Desired Situation



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How to Bake a Cake

Instructor Handbook


Desired Situation:
Our high school students should be graduating with the ability to succeed, not just in the college classroom or in the workforce, but also in their homes. We may be teaching them how to write a five-paragraph essay and how to speak a foreign language, but we need to also teach them how to care for themselves and their families. Completing a simple recipe will give these students the basic skills required to make more complex meals and will give them the confidence they need to attempt such a meal.
Instructional Goal:
Students will follow a recipe and make a single-layer cake from scratch.

The following is a lesson on how to bake a cake. The intended audience is high school students who have never baked from scratch before. In the lesson, the instructor will demonstrate each cluster and then ask the students to perform the tasks in that cluster. While the students are performing each cluster, the instructor should be recording any questions the students may ask and should be completing the Post-instructional Assessment along with another observer, After the lesson is complete, the instructor and observer should compare notes to make an accurate assessment of the students’ work.



Before the Lesson Begins:
Administer the Prerequisite Assessment – The instructor will need:


Prerequisite Assessment
Directions: Students will perform the prerequisite tasks listed below. Please use the checklist to indicate whether the students successfully demonstrate the tasks. For questions 3-7, you will need to display the following materials randomly on a table: a liquid measuring cup, a 1-cup measuring cup, a ½ -cup measuring cup, measuring spoons, and a cake pan. Two observers should complete a checklist on each student.
Prerequisite Checklist



Task or Skill

Completed Correctly?

Yes

No


1. Ask student to break an egg and place its contents into a bowl.








2. Ask student to demonstrate proper use of a hand mixer.








3. Ask student to point to the liquid measuring cup









4. Ask student to point to the 1-cup measuring cup








5. Ask students to point to the ½-cup measuring cup








6. Ask student to point to the 1-teaspoon measuring spoon








7. Ask student to point to the cake pan







Administer the Pre-Instructional Assessment – The instructor will need:

  • One copy of the Pre-Instructional Assessment for each student

  • Recipe

  • Ingredients

  • Culinary tools

  • An assistant to help observe the students


Pre-Instruction Assessment
Two observers should complete the following checklist at the same time for each student. If the student fails to complete any of the components of the list, it is obvious that instruction must take place. If student is able to complete all components, then there is no need to complete the instruction.



Pre-Instruction Checklist

Baking a Cake
Student Name: _____________________________
Observer Name: ____________________________
Date: _______________


Objective 1


Given soap, running water, a towel, an oven, a can of Pam cooking spray, a container of flour, a spoon, and a 9x9 inch cake pan students will prepare themselves, a cake pan, and an oven on the first try.

_____

_____

_____

_____

_____


Student displays proper hand washing techniques

Student sets the oven to 350 degrees

Student indicates when oven is ready

Student coats the inside of the pan with cooking spray

Student coats the sprayed portion of the pan with flour

Objective 2




Given a 1-cup measuring cup, a container of sugar, small bowls, a

stick of butter in the package, 2 butter knives, 2 eggs, vanilla extract, a 1-teaspoon measuring spoon, a ½ - cup measuring cup, a butter knife, a container of flour, a 1-teaspoon measuring spoon, a ¾-teaspoon measuring spoon, a container of baking powder, a liquid measuring cup and a container of milk, students will measure ingredients and place into separate containers on the first try.



_____

_____

_____
_____

_____

_____

_____
_____

Student properly measures sugar and pours it into a bowl

Student properly measures butter and puts it into a bowl

Student properly cracks eggs and puts their contents into a bowl

Student washes hands after discarding eggshells

Student properly measures vanilla and pours it into a bowl

Student properly measures flour and pours it into a bowl

Student properly measures baking powder and pours it into a bowl

Student properly measures milk


Objective 3

Given the bowl of measured sugar, the bowl of measured butter,

two eggs, an electric hand mixer, the measured vanilla extract, the measured flour, the measured baking powder, a large bowl, a medium bowl, the measured milk, and some large spoons, students will combine the ingredients on the first try.



_____

_____

_____

_____

_____

_____

_____
_____
_____
_____
_____

Student combines butter and sugar in medium mixing bowl

Student creams ingredients with hand mixer until smooth

Student beats in eggs one at a time

Student stirs in vanilla until vanilla is no longer visible

Student combines flour and baking powder in medium bowl

Student stirs flour and baking powder until combined well

Student pours about a quarter of dry mixture into creamed mixture and stirs until smooth

Student pours about the same amount as above into new mixture and stirs until smooth

Student pours about the same amount as above into new mixture and stirs until smooth

Student pours remaining dry mixture into new mixture and stirs until smooth

Student pours milk into mixture and stirs until smooth


Objective 4



Given the mixture, the cake pan, a timer, an oven, a toothpick,

potholders, a cooling rack and the cake, students will pour the mixture into the prepared pan and bake the cake on the first try.



_____

_____

_____

_____

_____

_____

_____


Student pours mixture into prepared cake pan

Student carefully places pan on center rack of oven

Student sets timer for 30 minutes

Student properly removes pan after 30 minutes

Student properly checks cake’s doneness

Student continues to bake cake if necessary

Student lets cake cool before cutting



Teaching the Lesson - Instruction by Cluster
All materials should be assembled by the instructor and ready for the students to use. The following must be gathered before the lesson:

  • Recipe

  • Picture of finished cake

  • Ingredients

  • Culinary tools

  • Informational handouts

  • Well-made cookies

  • Incorrectly-made cookies

  • Post-Instructional Assessment

The instructor should teach the lesson in learning clusters which correspond to steps of the recipe. The recipe has been broken in logical places and the four clusters are; prepare, measure, mix, and bake. Please be sure that all students are gathered around the instructor’s workspace during instruction and that they can easily see the demonstration.


Cluster 1: Prepare


  1. Ask students what their favorite foods are and whether they know how to make them. Show students a picture of the finished cake. Tell the students, "Before you leave here today, you will be able to make this cake." Also, show students the recipe and relate this to a roadmap that is necessary for a trip.

  2. Explain that we must first prepare ourselves and our surroundings in order to bake the cake.

  3. How many of you have ever made a cake? What do you think the first step should be?

  4. Provide all materials needed for this step. (soap, water, towel, oven, cooking spray, flour, spoon, cake pan) And, most importantly, provide the recipe they will follow.

  5. The instructor should then should wash his own hands and demonstrate how to prepare the cake pan and preheat the oven.

  6. The instructor should then ask the students to wash their own hands, prepare the cake pan and preheat the oven.

  7. The instructor should observe the students' actions and provide support when necessary. The instructor should also use the post-instructional assessment checklist to track students’ progress.

  8. The instructor should ask students if they remember why they should use cooking spray when baking a cake. Also, ask them if they remember what temperature they set the oven. If they do not know, ask them where to find this information which helps to stress the importance of the recipe.

  9. Move on to the next cluster once all students have completed this step.


Cluster 2: Measure


  1. The instructor should ask for volunteer tasters and give samples of cookies. One cookie was made properly and one was made using salt in place of sugar. This is to demonstrate the importance of using the proper ingredients in the proper quantities. Indicate that the bad cookies are like what happens when you don’t follow the road map.

  2. Introduce students to the ingredients that we will use for this recipe and stress the importance of accurate measuring.

  3. Ask them what they think will happen if we use too much or too little of an ingredient.

  4. Provide all materials needed for this step. (measuring cups, sugar, butter, butter knives, eggs, vanilla, measuring spoons, baking powder, liquid measuring cup, milk, small bowls)

  5. The instructor should demonstrate proper measuring and ask students to observe and assist. Remind students to ask you or their partner for help with any part of the project.

  6. Ask the students to measure all of the ingredients with a partner.

  7. The instructor should check the measurement of each ingredient and help students to correct mistakes.

  8. The instructor should use the assessment checklist to keep track of students' actions. Students should have properly measured all ingredients by the end of this cluster.

  9. Ask any students if they want to try the poorly-made cookies again, using humor to relate back to the importance of accurate measuring.

  10. Once all students have completed this step, move on to the next cluster.


Cluster 3: Mix


  1. The instructor should hold up and turn on the electric hand mixer. It is small but loud and will gain the students’ attention. Explain to students that this is like the gas pedal of their car and should be used carefully or there could be a mess.

  2. Ask them what would happen if they removed the mixer from the bowl before turning it off.

  3. Tell the students that we will now combine the measured ingredients.

  4. Provide all materials needed for this step. (measured ingredients, mixing bowls mixer, large spoons, hand mixer)

  5. The instructor should demonstrate how to combine the ingredients and ask students to observe and assist. Remind students to ask you or their partner for help with any part of the project.

  6. Ask the students to perform the tasks with their partners.

  7. The instructor should observe the students and verbally encourage or aide as needed.

  8. The teacher will use the assessment checklist to keep track of students’ actions. Students should have properly combined all ingredients by the end of this cluster.

  9. Ask students what they think would happen with their cake if there were visible lumps in their batter.

  10. Move on to the final cluster once all students have completed this cluster.


Cluster 4: Bake


  1. The instructor should tap the prepared cake pan on the counter to gain the students’ attention.

  2. Let the students know that this is the last step of the process and that in about 30 minutes they will have baked a cake.

  3. The teacher should remind students of dangers of working with high temperatures.

  4. Provide all materials needed for this step. (pan, timer, oven , toothpick, potholders, cooling rack, mixture)

  5. The teacher will demonstrate how to pour the batter into the pan and bake the cake.

  6. Ask the students to perform the task with their partners.

  7. The teacher will observe the students and verbally encourage or aide as needed. This is a good time to relate back to the road trip analogy.

  8. The teacher will use the assessment checklist to keep track of students’ actions. Students should have poured the batter into the pan and baked the cake by the end of this cluster.

  9. Remind students to refer to the provided information if they have questions when they try this at home.

At this point, the lesson is over and students should be allowed to enjoy their cakes or take them home for later. Remind them to let the cakes cool completely before cutting them.

The following Post-Instructional Assessment should be completed during the lesson after each cluster has been completed.
Post-Instructional Assessment
This assessment should take place after student has been given instruction on basic culinary techniques. Two observers should complete the following checklist at the same time for each student.



Pre-Instruction Checklist

Baking a Cake
Student Name: _____________________________
Observer Name: ____________________________
Date: _______________


Objective 1


Given soap, running water, a towel, an oven, a can of Pam cooking spray, a container of flour, a spoon, and a 9x9 inch cake pan students will prepare themselves, a cake pan, and an oven on the first try.

_____

_____

_____

_____

_____


Student displays proper hand washing techniques

Student sets the oven to 350 degrees

Student indicates when oven is ready

Student coats the inside of the pan with cooking spray

Student coats the sprayed portion of the pan with flour


Objective 2


Given a 1-cup measuring cup, a container of sugar, small bowls, a

stick of butter in the package, 2 butter knives, 2 eggs, vanilla extract, a 1-teaspoon measuring spoon, a ½ - cup measuring cup, a butter knife, a container of flour, a 1-teaspoon measuring spoon, a ¾-teaspoon measuring spoon, a container of baking powder, a liquid measuring cup and a container of milk, students will measure ingredients and place into separate containers on the first try.



_____

_____

_____
_____

_____

_____

_____
_____

Student properly measures sugar and pours it into a bowl

Student properly measures butter and puts it into a bowl

Student properly cracks eggs and puts their contents into a bowl

Student washes hands after discarding eggshells

Student properly measures vanilla and pours it into a bowl

Student properly measures flour and pours it into a bowl

Student properly measures baking powder and pours it into a bowl

Student properly measures milk


Objective 3

Given the bowl of measured sugar, the bowl of measured butter,

two eggs, an electric hand mixer, the measured vanilla extract, the measured flour, the measured baking powder, a large bowl, a medium bowl, the measured milk, and some large spoons, students will combine the ingredients on the first try.



_____

_____

_____

_____

_____

_____

_____
_____
_____
_____
_____

Student combines butter and sugar in medium mixing bowl

Student creams ingredients with hand mixer until smooth

Student beats in eggs one at a time

Student stirs in vanilla until vanilla is no longer visible

Student combines flour and baking powder in medium bowl

Student stirs flour and baking powder until combined well

Student pours about a quarter of dry mixture into creamed mixture and stirs until smooth

Student pours about the same amount as above into new mixture and stirs until smooth

Student pours about the same amount as above into new mixture and stirs until smooth

Student pours remaining dry mixture into new mixture and stirs until smooth

Student pours milk into mixture and stirs until smooth


Objective 4



Given the mixture, the cake pan, a timer, an oven, a toothpick,

potholders, a cooling rack and the cake, students will pour the mixture into the prepared pan and bake the cake on the first try.



_____

_____

_____

_____

_____

_____

_____


Student pours mixture into prepared cake pan

Student carefully places pan on center rack of oven

Student sets timer for 30 minutes

Student properly removes pan after 30 minutes

Student properly checks cake’s doneness

Student continues to bake cake if necessary

Student lets cake cool before cutting



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