Curriculum for Upper Secondary Education Norwegian Common general subject for all areas of study October 1993 Ministry of Education, Research and Church Affairs Contents



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Curriculum for Upper Secondary Education

Norwegian

Common general subject for all areas of study

October 1993

Ministry of Education, Research and Church Affairs
Contents


Chapter 1: General information 3

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 Norwegian in the upper secondary school 6

Chapter 2: Objectives and learning targets 8

2.1 Common objectives for modules 1 and 2 8

2.2 Module 1 Foundation course for vocational areas of study 9

2.3 Module 2 Advanced course I for vocational areas of study 12

2.4 Common objectives for modules 1, 2, 3 and 4 15

2.5 Modules 1 and 2 Foundation course for the areas of study for general and business studies, music, dance and drama and sport and physical education 17

2.6 Module 3 Advanced course I for the areas of study for general and business studies, music, dance and drama and sport and physical education 21

2.7 Module 4 Advanced course II for the areas of study for general and business studies, music, dance and drama and sport and physical education 25



Chapter 3: Assessment 29

3.1 Why assess? 29

3.2 What shall be assessed? 29

3.3 How shall assessment be carried out? 29

3.4 Special conditions applying to assessment in Norwegian 30

Appendix 1 31

Teaching hours and modules 31





Chapter 1: General information




1.1 Introduction



A brief historical outline
The teaching of Norwegian as a mother tongue has long traditions in Norway. The earliest instruction in reading and writing in this country was associated with the preparation of young people for confirmation during the 18th century, while Norwegian as a school subject in the modern sense, with a primary emphasis on Norwegian culture, literature and language, developed in the elementary school during the years after 1850. In the middle school and the gymnasium (upper secondary school), the breakthrough for Norwegian did not come until the reform of 1896. The emergence of a national Norwegian literature during the 19th century and the introduction of Nordahl Rolfsen’s reader in the elementary school both played important roles in forging the way for the new Norwegian subject. The main objectives of the subject were the dissemination of Norwegian culture and the fostering of a sense of national identity.
Norwegian as a mother tongue has also long traditions in vocational training, and here the teaching content has often been related to the vocational subject and more recently also to social studies. In 1919, a recommendation from the Ministry of Education and Church Affairs stated, “The task of the continuation school shall not only be to educate capable workers and good citizens, but also good people. Instruction in the mother tongue is all-important here.
The perception of what it is important to learn in the Norwegian classes has varied somewhat during the course of time. According to the curriculum of 1899, pupils attending the middle school were expected, among other things, to learn to read “clearly and with expression” both New Norwegian (Landsmål) and “standard Norwegian” (Bokmål). Pupils at the gymnasium were expected to have read and to be able to give an account of a selection of literature written in Old Norwegian, New Norwegian and “standard Norwegian”. They received tuition in literary topics and, from 1906, were required to write two essays as part of the final examination (examen artium), one in their chosen primary form of Norwegian and the other in the form that they did not use on a daily basis. In the revisions of the curriculum carried out in 1910 and 1920 emphasis was placed on “providing the pupil with as full as possible a knowledge of Norwegian culture throughout the ages, as revealed in our literature” and to “give the pupils an understanding of the benefits and pleasure that can be received from allowing time in their reading to dwell on form and content”. Not until the 1930s was Norwegian declared as being “the school subject of central importance” (Planning Committee, 1939). At the same time, the subject was assigned the task of providing pupils with guidance on everyday life. During the period after World War II, there was a growing awareness that the development of a richer language would help pupils in their self-development while also sharpening their ability to understand more about the world they lived in.
The curricula for Norwegian during the 20th century raised its status to that of a major subject, responsible for developing the ability to comprehend, read, write, converse, discuss and think, and also a cultural subject entrusted with creating an awareness of our roots and stimulating interest in and enjoyment of language and literature.
The content and objectives of Norwegian
Norwegian is a fundamental part of general education. In addition to its considerable intrinsic value, it also has a major significance for the other subjects. We use language as a tool for thought. Mastery of our native language is a precondition for being able to formulate thoughts and feelings, and thereby forms the foundation of all learning. It is also essential to the development of a personal and cultural identity, ethical and aesthetic awareness and the aptitude for social orientation. The subject provides pupils with a knowledge of Norwegian literature and culture, language and society, life and work, cultural traditions and mass media. It enables them to follow the course of developments in Norway while also opening their eyes to the place of Norwegian culture within a greater cultural community.
The study of Norwegian language and text embraces a study of both systematic and functional aspects of the written and spoken forms of the language that are or have been current in our culture. This has resulted in an extensive discipline, encompassing many different activities and a copious textual material. The main objective is that the pupils shall learn from and about language and literature through an interaction between the explanatory material, the textual material and the working methods of the subject. For the pupils, the subject must as far as possible appear as an integrated whole, while also being of relevance for the area of study they are attending.
Subject integration
In addition to its self-evident inherent value, Norwegian is also an important instrumental subject for other subjects. In many cases, subject integration and interdisciplinary cooperation are natural working methods for Norwegian. It is of particular importance to identify possible points of intersection between the vocational subjects and Norwegian. When, for example, pupils are learning about report writing in a Norwegian lesson, it is natural to allow them to select a topic from the vocational subject they are attending. In selecting literature too, not least non-fiction texts, it is often productive to use material and topics that the pupils are working on in other subjects.
Literature
Literature has a broad place in the study of Norwegian, both because literature is an important aspect of Norwegian cultural history and because reading plays an essential role in personal and linguistic maturation and development. Good literature is a valuable ethical and aesthetic stimulus, which broadens the perspectives available to the pupils when viewing their own experiences. At the same time, literature provides examples of how experience can be formulated and explored with the help of the language. Good literature is an excellent incentive for the pupils’ own writing and may also serve as a linguistic model. The study of Norwegian develops the ability to understand, experience and assess Norwegian literature from early times up to the present day. The core of the literature to be read consists of a rich selection of Norwegian classics and non-fiction works as well as texts from the other Nordic countries and internationally renowned literature from other countries.
Cultural heritage
The subject Norwegian is an important propagator of our national cultural heritage. Its main task is to provide insight into Norwegian language and literature from the time of the Vikings up to the present day. In their studies of Norwegian, pupils are introduced to important works of high literary quality, thereby opening up a dimension of cultural history, transferring knowledge from the past and developing collective awareness. These studies create insight into our own culture, into values, ideas and conceptions that have distinctive importance for the Norwegian way of life, and into some of the many references that we have received from literature in a broad sense. In this way, cultural heritage can provide us with a common frame of reference that is the basis of successful communication, shared experience and a common understanding of culture and society.
Familiarity with Norwegian printed culture also involves a certain familiarity with the Nordic and international printed culture traditions to which we belong. A knowledge of the influences, relations and contrasts between domestic and foreign culture provides new perspectives on our cultural heritage. The cultural conflicts that are or have been part of our society must also be brought to light and discussed. The concept of culture, as it must be understood in the context of the school, is not just a matter of teaching about cultural heritage. Culture is also created in the school in the interaction between the social and cultural contexts to which the pupils belong and the school culture that the pupils meet with.
Language learning
Through their studies of Norwegian, the pupils shall, each according to his or her abilities, learn to express themselves clearly and unambiguously, both orally and in writing, while at the same time kindling and nurturing their creative abilities. Imagination and play have an obvious place in the Norwegian class. However, we must not lose sight of the fact that the everyday language the pupils will need most in their daily lives at work and in the community is functional prose, clearly reasoned, developed through patient practice, concentration and appropriate guidance.
Pupils shall be made aware that they must continue to explore and master the language throughout their lives. Through language, they gain insight into the world. Through language they grow and mature. Through language they discover, often joyfully, but perhaps more often through hard toil, the new perspectives, the new horizons and the new knowledge that they need. It is therefore important that their Norwegian lessons engender linguistic awareness, so that the pupils strengthen their linguistic self-esteem at the same time as they learn to respect other linguistic variants than those they use themselves.
Learning to write is a complex process with no single road to achievement. Pupils must be given the opportunity to develop a sense of language and style by practising writing in a variety of situations and forms of text. Writing involves both creativity and adaptation to linguistic norms and conventions, and guidance in this is an important task for the Norwegian teacher. Through the teacher’s professional guidance, and also through guidance and reactions from other pupils, pupils develop the ability to assess their own texts. The pupils must learn in their Norwegian classes that, if they are to write well, they must adapt the contents and style to the context in which they are writing. Where practically possible, the use of word processors should be integrated into work on the subject.
Knowledge about the language
Knowledge about the language and its history is an important part of Norwegian studies. If pupils are to develop a rich vocabulary and a good command of the language, they must acquire the terminology they need to describe the structure of the language and the functioning of spoken and written varieties. It is also important that they understand how Norwegian has developed from its Indo-European roots to the language we use today. Through their studies of the history of the language, pupils learn about the prior conditions for the development of our two written languages, learn to understand the current language situation and at the same time develop linguistic tolerance. It is important that the pupils understand why the language changes and how international mass culture swamps Norwegian daily life with Anglo-American words and expressions. Foreign influence can be well and good, but it must be moulded to fit our own traditions and not be allowed to water down the cognitive content and nuances that can only be fully expressed by our own language.
The mass media
Through their studies of Norwegian, the pupils shall also learn to recognize the different linguistic cultures they meet in connection with television, film, radio, newspapers, weekly magazines, advertising and specialist literature. The mass media play an important role in the daily lives of young people, and the media situation has altered dramatically in the course of the last few decades. The mass media function both as spreaders of culture and as information providers, and it is important to be aware of their influence, both positive and negative. As far as possible, pupils must develop a conscious, critical and analytical stance in relation to the mass media.

1.2 Norwegian in the upper secondary school

Norwegian is a common general subject for all areas of study. The subject is founded on the teaching received in the primary and lower secondary school.


In vocational areas of study all pupils shall receive a total of 150 teaching hours in Norwegian (an average of 2 hours a week the first year and 2 hours a week the second year). In the areas of study for general and business studies, music, dance and drama and sport and physical education, all pupils shall receive a total of 524 teaching hours over the three years (4+5+5 hours a week), which fulfils the general entrance requirement for the subject. Pupils who have taken Norwegian as a common general subject in connection with a vocational course (foundation course + advanced course I = a total of 150 teaching hours) can extend their studies to fulfil the general entrance requirement.
This syllabus describes the objectives for the 150-hour variant, which is compulsory for vocational areas of study, and the 524-hour variant, which is compulsory for the other areas of study. The syllabus also provides a breakdown of the constituent modules and shows how the 150-hour course can be extended to fulfil the general entrance requirement for the subject (see appendix 1). Assessment in the subject is described in chapter 3 and appendix 2.
Modules 1 and 2 together provide the common foundation in Norwegian required of all pupils attending the upper secondary school. These modules are compulsory for all areas of study. For educational and organizational reasons and to enable a certain degree of adaptation to the areas of study, modules 1 and 2 are offered separately for vocational areas of study and jointly for general and business studies, music, dance and drama and sport and physical education. In vocational areas of study, module 1 is taken as part of the foundation course and module 2 as part of advanced course I, whereas modules 1 and 2 are both taken as part of the foundation course for the other areas of study. Modules 3 and 4 are founded on the common basis provided by modules 1 and 2, and the four modules together fulfil the general entrance requirement for the subject. In the areas of study for general and business studies, music, dance and drama and sport and physical education, all modules are compulsory, while pupils who have taken modules 1 and 2 in connection with a vocational course can extend their studies to fulfil the general entrance requirement in the subject by taking modules 3 and 4.



Chapter 2: Objectives and learning targets




2.1 Common objectives for modules 1 and 2



Pupils shall


  • be able to express themselves clearly and precisely, both orally and in writing, and be able to adapt content and use of language to individual contexts




  • be familiar with and be able to use specialized terms from their vocational areas in factual prose texts




  • have a knowledge of grammar and ordinary stylistic conventions and be able to apply this knowledge to text and language exercises




  • have a knowledge of how situations influence the use of language and be able to apply this knowledge in practice




  • have a knowledge of the basic principles of text analysis and be able to read and comment on different types of text




  • have a knowledge of the main genres of fiction and non-fiction and be able to write different types of text




  • have a knowledge of how a text is developed, structured, revised and finished, and be able to apply this knowledge to their own writing







  • have a knowledge of the language situation in Norway today




  • have a knowledge of Norwegian literature with a main emphasis on the period after 1940




  • have some familiarity with Sami literature in translation




  • have some knowledge of major mass media and of how they influence us




  • be able to use books, newspapers and other mass media as sources of information




  • be familiar with and be able to use aids such as dictionaries, encyclopaedias and other reference works




  • be able to plan and carry out project work



2.2 Module 1 Foundation course for vocational areas of study




Objective 1 Using spoken language

Pupils shall be able to use spoken language in different situations and be able to adapt the content and use of language to the situation
Learning targets

Pupils shall


1a be able to use common oral forms of expression, for example


  • narrative (e.g. about an experience or circumstances of a case)

  • account/summary

  • introduction to discussion

  • discussion in class and in small groups

  • presentation

  • instruction (e.g. concerning the use of technical equipment, machines or tools)

  • other vocational activities as appropriate



Objective 2 Using written language

Pupils shall be able to use their first-choice form of the written language in different contexts and be able to adapt the content and use of language to the context
Learning targets

Pupils shall


2a practise writing in different genres, both fiction and non-fiction, for example


  • simple expository texts

  • short stories/narratives

  • notices of meetings

  • accounts (including minutes of meetings)

  • letters (various types, such as job applications, orders and “letters to the editor”)

  • reports

  • other vocational tasks, as appropriate


Objective 3 Language and communication theory

Pupils shall have a knowledge of language and communication theory and be able to apply this knowledge to text and language exercises
Learning targets

Pupils shall


3a have a basic knowledge of orthography, inflections and diction in the first-choice form of Norwegian
3b have a basic knowledge of word and sentence grammar and be able to apply this knowledge to text and language exercises
3c be familiar with the main principles of linguistic communication and be able to apply this knowledge to practical language exercises

Objective 4 Literature

Pupils shall have a knowledge of different Norwegian literary genres with a main emphasis on literature from the period after 1940. Some texts from other Nordic countries may also be included as well as world literature. A goal in work with literature shall be to stimulate the pupils’ interest and pleasure in reading literary works
Learning targets

Pupils shall


4a have read and be able to give an account of a selection of Norwegian contemporary fiction and non-fiction in both forms of Norwegian. The selection shall include Sami literature in translation. Both male and female writers shall be represented in the selection. The following genres shall be included:

  • A play (read or seen)

  • A representative selection of short stories (approximately half of the selection to be in module 1, the remainder in module 2)

  • A representative selection of poetry (approximately half of the selection to be in module 1, the remainder in module 2)

  • A varied selection of factual prose texts, which may have vocational themes (approximately half of the selection to be in module 1, the remainder in module 2)

4b have a knowledge of the basic principles of text analysis and be able to apply this knowledge to work on literature exercises


4c have some knowledge of major writers in connection with the literary texts


Objective 5 The mass media

Pupils shall have some knowledge of the mass media as an information provider
Learning targets

Pupils shall


5a have some knowledge of some of the principal mass media (e.g. books, newspapers, journals, weekly magazines, radio, television and film) and how they influence us
5b have a knowledge of the salient features of advertising and effects commonly used in advertising texts

Objective 6 Study techniques

Pupils shall develop good working methods in the subject and be able to transfer these methods to work on other subjects
Learning targets

Pupils shall


6a have a knowledge of and be able to use elementary study techniques
6b be familiar with and be able to use word lists, dictionaries and other types of reference works as aids
6c be able to use the library to find material they need
6d be able to use different ways of working on the subject, for example groupwork and project work


2.3 Module 2 Advanced course I for vocational areas of study




Objective 1 Using spoken language

Pupils shall be able to use spoken language in different situations and be able to adapt the content and use of language to the situation. Pupils shall further develop knowledge and skills from module 1
Learning targets

Pupils shall


1a be able to use common oral forms of expression, for example


  • drama/role-play

  • discussion in class and in small groups

  • chairing meetings

  • presentation

  • instruction

  • simple talks

  • interviews

  • other vocational activities, as appropriate



Objective 2 Using written language

Pupils shall be able to use their first-choice form of the written language in different contexts and be able to adapt the content and use of language to the context. Pupils shall further develop knowledge and skills from module 1
Learning targets

Pupils shall


2a practise writing in different genres, both fiction and non-fiction,

for example




  • simple expository texts

  • reviews of books or films

  • simple analysis and interpretations of texts

  • talks

  • reports (e.g. from a work experience period, task assignment or environmental project)

  • explanations

  • other vocational tasks, as appropriate (e.g. instructions, process descriptions)


Objective 3 Language and communication theory

Pupils shall have a knowledge of language and communication and be able to apply this knowledge to text and language exercises
Learning targets

Pupils shall


3a be familiar with concepts of style that are necessary for text and language exercises
3b have a basic knowledge of inflections and diction in the first-choice form of Norwegian
3c have a knowledge of the written language situation in Norway, e.g. the relationship between New Norwegian and Bokmål, language use by public officials, influence from other languages and coinage of new words in our language
3d be familiar with different variants of the spoken language on the basis of experience gained in their own environment (technical jargon, in-group language, dialects, sociolects and slang)

Objective 4 Literature

Pupils shall have a knowledge of different Norwegian literary genres with a main emphasis on literature from the period after 1940. Some texts from other Nordic countries may also be included as well as world literature. Pupils shall continue the work with literature begun in module 1
Learning targets

Pupils shall


4a have read and be able to give an account of a selection of Norwegian contemporary fiction and non-fiction in both forms of Norwegian. The selection shall include Sami literature in translation. Both male and female writers shall be represented in the selection. The following genres shall be included:


  • A novel

  • A representative selection of short stories (continuation of work begun in module 1)

  • A representative selection of poetry (continuation of work begun in module 1)

  • A varied selection of factual prose texts, which may have vocational themes (continuation of work begun in module 1)

4b have a knowledge of the basic principles of text analysis and be able to detect and evaluate the use of simple stylistic effects


4c have some knowledge of major writers in connection with the literary texts, and have outline knowledge of the period after 1940

Objective 5 The mass media

Pupils shall have some knowledge of the mass media as a spreader of culture
Learning targets

Pupils shall


5a have some knowledge of the mass media as a spreader of culture, and of how different media, e.g. radio, television and film, conveyed language and text during the period after 1940

Objective 6 Study techniques

Pupils shall develop good working methods in the subject with an emphasis on the ability to work more independently and on being able to transfer these methods to work on other subjects
Learning targets

Pupils shall


6a be able to use the library more independently to find material they need
6b be able to adopt different ways of working in the subject, for example project work
6c have a knowledge of how a text is developed, structured, revised and finished, and be able to apply this knowledge to their own writing. This may involve the use of word processing where this is practicable

2.4 Common objectives for modules 1, 2, 3 and 4




Pupils shall


  • be able to express themselves clearly and precisely, both orally and in writing, and be able to adapt the content and use of language to individual contexts




  • have a knowledge of grammar and style and be able to use the main terms in work on language and text




  • have a knowledge of and be able to give an account of how the use of language is affected by the context in which it is used




  • have a knowledge of the main genres of fiction and non-fiction and be able to write different types of text




  • have a knowledge of how a text is developed, structured, revised and finished, and be able to apply this knowledge to their own writing




  • have a knowledge of the main dialect indicators and be able to use them to identify dialects




  • have a knowledge of social variants of the language




  • be familiar with the main elements of the history of the Norwegian language and have a knowledge of the language situation in Norway today




  • have a knowledge of elementary literary theory and be able to read and analysis different types of text




  • have a knowledge of Norwegian literature from the earliest times up to the present day and be familiar with the main periods of the history of Norwegian literature




  • have a knowledge of major authors and important individual works of Norwegian literature




  • have some familiarity with Sami literature in translation




  • have some knowledge of other Nordic language and have read Danish, Swedish and some Icelandic literature in the original




  • have a knowledge of major mass media and of how the different media convey language and text




  • be able to use books, newspapers and other mass media as sources of information




  • be familiar with and be able to use aids such as dictionaries, encyclopaedias and other reference works




  • be able to plan and carry out a large assignment


2.5 Modules 1 and 2 Foundation course for the areas of study for general and business studies, music, dance and drama and sport and physical education




Objective 1 Using spoken language

Pupils shall be able to use spoken language in different situations and be able to adapt the content and use of language to the situation
Learning targets

Pupils shall


1a be able to use common oral forms of expression, for example


  • narratives (e.g. about an experience or circumstances of a case)

  • drama/role-play

  • discussion in class and in small groups

  • introduction to a discussion

  • chairing meetings

  • accounts/summaries

  • presentations

  • simple talks

  • interviews

  • other vocational activities, as appropriate


Objective 2 Using written language

Pupils shall be able to use written language in different contexts in both forms of Norwegian, and be able to adapt the content and use of language to the context
Learning targets

Pupils shall


2a practise writing in different genres, both fiction and non-fiction, for example


  • simple expository texts

  • simple analysis and interpretation of texts

  • reviews of books or films

  • short stories/narratives

  • talks

  • reports

  • accounts (including minutes of meetings)

  • notices of meetings

  • explanations

  • letters (various types, such as job applications, orders and “letters to the editor”)

  • other vocational tasks, as appropriate



Objective 3 Language and communication theory

Pupils shall have a knowledge of language and communication theory and be able to apply this knowledge to text and language exercises
Learning targets

Pupils shall


3a have a basic knowledge of orthography, inflections and diction in both forms of Norwegian
3b have a basic knowledge of word and sentence grammar, and be able to apply this knowledge to text and language exercises
3c be familiar with concepts of style that are necessary for text analysis
3d be familiar with the main principles of linguistic communication and be able to apply this knowledge to practical work on language

3e have a knowledge of the written language situation in Norway, e.g. the relationship between New Norwegian and Bokmål, language use by public officials, influence from other languages and coinage of new words in our language


3f be familiar with different variants of the spoken language on the basis of experience gained in their own environment (technical jargon, in-group language, dialects, sociolects and slang)

Objective 4 Literature

Pupils shall have a knowledge of different Norwegian literary genres with a main emphasis on literature from the period after 1940. Some texts from other Nordic countries may also be included as well as world literature. A goal in work with literature shall be to stimulate the pupils’ interest and pleasure in reading literary works
Learning targets

Pupils shall


4a have read and be able to give an account of a selection of Norwegian contemporary fiction and non-fiction in both forms of Norwegian. The selection shall include Sami literature in translation. Both male and female writers shall be represented in the selection. The following genres shall be included:


  • A novel

  • A play (read or seen)

  • A representative selection of short stories

  • A representative selection of poetry

  • A varied selection of factual prose texts

4b have a knowledge of the basic principles of text analysis and be able to detect and evaluate the use of simple stylistic effects


4c have some knowledge of major writers in connection with the literary texts and have outline knowledge of the period after 1940

Objective 5 The mass media

Pupils shall have a knowledge of the mass media both as an information provider and as a spreader of culture
Learning targets

Pupils shall


5a be familiar with some of the principle mass media (e.g. books, newspapers, journals, weekly magazines, radio, television and film) and how they influence us
5b have some knowledge of how different media convey language and text
5c have a knowledge of the salient features of advertising and effects commonly used in advertising texts

Objective 6 Study techniques

Pupils shall develop good working methods in the subject and be able to transfer these methods to work on other subjects
Learning targets

Pupils shall


6a have a knowledge of and be able to use elementary study techniques
6b be familiar with and be able to use word lists, dictionaries and other types of reference works as aids
6c be able to use the library to find material they need
6d be able to use different ways of working on the subject, for example groupwork and project work
6e have a knowledge of how a text is developed, structured, revised and finished, and be able to apply this knowledge to their own writing. This may involve the use of word processing where this is practicable.


2.6 Module 3 Advanced course I for the areas of study for general and business studies, music, dance and drama and sport and physical education



Objective 1 Using spoken language

Pupils shall develop and continue the work on the use of spoken language begun on the foundation course
Learning targets

Pupils shall


1a be able to use common oral forms of expression with greater demands on content and use of language, for example


  • introduction to a discussion

  • summing up of a discussion

  • presentation of a subject topic

  • dramatization and performance of a literary work



Objective 2 Using written language

Pupils shall further develop the written competence acquired on the foundation course
Learning targets

Pupils shall


2a have a good knowledge of and secure use of their first-choice and second-choice forms of Norwegian
2b be able to write longer, continuous texts in their first-choice and second-choice forms of Norwegian in different genres with greater demands on content, structure and diction
2c be able to write an analysis of a literary text
2d be able to write an analysis of a non-fiction text
2e be able to reason, argue and discuss in writing


Objective 3 Language and communication theory

Pupils shall further develop their studies of language and communication begun on the foundation course. They shall also be familiar with the principal elements of the history of the Norwegian language and of some important characteristics of Old Norwegian
Learning targets

Pupils shall


3a have further developed knowledge and skills listed under the same objectives in more elementary courses
3b have a knowledge of the principal elements of the history of the Norwegian language with particular emphasis on the period after 1830
3c be familiar with the relationship between their own dialect and the written language
3d have a knowledge of some important characteristics of Old Norwegian and be able to point out important distinctions between Old Norwegian and modern Norwegian on the basis of Old Norwegian texts (at least three pages)

Objective 4 Literature

Pupils shall have a knowledge of Norwegian and Nordic literature from the earliest times up to approximately 1900 and be able to relate texts to their social contexts. They shall also have an outline knowledge of the history of literature and be able to use this as a frame of reference. Some texts from world literature may also be included
Learning targets

Pupils shall


4a read and have a knowledge of


  • Old Norwegian literature

The text selection should include a prose work (e.g. a short family saga or an excerpt from Snorri’s Sagas of the Norwegian Kings or from Gylfaginning) and an Eddaic lay or excerpt from an Eddaic lay, e.g. Håvamål.


  • Folk tales and ballads

The text selection shall include folk ballads, folk tales and legends.


  • 17th–18th century

A selection of literary texts including hymns and texts by Petter Dass, Dorothe Engelbretsdotter, Ludvig Holberg and Johan Herman Wessel.




  • 1800–1850

A selection of literary texts where Henrik Wergeland, Johan S. Welhaven and Hans Christian Andersen should be represented.


  • 1850–1870

A selection of literary texts where Camilla Collett, Ivar Aasen, Aasmund Olavsson Vinje and Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson should be represented.


  • 1870–1890

A selection of literary texts, which should include a play by Henrik Ibsen. Texts from at least four other major writers should also be included, one of whom should be Amalie Skram. A text by August Strindberg should also be included in the selection. All pupils should have read a novel by a representative of realism or naturalism.


  • 1890–1900

A selection of literary texts where Sigbjørn Obstfelder, Arne Garborg and Knut Hamsun should be represented.




Objective 5 The mass media

Pupils shall have some knowledge of written mass media prior to 1900.
Learning targets

Pupils shall


5a have some knowledge of the emergence of some written mass media during the 19th century (e.g. books, newspapers, popular education pamphlets, broadsheets and weekly magazines)

Objective 6 Study techniques

Pupils shall be able to work independently and systematically and be able to transfer these methods to work on other subjects
Learning targets

Pupils shall


6a be able to find suitable source material and make critical use of it
6b be able to cooperate on tasks and projects
6c be able to use part of the classroom time for planning and carrying out their own learning projects

2.7 Module 4 Advanced course II for the areas of study for general and business studies, music, dance and drama and sport and physical education




Objective 1 Using spoken language

Pupils shall develop and continue work on the use of spoken language begun in module 3
Learning targets

Pupils shall


1a be able to discuss a matter and argue for and against a standpoint
1b be able to use common oral forms of expression with greater demands on presentation, for example a talk on a technical topic
1c present a large assignment or project (e.g. a specialized topic)

Objective 2 Using written language

Pupils shall be able to use written language in both language forms with greater demands on content, structure and diction than in module 3
Learning targets

Pupils shall


2a be able to express themselves clearly and correctly in both forms of the language
2b be able to vary the use of language in their own texts (e.g. tone, choice of words and syntax) according to genre and context
2c be able to write well structured and coherent extended texts (e.g. expository texts, explanations, discussion exercises, analysis of fiction and non-fiction texts, essays, talks and short stories/narratives)

Objective 3 Language and communication theory

Pupils shall have a knowledge of Norwegian language development and linguistic variation
Learning targets

Pupils shall


3a have a knowledge of the history of the Norwegian language from approximately 1900 to the present day

3b have a knowledge of the main dialect indicators and be able to use them to identify dialects. Pupils shall have studied approximately five different dialect samples for this purpose


3c have a knowledge of social variation in the language (e.g. sociolects, in-group language and technical jargon)
3d have a knowledge of style and textual cohesion and be able to apply this knowledge to work on text and language
3e have a knowledge of argumentation techniques and be able to apply this knowledge to text analysis and work on texts
3f have some knowledge of important distinctions between Norwegian and the other Nordic languages

Objective 4 Literature

Pupils shall have a good knowledge of 18th century Norwegian literature, and be able to relate texts to their social contexts. Pupils shall have some knowledge of the literature of the other Nordic countries. Some texts from world literature may also be included
Learning targets

Pupils shall


4a have read and be able to give an account of a selection of 18th century fiction and non-fiction in both forms of Norwegian. Both male and female writers shall be represented in the selection. The selection of texts shall be representative of major trends, issues and lines of development during the period. A novel or a play, A representative selection of short prose texts (fiction and non-fiction) and a representative selection of poetry shall be included. At least eight of the following authors should be represented in the selection of texts: Knut Hamsun, Sigrid Undset, Olav Duun, Johan Falkberget, Kristofer Uppdal, Oskar Braaten, Sigurd Hoel, Cora Sandel, Aksel Sandemose, Nordahl Grieg, Herman Wildenvey, Olaf Bull, Olav Nygard, Arnulf Øverland, Rudolf Nilsen, Rolf Jacobsen, Halldis Moren Vesaas, Inger Hagerup, Aslaug Vaa, Tor Jonsson, Alf Prøysen, Tarjei Vesaas, Johan Borgen, Torborg Nedreaas, Jens Bjørneboe and Olav H. Hauge.
4b have a good knowledge of literary analysis
4c have read a selection of Danish and Swedish texts and an Icelandic text in the original
4d have read Sami literature in translation
4e have some knowledge of the presentation of literature by other media (e.g. film, video, television, radio, cassettes and records)

Objective 5 specialized topics

Pupils shall be able to make a close study of a specialized topic within language, literature or mass media
Learning targets

Pupils shall


5a have planned and carried out a major assignment and presented it either orally or in writing. The source material shall be derived primarily from Norwegian (or Nordic) language, literature or mass media. Works from world literature may also be included. The selection of material shall be of a sufficient scope to cover essential aspects of the topic.
Examples of specialized literary topics


  • study of a writer

  • study of a period

  • study of a genre

  • a thematic study


Examples of specialized language topics


  • study of a dialect

  • study of Old Norwegian

  • a topic from the history of the Norwegian language

  • study of place names or Christian names

  • a sosiolinguistic study

  • a topic from stylistics

  • another relevant linguistic topic


Examples of specialized mass media topics


  • comparison between prose fiction and film

  • study of advertising

  • study of comics or weekly magazines

  • analysis of language and content in radio or television programmes

  • study of the mass media as a spreader of culture

  • study of the mass media as an information provider


Objective 6 Study techniques

Pupils shall be able to work methodically, systematically and creatively on the subject, both independently and in cooperation with others, and be able to transfer this knowledge to work on other subjects
Learning targets

Pupils shall


6a be able to plan and carry out a large assignment, independently or in cooperation with others
6b be able to apply scientific methods in the subject, demonstrate judgement, creativity and a critical sense
6c be able to plan and assess one’s own learning in the subject in cooperation with the teacher



Chapter 3: Assessment




3.1 Why assess?

The aim of assessment is to ensure that education and training comply with a national standard, so that we are sure of providing satisfactory and equivalent educational facilities for all. Assessment entails that the result of attending the course is assessed on the basis of the objectives set out in the curriculum.


Assessment serves different purposes, e.g.:


  • to inform the pupil, parent or guardian, teacher and training institution of how far the pupil has come in the work towards the achievement of a specific level of knowledge or expertise and

  • to guide, motivate and develop the pupil and

  • to motivate the teacher to continuously assess his or her teaching

  • to inform society, the labour market and institutions of higher education of the level of knowledge and expertise achieved by the pupil



3.2 What shall be assessed?





  • The course objectives as set out in the core curriculum, in the common objectives for the specialized subjects and in the objectives for individual subjects of this curriculum form the basis for assessment.

  • It is the pupil’s overall competence that shall be assessed, as described in the course objectives.

  • The assessment of the pupils shall show the extent to which they have achieved the objectives set out in the syllabuses.



3.3 How shall assessment be carried out?

A distinction is made between two main types of assessment:




  • Continuous assessment

  • Final assessment

The purpose of continuous assessment is to inform and motivate pupils and teachers in their efforts to achieve the course objectives. Such assessment may be either formal or informal. A useful aid for continuous assessment is a workbook, log book, journal or similar record related to the course. Formal continuous assessment is reflected in the marks awarded each term.


Final assessment is in the form of marks awarded for classwork and for any final examination.

3.4 Special conditions applying to assessment in Norwegian

Questions in the written examination shall mainly relate to the subject’s objectives and learning targets. When the examination in Norwegian consists of two days of written examinations, the questions shall be answered in the first-choice form of Norwegian on one of the days and in the second-choice form on the other day.


Marks for classwork in written Norwegian (both forms of Norwegian) shall be awarded on the basis of a broader selection of question types and writing categories than are included in the examination. The total marks awarded for the examination and for classwork shall provide evidence of broad competence in written Norwegian.
Further guidance on question types for the Norwegian examination and on the assessment of written Norwegian can be found in Assessment Guide for Norwegian, issued by the National Examination Board.
If the pupil delivers a written presentation of the specialized topic (særemne) in advanced course II, assessment of the specialized topic shall be included in the mark awarded for written Norwegian. If the specialized topic is presented orally, assessment shall be included in the mark awarded for oral Norwegian.
One quarter of the year’s work shall consist of one or more projects. At least one of the projects shall include work in several subjects, both common general subjects and specialized subjects.



Appendix 1




Teaching hours and modules


The common general subject Norwegian consists of 150+187+187 teaching hours per year (an average of 4+5+5 hours a week), and may be divided into four modules. Modules 1 and 2 are compulsory for all areas of study. For pupils attending vocational areas of study, compulsory studies in Norwegian consist of modules 1 and 2, amounting to 75 teaching hours per year (an average of 2 hours a week) on both the foundation course and advanced course I. Modules 3 and 4 are extension modules that pupils may take in addition to modules 1 and 2 to extend their studies in order to fulfil the general entrance requirement for the subject. In the areas of study for general and business studies, music, dance and drama and sport and physical education, modules 1–4 are compulsory. In these the areas of study, modules 1 and 2 are both taken as part of the foundation course in Norwegian, a total of 150 teaching hours for the year, module 3 is offered as part of advanced course I, a total of 187 teaching hours for the year, and module 4 is offered as part of advanced course II a total of 187 teaching hours for the year.


Modules for vocational areas of study


Teaching hours per year

(Average

hours a week)

Foundation course:

Module 1: Objectives 1–6 with learning targets

75

2


Advanced course I:

Module 2: Objectives 1–6 with learning targets

75



2










Modules for General and Business Studies, Music, Dance and Drama and Sport and Physical Education:

Teaching hours per year

(Average hours a week)


Foundation course:

Modules 1 and 2 : Objectives 1–6

150

4

Advanced course I:

Module 3: Objectives 7–12

187

5

Advanced course II:

Module 4: Objectives 13–18

187

5


Note to appendix 1
The basis for the number of teaching hours is the total number of hours per year. The average number of teaching hours per week is equal to the number of teaching hours per year divided by 38. Cf. the contract of employment, where it is laid down that teaching shall be arranged on 190 days of the year, divided into 38 weeks.*
* Specially arranged courses for adults may be completed more rapidly (intensive courses). Training may also be extended over longer periods when this is needed by groups or by individual pupils.



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