
      • Core elements
      • List of works cited
  • Overview
  • Basic rule for any formatting style:
  • Always
  • Follow your instructor’s
  • guidelines
  • Your Instructor Knows Best
  • An MLA Style paper should:
    • Be typed on white 8.5“ x 11“ paper
    • Double-space everything
    • Use 12 pt. Times New Roman (or similar) font
    • Leave only one space after punctuation
    • Set all margins to 1 inch on all sides
    • Indent the first line of paragraphs one half-inch
  • An MLA Style paper should:
  • Have a header with page numbers located in the upper right-hand corner
  • Use italics for titles
  • Place endnotes on a separate page before the list of works cited
  • Format: General Guidelines (cont.)
  • The first page of an MLA Style paper will:
  • Have no title page
  • Double space everything
  • List your name, your instructor's name, the course, and date in the upper left-hand corner
  • Center the paper title (use standard caps but no underlining, italics, quote marks, or bold typeface)
  • Create a header in the upper right corner at half inch from the top and one inch from the right of the page (list your last name and page number here)
  • Formatting the 1st Page
  • Sample 1st Page
  • Section Headings are generally optional:
    • Headings in an essay should usually be numbered
    • Headings should be consistent in grammar and formatting but, otherwise, are up to you
  • Formatting Section Headings
  • OR
  • Numbered (all flush left with no underlining, bold, or italics):
  • Example:
  • 1. Soil Conservation
  • 1.1 Erosion
  • 1.2 Terracing
  • 2. Water Conservation
  • 3. Energy Conservation
  • Unnumbered (by level):
  • Example:
  • Level 1: bold, flush left
  • Level 2: italics, flush left
  • Level 3: centered, bold
  • Level 4: centered, italics
  • Level 5: underlined, flush left
  • Sample Section Headings
  • An in-text citation is a brief reference in your text that indicates the source you consulted.
  • It should direct readers to the entry in your works-cited list for that source.
  • It should be unobtrusive: provide the citation information without interrupting your own text.
  • In general, the in-text citation will be the author’s last name (or abbreviated title) with a page number, enclosed in parentheses.
  • In-text Example:
  • Corresponding Works Cited Entry:
  • Author-Page Style
  • Wordsworth, William. Lyrical Ballads. Oxford UP, 1967.
  • Wordsworth stated that Romantic poetry was marked by a “spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings” (263). Romantic poetry is characterized by the “spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings” (Wordsworth 263). Wordsworth extensively explored the role of emotion in the creative process (263).
  • Print Source with Author
  • For the following print source
  • Burke, Kenneth. Language as Symbolic Action: Essays on Life, Literature,
  • and Method. U of California P, 1966.
  • If the essay provides a signal word or phrase—usually the author’s last name—the citation does not need to also include that information.
  • Examples:
  • Humans have been described by Kenneth Burke as “symbol-using animals” (3).
  • Humans have been described as “symbol-using animals” (Burke 3).
  • How to cite a work with no known author:
  • We see so many global warming hotspots in North America likely because this region has “more readily accessible climatic data and more comprehensive programs to monitor and study environmental change…” (“Impact of Global Warming” 6).
  • Corresponding Entry in the List of Works Cited:
  • “The Impact of Global Warming in North America.” Global Warming: Early Signs. 1999. Accessed 23 Mar. 2009.
  • With Unknown Author
  • Works with Multiple Editions
  • In-text example:
  • Marx and Engels described human history as marked by class struggles (79; ch. 1).
  • Authors with Same Last Names
  • In-text example:
  • Although some medical ethicists claim that cloning will lead to designer
  • children (R. Miller 12), others note that the advantages for medical research outweigh this consideration (A. Miller 46).
  • Other In-Text Citations 1
  • Work by Multiple Authors
  • In-text Examples:
  • Smith et al. argues that tougher gun control is not needed in the United States (76).
  • The authors state: “Tighter gun control in the United States erodes Second Amendment rights” (Smith et al. 76).
  • A 2016 study suggests that stricter gun control in the United States will significantly prevent accidental shootings (Strong and Ellis 23).
  • Other In-Text Citations 2
  • Multiple Works by the Same Author
  • In-text examples:
  • Lightenor has argued that computers are not useful tools for small children (“Too Soon” 38), though he has acknowledged elsewhere that early exposure to computer games does lead to better small motor skill development in a child's second and third year (“Hand-Eye Development” 17).
  • Visual studies, because it is such a new discipline, may be “too easy” (Elkins, “Visual Studies” 63).
  • Other In-Text Citations 3
  • Citing Multivolume Works
  • In-text example:
  • … as Quintilian wrote in Institutio Oratoria (1: 14-17).
  • Citing the Bible
  • In-text example:
  • Ezekiel saw “what seemed to be four living creatures,” each with the faces of a man, a lion, an ox, and an eagle (New Jerusalem Bible, Ezek. 1:5-10).
  • Other In-Text Citations 4
  • Citing Indirect Sources
  • In-text example:
  • Ravitch argues that high schools are pressured to act as “social service centers, and they don't do that well” (qtd. in Weisman 259).
  • Multiple Citations
  • In-text example:
  • Romeo and Juliet presents an opposition between two worlds: “the world of the everyday… and the world of romance.” Although the two lovers are part of the world of romance, their language of love nevertheless becomes “fully responsive to the tang of actuality” (Zender 138, 141).
  • Other In-Text Citations 5
  • Works in time-based media
  • In-text example:
  • Buffy’s promise that “there’s not going to be any incidents like at my old school” is obviously not one on which she can follow through (“Buffy” 00:03:16-17).
  • Works-cited entry:
  • “Hush.” Buffy the Vampire Slayer, created by Joss Whedon, performance
  • by Sarah Michelle Gellar, season 4, episode 10, Mutant Enemy, 1999.
  • Other In-Text Citations 6
  • Sources without page numbers
  • In-text example:
  • Disability activism should work toward “creating a habitable space for all beings” (Garland-Thomson).
  • Corresponding works-cited entry:
  • Garland-Thomson, Rosemarie. “Habitable Worlds.” Critical Disability
  • Studies Symposium. Feb. 2016, Purdue University, Indiana.
  • Address.
  • Other In-Text Citations 7
  • Formatting Short Quotations (in Prose)
  • Short prose quotations
  • In-text example:
  • According to some, dreams express “profound aspects of personality” (Foulkes 184), though others disagree.
  • According to Foulkes's study, dreams may express “profound aspects of personality” (184).
  • Is it possible that dreams may express “profound aspects of personality” (Foulkes 184)?
  • Quoting four or more lines of prose
  • In-text example:
  • Nelly Dean treats Heathcliff poorly and dehumanizes him throughout her narration:
  • They entirely refused to have it in bed with them, or even in their room, and I had no more sense, so, I put it on the landing of the stairs, hoping it would be gone on the morrow. By chance, or else attracted by hearing his voice, it crept to Mr. Earnshaw's door, and there he found it on quitting his chamber. Inquiries were made as to how it got there; I was obliged to confess, and in recompense for my cowardice and inhumanity was sent out of the house. (Bronte 78)
  • Formatting Long Quotations (in Prose)
  • Formatting Short Quotations in Poetry
  • Quoting 1-3 lines of poetry
  • Examples:
  • Properzia Rossi tells the statue that it will be a container for her feelings: “The bright work grows / Beneath my hand, unfolding, as a rose” (lines 31-32).
  • In “The Thorn,” Wordsworth’s narrator locates feelings of horror in the landscape: “The little babe was buried there, / Beneath that hill of moss so fair. // I’ve heard the scarlet moss is red” (stanzas xx-xxi).
  • Formatting Long Quotations in Poetry
  • Use block quotations for four or more lines of poetry.
  • If the poem is formatted in an unusual way, reproduce the unique formatting as accurately as possible.
  • Adding/Omitting Words
  • In-text example for Adding Words:
  • Jan Harold Brunvand, in an essay on urban legends, states: “some individuals [who retell urban legends] make a point of learning every rumor or tale” (78).
  • In-text example for Omitting Words:
  • In an essay on urban legends, Jan Harold Brunvand notes that “some individuals make a point of learning every recent rumor or tale . . . and in a short time a lively exchange of details occurs” (78).
  • Works Cited: The Basics
  • Each entry in the list of works cited is made up of core elements given in a specific order.
  • The core elements should be listed in the order in which they appear here. Each element is followed by the punctuation mark shown here.
  • Author.
  • Begin the entry with the author’s last name, followed by a comma and the rest of the name, as presented in the work. End this element with a period.
  •  
  • Examples:
  • Baron, Naomi S. “Redefining Reading: The Impact of Digital
  • Communication Media.” PMLA, vol. 128, no. 1, Jan. 2013, pp.
  • 193-200.
  • Jacobs, Alan. The Pleasures of Reading in an Age of Distraction. Oxford
  • UP, 2011.
  • Works-cited List: Author
  • Title of source.
  • Books and websites should be in italics:
  •    
  • Hollmichel, Stefanie. So Many Books. 2003-13, somanybooksblog.com.
  • Linett, Maren Tova. Modernism, Feminism, and Jewishness. Cambridge UP,
  • 2007.
  • Periodicals (journal, magazine, newspaper article), television episodes, and songs should be in quotation marks:
  •  
  • Beyoncé. “Pretty Hurts.” Beyoncé, Parkwood Entertainment, 2013, www.beyonce .com/album/beyonce/?media_view=songs.
  • Goldman, Anne. “Questions of Transport: Reading Primo Levi Reading
  • Dante.” The Georgia Review, vol. 64, no. 1, 2010, pp. 69-88.
  • Works-cited List: Title of Source
  • Title of container,
  • Examples:
  • Bazin, Patrick. “Toward Metareading.” The Future of the Book, edited by Geoffrey Nunberg, U of California P, 1996, pp. 153-68.
  •  
  • Hollmichel, Stefanie. “The Reading Brain: Differences between Digital and Print.” So Many Books, 25 Apr. 2013, somanybooksblog.com/2013/04/25/the-reading-brain-differences-between-digital-and-print/.
  • “Under the Gun.” Pretty Little Liars, season 4, episode 6, ABC Family, 16 July 2013. Hulu, hulu.com/watch/511318.
  • Works-cited List: Title of Container
  • Other contributors,
  • Examples:
  • Chartier, Roger. The Order of Books: Readers, Authors, and Libraries in Europe between the Fourteenth and Eighteenth Centuries. Translated by Lydia G. Cochrane, Stanford UP, 1994.
  • “Hush.” Buffy the Vampire Slayer, created by Joss Whedon, performance by Sarah Michelle Gellar, season 4, episode 10, Mutant Enemy, 1999.
  •  
  • Woolf, Virginia. Jacob’s Room. Annotated and with an introduction by Vara Neverow, Harcourt, Inc., 2008.
  • Works-cited List: Other Contributors
  • Version,
  • If a source is listed as an edition or version of a work, include it in your citation.
  •  
  • The Bible. Authorized King James Version, Oxford UP, 1998.
  •  
  • Newcomb, Horace, editor. Television: The Critical View. 7th ed., Oxford
  • UP, 2007.
  • Scott, Ridley, director. Blade Runner. 1982. Performance by Harrison
  • Ford, director’s cut, Warner Bros., 1992.
  • Works-cited List: Version
  • Number,
  • If a source is part of a numbered sequence, such as a multi-volume book, or journal with both volume and issue numbers, those numbers must be listed in your citation.
  •  
  • Baron, Naomi S. “Redefining Reading: The Impact of Digital
  • Communication Media.” PMLA, vol. 128, no. 1, Jan. 2013, pp. 193-200.
  •  
  • “Hush.” Buffy the Vampire Slayer, created by Joss Whedon, performance by Sarah Michelle Gellar, season 4, episode 10, Mutant Enemy, 1999.
  •  
  • Wellek, René. A History of Modern Criticism, 1750-1950. Vol. 5, Yale UP, 1986.
  • Works-cited List: Number
  • Publisher,
  • The publisher produces or distributes the source to the public. If there is more than one publisher, and they are all are relevant to your research, list them in your citation, separated by a forward slash (/).
  • Examples: 
  • Harris, Charles “Teenie.” Woman in a Paisley Shirt behind Counter in
  • Record Store. Teenie Harris Archive, Carnegie Museum of Art, Pittsburgh, teenie.cmoa.org/interactive/index.html#date08.
  •  
  • Jacobs, Alan. The Pleasures of Reading in an Age of Distraction. Oxford
  • UP, 2011.
  •  
  • Kuzui, Fran Rubel, director. Buffy the Vampire Slayer. Twentieth Century
  • Fox, 1992.
  • Works-cited List: Publisher
  • Publication date,
  • The same source may have been published on more than one date, such as an online version of an original source. When the source has more than one date, use the date that is most relevant to your use of it.
  • Belton, John. “Painting by the Numbers: The Digital Intermediate.”
  • Film Quarterly, vol. 61, no. 3, Spring 2008, pp. 58-65.
  • “Hush.” Buffy the Vampire Slayer, created by Joss Whedon,
  • performance by Sarah Michelle Gellar, season 4, Mutant Enemy,
  • 1999.
  • Works-cited List: Publication Date
  • Location,
  • Be as specific as possible in identifying a work’s location.
  • Examples:
  • Adiche, Chimamanda Ngozi. “On Monday of Last Week.” The Thing
  • around Your Neck, Alfred A. Knopf, 2009, pp. 74-94.
  • Deresiewicz, William. “The Death of the Artist—and the Birth of the Creative Entrepreneur.” The Atlantic, 28 Dec. 2014,
  • www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2015/01/the-death-of-the-
  • artist-and-the-birth-of-the-creative-entrepreneur/383497/.
  • Bearden, Romare. The Train. 1975, Museum of Modern Art, New York.
  • Optional elements:
  • Date of original publication:
  • Franklin, Benjamin. “Emigration to America.” 1782. The Faber Book of America, edited by Christopher Ricks and William L. Vance, Faber and Faber, 1992, pp. 24-26.
  • City of publication:
  • Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von. Conversations of Goethe with Eckermann and Soret. Translated by John Oxenford, new ed., London, 1875.
  • Works-cited List: Optional Elements
  • Optional elements:
  • URLs
  • DOIs (digital object identifier)
  • Chan, Evans. “Postmodernism and Hong Kong Cinema.” Postmodern Culture, vol. 10, no. 3, May 2000. Project Muse, doi: 10.1353/pmc.2000.0021.
  • Date of access
  • “Under the Gun.” Pretty Little Liars, season 4, episode 6, ABC Family, 16 July 2013. Hulu, www.hulu.com/watch/511318. Accessed 23 July 2013.
  • Works-cited List: Optional Elements
  • Purdue University Writing Lab
  • Heavilon 226
  • Web: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/
  • Phone: (765) 494-3723
  • Email: owl@owl.english.purdue.edu
  • Where to Go to Get More Help
  • The End


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