Requires you to critically read a written work, then analyze its components to examine its effect or message. Resources required: the text and your brain (and sometimes external sources, if you’re comparing historically relevant issues or another text).
Require you to familiarize yourself with the works of “experts” on a subject, then compare their thoughts on the topic with your own. Resources required: many texts on the same subject, your background knowledge, your willingness to change your thesis if you find information that contradicts what you originally thought.
Others’ ideas about the subject integrated with your ideas/insights about the subject
Notes: No professor will be marking what the published experts have to say, only how well youuse what the experts have to say to advance your paper's purpose.
Only if you get information from a source cited in class (i.e. from a handout of a speech, or something similar) or if you get information on your own from another source. Basic facts discussed in class (the poet was British, the rose is a metaphor, etc.) do not need citations.
You need to cite every idea that isn’t your own, whether it’s in quotes or paraphrased.
Works Cited needed?
Yes. You need a list of every source you reference in your paper.
As the staff at the SUNY Empire State College Writer's Complex so aptly explains it: "To analyze means to break a topic or concept down into its parts in order to inspect and understand it, and to restructure those parts in a way that makes sense to you. In an analytical research paper, you do research to become an expert on a topic so that you can restructure and present the parts of the topic from your own perspective."