Digestive System Digestion
- Mechanical (physical)
- Enzymatic reactions to improve digestion of
Digestive System Organization
- Gastrointestinal (Gl) tract
- Tube within a tube
- Direct link/path between organs
- Small intestine
- Large Intestine
- Teeth mechanically break down food into small pieces. Tongue mixes food with saliva (contains amylase, which helps break down starch).
- Epiglottis is a flap-like structure at the back of the throat that closes over the trachea preventing food from entering it. It is located in the Pharynx.
- Approximately 20 cm long.
- Functions include:
- Secrete mucus
- Moves food from the throat to the stomach using muscle movement called peristalsis
- If acid from the stomach gets in here that’s heartburn.
- Mouth, Pharynx and Esophagus Video
- J-shaped muscular bag that stores the food you eat, breaks it down into tiny pieces.
- Mixes food with Digestive Juices that contain enzymes to break down Proteins and Lipids.
- Acid (HCl) in the stomach Kills Bacteria.
- Food found in the stomach is called Chyme.
- Small intestines are roughly 7 meters long
- Lining of intestine walls has finger-like projections called villi, to increase surface area.
- The villi are covered in microvilli which further increases surface area for absorption.
- Nutrients from the food pass into the bloodstream through the small intestine walls.
- 80% ingested water
- Secretes digestive enzymes
- About 1.5 meters long
- Accepts what small intestines don’t absorb
- Rectum (short term storage which holds feces before it is expelled).
Accessory Organs The Glands
- Not part of the path of food, but play a critical role.
- Directly affects digestion by producing bile
- Bile helps digest fat
- filters out toxins and waste including drugs and alcohol and poisons.
- Stores bile from the liver, releases it into the small intestine.
- Fatty diets can cause gallstones
- Produces digestive enzymes to digest fats, carbohydrates and proteins
- Regulates blood sugar by producing insulin
On a sheet of paper, write the name of each colored organ:
How’d you do?
- Green: Esophagus
- Red: Stomach
- Pink: Small Intestine
- Brown: Large Intestine
- Purple: Liver
- Green: Gall Bladder
- Yellow: Pancreas
References and Links
- Your Digestive System and How It Works
- The Real Deal on the Digestive System
- Pancreas: Introduction and Index
- Your Gross and Cool Body - Digestive System
- Laurentian Regional High School Data Base
- - you must know the Username and Password
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