Different documentation styles



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ACADEMIC DISCOURSE

  • DOCUMENTATION
  • BIBLIOGRAPHY
  • AND
  • IN-TEXT DOCUMENTATION

DIFFERENT DOCUMENTATION STYLES

  • author-title system of citation
  • used in Literature and the Humanities
  • MLA (Modern Language Association)
  • author-date system of citation
  • used in social sciences
  • APA (American Psychological Association)
  • Chicago Style

ELEMENTS OF A DOCUMENTATION STYLE

  • In this course we will deal mainly with:
  • (1) How we write a bibliography at the end of an article, a paper or a book
  • (2) How we cite sources inside an article, a paper or a book (in-text documentation)

The author-date system of citation Reference List: Basic Rules

  • Your reference list should
    • appear at the end of your paper
    • provide the information necessary for a reader to locate and retrieve any source you cite in the body of the paper.
    • Please note that:
      • Each source you cite in the paper must appear in your reference list; likewise, each entry in the reference list must be cited in your text.

The author-date system of citation Reference List: Basic Rules

  • If you a writing an essay or a research paper, your references should begin on a new page separate from the text of the essay.
  • Label this page References (with no quotation marks, underlining, etc.), centered at the top of the page.
    • It should be double-spaced just like the rest of your essay.

BASIC FORMAT FOR BOOKS Single Author

  • Author, A. A. (Year of publication)Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. Location: Publisher.
  • Levinson, S. R. (1983) Pragmatics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • To note:
    • Colon (:) after place of publication
    • Italics for title
    • Capitals for all words in the title

Two or more books by the same author

  • Tannen, D. (1984) Conversational Style: Analyzing Talk Among Friends. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
  • Tannen, D. (1990) You Just Don’t Understand: Women and Men in Conversation. New York: Morrow.
  • Two (or more) works by the same author are ordered by date of publication.
  • To note:
    • Colon (:) after place of publication
    • Italics for title
    • Capitals for all words in the title

A book by two or more authors

  • Author, A. and Author, B. (date) Book title. Location: Publisher.
  • Brown, P. and Yule, G. (1983) Discourse Analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • In the case of joint authorship, all authors should be included, regardless of the number, in the order in which they appear on the book.

A book by a corporate author

  • UNESCO (1953) The Use of Vernacular Languages in Education. Monographs on Fundamental Education.

An anonymous (no author) book

  • Business Japanese, vols. I and II (1985) Tokyo: Nissan Motor Company.

Edited Book

  • Author, A. (ed.)(Year of publication)Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. Location: Publisher.
  • Coates, J. (ed.) (1998) Language and Gender: A reader. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.
  • To note:
    • Colon (:) after place of publication
    • Italics for title
    • Capitals for all words in the title
    • Fullstop after ‘ed.’
  • Karavas, E. and Mitsikopoulou, B. (eds.) (2017) Developments in Glocal Language Testing: The Case of the Greek National Foreign Language Exam System. Oxford: Peter Lang.

Article in an Edited Book

  • Author, A. (Year of publication) “Title of article” In A. Author (ed.) Title of book. Location: Publisher. Page numbers.
  • Eckert, P. (1998) “Gender and sociolinguistic variation”. In J. Coates (ed.) Language and Gender: A Reader. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers. 64-75.
  • Notice that the title of an individual work/chapter appearing in an edited book is placed in quotation marks, with only the first word capitalized.
  • Also, the name of the editor appears in reverse order with first name followed by surname.
  • Delieza, X. (2017) “The impact of oral examiners’ conduct on candidates’ performance in the KPG exams”. In E. Karavas and B. Mitsikopoulou (eds.) Developments in Glocal Language Testing: The Case of the Greek National Foreign Language Exam System. Oxford: Peter Lang. 53-78.

Article in a Journal

  • Author, A. A., Author, B. B., and Author, C. C. (Year). “Title of article”. Journal title volume number(issue number): pages.
  • Knapp, M.L, Hopper, R. & Bell, R. (1984) “Compliments: a descriptive taxonomy”. Journal of Communication 34(4): 12-31.
  • To note:
    • Colon (:) after volume or issue number. Issue number in parentheses
    • Italics for title of journal
    • Capitals only for the first word of the title

An example of an article in a journal

  • Jarvis, H. and Szymczyk, M. (2010) “Student views on learning grammar with web- and book-based materials”. ELT Journal 64(1): 32-39.

Article in a Magazine

  • Author, A. A. (Year, month day). “Title of article”. Magazine title. pages.
  • Henry, W. A. (1990, April 9). “Making the grade in today's schools”. Time. 28-31.

Article in a Newspaper

  • Author, A. A. (Year, month day). “Title of article”. Newspaper title. pp newspaper section.
  • Schultz, S. (2005, December 28). “Calls made to strengthen state energy policies.” The Country Today, pp. 1A, 2A.
  • Unlike other periodicals, p. or pp. precedes page numbers for a newspaper reference in APA style. Single pages take p., e.g., p. B2; multiple pages take pp., e.g., pp. B2, B4 or pp. C1, C3-C4.

ACTIVITY 3: Compiling a reference list (Reader p.121-122)

  • (2) A book by two authors
  • Palmer, R. R. and Colton, J. (1983) A History of the Modern World. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
  • (3) An anonymous (no author) book
  • The Chicago Manual of Style (1982) Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press.
  • (4) A chapter in an edited book
  • Machura, L. (1991) “Using literature in language teaching”. In C. Brumfit, J. Moore and R. Tongue (eds.) Teaching English to Children. London: Collins ELT. 67-80.
  • (5) An article in a Journal
  • Harrington, H. R. (1983) “Anthony Powell, Nicolas Poussin, and the structure of time”. Contemporary Literature 24(3): 431-448.
  • (6) An article in a magazine
  • Callahan, T. (1988, June 27) “Boxing's Allure”. Time Magazine 131(26): 66-71.
  • (7) A book review published in a magazine
  • Wolff, S. C. (1981, June 5) “Stellar Physics”. [Review of The Brightest Star, by C. De Jager]. Science Magazine 212(4499): 1139.
  • (8) An article in a newspaper
  • Brown, C. and Sengupta, K. (2004, May 25) “Afghanistan, the war the world forgot”. The Independent, Sec. 3. 3
  • (10) An encyclopedia entry
  • Struning, W.C. (1976) “Coffee”. Encyclopedia Americana.
  • HOW TO WRITE THE
  • REFERENCE LIST

REFERENCE LIST Basic rules

  • All lines after the first line of each entry in your reference list should be indented one-half inch from the left margin. This is called hanging indentation.
  • Reference list entries should appear alphabetically by the last name of the first author of each work.

Hanging indentation

REFERENCE LIST Basic rules (2)

  • Authors' names are inverted (last name first)
  • Give the last name and initials for all authors of a particular work unless the work has more than six authors.
    • If the work has more than six authors, list the first six authors and then use et al. after the sixth author's name to indicate the rest of the authors.

REFERENCE LIST Basic rules (3)

  • If you have:
    • more than one article by the same author,
    • single-author references or
    • multiple-author
    • references with the exact same authors in the exact same order are listed in order by the year of publication, starting with the earliest.

References

  • Brown, C. and Sengupta, K. (2004, May 25) “Afghanistan, the war the world forgot”. The Independent. 3. Sec. 3.
  • Callahan, T. (1988, June 27) “Boxing's Allure”. Time Magazine 131(26): 66-71.
  • The Chicago Manual of Style (1982) Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press.
  • “The Governor Wants a Watchdog”. (1988, June 12) The Plain Dealer, Sec. C. 4.
  • Harrington, H. R. (1983) “Anthony Powell, Nicolas Poussin, and the structure of time”. Contemporary Literature 24(3): 431-448.

cont

  • Machura, L. (1991) “Using literature in language teaching”. In C. Brumfit, J. Moore and R. Tongue (eds.) Teaching English to Children. London: Collins ELT. 67-80.
  • Palmer, R. R. and Colton, J. (1983) A History of the Modern World. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
  • Shortis, T. (2001) The Language of ICT: Information and Communication Technology. London: Routledge.
  • Struning, W.C. (1976) “Coffee”. Encyclopedia Americana.
  • Wolff, S. C. (1981, June 5) “Stellar Physics”. [Review of The Brightest Star, by C. De Jager]. Science Magazine 212 (4499): 1139.
  • IN-TEXT DOCUMENTATION

In-Text Citations: Author/Authors

  • APA style has a series of important rules on using author names as part of the author-date system. There are additional rules for citing indirect sources, electronic sources, and sources without page numbers.

Citing an Author or Authors

  • A Work by Two Authors: Name both authors in the signal phrase or in the parentheses each time you cite the work. Use the word "and" between the authors' names within the text and use the ampersand in the parentheses.
  • Research by Wegener and Petty (1994) supports...
  • (Wegener & Petty, 1994)
  • Organization as an Author: If the author is an organization or a government agency, mention the organization in the signal phrase or in the parenthetical citation the first time you cite the source.
  • According to the American Psychological Association (2000),...
  • Two or More Works in the Same Parentheses: When your parenthetical citation includes two or more works, order them the same way they appear in the reference list, separated by a semi-colon.
  • (Berndt, 2002; Harlow, 1983)
  • Deleted words
  • Edited text
  • Comment added for an action in the text


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