Current Issues, Challenges & Success Stories Of Bangladesh in Agricultural/Rural Financing & Development

Download 36,15 Kb.
Date conversion17.08.2017
Size36,15 Kb.

Current Issues, Challenges & Success Stories Of Bangladesh in Agricultural/Rural Financing & Development

  • Shitangshu Kumar Sur Chowdhury Deputy Governor, Bangladesh Bank
  • 25February-1 March2012
  • Bangkok and Phuket, Thailand

Presentation Outline

  • I . Country Profile
  • II. Background/Introduction
  • III. Issues and Challenges
  • IV- Objectives of the Government of Bangladesh
  • V. Some Initiatives and Success Stories of Bangladesh in Agriculture/Rural development
  • VI. Food Security Status of Bangladesh
  • VII. Initiative taken by Bangladesh Bank in Agriculture & Rural Financing & Development
  • VIII. Conclusion

Country Profile

  • Area : 144000 Sq.Km
  • Population : 150 Million
  • Male : Female : 71.2 Million : 71.0 Million
  • Birth Rate : 1.34%
  • Population density : 964/ sq. Km.
  • Villages (rural) : 87,319
  • Rural profession : Agriculture (70%)
  • Scheduled Banks : 47
  • Non-Bank Financial Institutions : 30
  • Microcredit Institutes : 553
  • Cooperative Agencies : 57,000

Agriculture is one of the prime sectors of Bangladesh‘s economy.

  • Background/Introduction
  • Agriculture is one of the prime sectors of Bangladesh‘s economy.
  • About 80 percent of the total population lives in rural areas, with 70 percent of them employed in agriculture.
  • Agriculture contributes about 20 percent to the country's GDP, about 15 percent of which is contributed by the crop sector alone.
  • Food security, employment creation and poverty alleviation are closely related with the development of agriculture.
  • The government has set a target of 8% GDP growth within 2015. Besides, there is another issue on achievement of self-sufficiency in food production within 2013.
  • In Bangladesh, it is possible to reduce rural poverty and raise the living standard of common people by establishing agriculture as a profitable sector.
  • Issues and Challenges
  • Rapid increase of population and shrinkage of agricultural Land .
  • Agriculture is dependent on the impulse of nature and is risky.
  • Widespread poverty among the population engaged in agriculture.
  • Inadequacy of appropriate technology considering farmers' socio- economic conditions.
  • Decreasing yields of different crops due to slow expansion of modern technology as well as unplanned use of soil and water.
  • Uncertainty of fair price of agricultural commodities due to underdeveloped marketing system.
  • Absence of efficient as well as effective farmers' organization at the grass root level.
  • Inadequate use of improved seeds, fertilizers, irrigation and other inputs.
  • Very weak backward-forward linkage in agriculture.
  • Climate change and variation

Objectives of the Government of Bangladesh

  • To make the nation self-sufficient in food through increasing production of all crops.
  • Ensure a profitable and sustainable agricultural production system and increase the purchasing power of the farmers.
  • Preserve and Develop land productivity.
  • Reduce excessive dependence on any single crop to minimize the risk.
  • Increase production and supplies of more nutritious food crops and thereby ensuring food security and improving nutritional status.
  • Take up programmes for the introduction, utilization and extension of bio-technology.
  • Produce and supply of agricultural commodities as required by the industrial sector.
  • Take appropriate steps to develop an efficient irrigation system and encourage farmers in providing supplementary irrigation during drought with a view to increasing cropping intensity and yield.
  • Establish agriculture as a diversified and sustainable income generating sector through strengthening of 'Farming System' based agricultural production and agro-forestry programmes.
  • Take effective steps to ensure input supplies to the farmers at fair prices in a competitive market and remove difficulties at the farmers' level.
  • Create opportunities for establishing agro-processing and agro-based industries, and
  • Develop contingency management system to combat natural disasters.
  • Objectives…… (Contd…..)
  • Some Initiatives and Success Stories of Bangladesh in Agriculture/Rural Development

Women's Participation in Agriculture

  • Women are engaged in Agriculture related activities like:
  • post harvest operations, seed preservation, nursery business,
  • jute stripping, vegetable cultivation, homestead gardening,
  • floriculture, production of horticultural seeds,
  • establishment and management of cottage industries based on locally produced agricultural commodities etc.
  • Extensive training programmes are conducted and capital supports are provided to encourage women's interest and improve their skill in such activities.

Invention of Genome Sequence of Jute

  • Jute was called the Golden Fiber of Bangladesh as Bangladesh was the largest jute production country of the world.
  • Recently, genome sequencing of jute has been discovered by Bangladeshi scientists.
  • This invention is treated as the prime success of Agricultural sector of Bangladesh.

Cash Assistance for the Jute Cultivator

  • Government has taken a massive programme for the development of the quality of Jute.
  • An amount of Taka 200 per head was assisted among 1.54 million farmers through their bank account.
  • Besides 15396 pieces ribner are distributed among a group of 100 farmers (one pieces for each group).
  • The cost incurred for this program was about 337.9 million taka.

Introduction of Agricultural Card & Assistance of Diesel for irrigation through this Card

  • There are about 13.8 million Agricultural Cards are distributed among the farmers family.
  • Through these cards about 7220 million taka are distributed as assistance for purchasing Diesel for irrigation.

Modernization of Agriculture

  • A project for about 1500 million taka is in the pipeline for modernization and mechanization of Agriculture.
  • The farmers will get 25% subsidy to purchase modern agricultural machineries.
  • Purchasing of about 64,140 machines will be subsidized under this project.

Rehabilitation programme for the farmers

  • There are about 0.39 million flood affected farmers has got assistance through distribution of free fertilizers and Boro seed for cultivation of Boro rice.
  • About 484.90 million taka is subsidized by the government for this purpose.

Subsidy in Agricultural Sector

  • During the fiscal year 2010-2011 about 40,000 million taka were subsidized in the agricultural sector for purchasing urea, non-urea fertilizer and diesel.

Accustom farmers with agricultural technology

  • Arrangement of special programme for the farmers in National Radio & Television.
  • Establishment of Community Radio station for the farmers.
  • Development of website ( with latest agricultural related information for the farmers.
  • Introduction of Agricultural Information & Communication Centre (AICC).
  • There are about 20 AICC are already running and about 225 are in pipeline though which 1000 Union Council will be covered for online video services.

Addressing the Adverse Effects of Climate Change

  • The climate change has resulted in changes in cultivation time of many crops and hampered traditional cultivation in many areas.
  • Research are continued to invent flood, draught, salinity and high temperature tolerant crop variety.
  • Bangladesh Rice Research Institute (BRRI) have already invented some climate adapted varieties of Rice and many others to cope with changes of climate.

Food Security Status of Bangladesh

  • The major cereal crops are rice and wheat although main focus is on rice production.
  • 79.4 percent of the total cultivable land area under rice crop.
  • Almost 90% population depend on rice.
  • Rice contributes to over 63% of the caloric intake for urban consumers and over 71% for the rural population.
  • The agriculture sector has grown at 3.2 percent annually during 1991-2009.
  • Growth rate of agriculture sector during FY 2009-10 & 2010-11 were 5.2 & 5.1 .
  • This trend resulted Bangladesh as the self sufficient country in production of food grain from the year 2010.

Actual & Projected population, Food grain requirement and production

  • Actual & Projected population, Food grain requirement and production
  • Year
  • Mid-year population (million)
  • Food grain requirement
  • Total production
  • 2010
  • 148.10
  • 24519.60
  • 27587.04
  • 2015
  • 156.70
  • 25943.42
  • 29797.54
  • 2020
  • 166.90
  • 27632.14
  • 30947.00
  • Food Security Status of Bangladesh(Contd…)

Initiatives taken by Bangladesh Bank in Agriculture & Rural Financing & Development

Background of Formulation of ACP

  • In line with the pro-poor agricultural policy of the government, Bangladesh Bank has formulated its own Agricultural & Rural Credit Policy and Programme with a view to:
  • expanding banking services to rural areas using information technology,
  • using the limited agricultural land for the best purposes of agriculture,
  • deciding the courses of action for adapting to the impact of climate change.
  • keeping the price level of foodstuff within the purchasing power of the mass people through increasing agricultural production.

Background….. (contd….)

  • Considering the importance of food security and employment of the country, Bangladesh Bank designing agricultural credit policy and programme since 1977 and implemented through nationalized and specialized banks.
  • From the FY 2008-2009 all private and foreign commercial Banks along with nationalized and specialized banks are advised to disburse agri/rural credit .
  • BB made mandatory for all banks to disburse a specific percent of their total loans & Advances in agriculture and rural sector from FY 2011-2012.

Major Area Covered in ACP

  • Crop
  • Fisheries
  • Livestock
  • Agri-Equipments
  • Irrigation Equipments
  • Grain storage and marketing
  • Poverty Alleviation & Employment generating activities
  • Others

Salient Feature of Annual Agricultural & Rural credit policy Of Bangladesh Bank

  • Priority will be given to the major three sectors such as Crop, Fisheries, livestock.
  • Credit shall be disbursed in an area approach method i.e. comparative advantages of producing crops in different regions.
  • Ensure timely availability of agricultural credit for the small and marginal farmers including share-croppers.
  • Less developed and neglected areas (i.e. char, haor, coastal belts etc.) shall be given priority.
  • Credit facilities shall be allowed at a concessional interest rate (4%) for cultivation of import substitute products such as pulse, oil seeds, spices and maize.
  • Other than Agricultural credit different self-employment/income generating activities are encouraged in order to stimulate the rural economy.

Salient Feature of Annual Agricultural & Rural credit policy Of Bangladesh Bank

  • Women borrowers shall be given priority for disbursing agricultural & rural credit.
  • To ensure transparency, emphasis is given on disbursement of agriculture credit publicly(open credit disbursement) at union level.
  • High Value Crops shall be given priority in extending credit facility.
  • Contract Farming: Banks are advised to provide loan to the agro-commodities producing farmers engaged in contract farming as well as the entrepreneur to ensure fair prices of agri product.
  • Crop Diversification:
    • Nutritious food such as potato, pulse, oil seeds, maize etc. are given priorities to others.
    • Banks and Financial Institutions are advised to disburse loan for cultivating and to popularize the various ways of consumption of them.

Salient Feature of Annual Agricultural & Rural credit policy Of Bangladesh Bank

  • Revolving Crop Credit Limit System:  To ensure continuous credit flow revolving crop credit limit system i.e. three year auto renewal of agricultural-loan has been introduced.
  • Climate Change Effect:
  • Banks are advised to make flexible of the schedule of credit disbursement and recovery to adapt the adverse effects of climate change.
  • Banks are asked to facilitate credit to cultivate salt tolerating crops in salty areas, water tolerating crops in flood affected areas, drought tolerating crops in drought areas.
  • Fish culture in cage: Banks are advised to disburse loan in fish culture in cage i.e. culture fish in a controlled environment to produce commercially viable fish.

Salient Feature of Annual Agricultural & Rural credit policy Of Bangladesh Bank

  • Distribution of loan to coastal aquaculture:
  • Banks are advised to disburse loan for cultivation of Mud crab, Lates calcarifer, Gray mullet etc. in the potential coastal area of Bangladesh which are limited to shrimp cultivation.
  • A significant amount of foreign currency could be earned through export of this fish variety.
  • Credit Disbursement through 10 Tk. Farmer’s Account
  • For Financial Inclusions instructions are given to the Banks to open a farmers account by taking 10 Tk. initial deposit.
  • To develop savings habit among the farmers and to attract un-tapped rural savings, banks are instructed to allow higher rate of interest to these accounts.
  • Farmers are encouraged to channel their foreign remittances through these accounts.
  • Banks also instructed to allow credit up to 90% of their total deposit at a lower rate against the deposit on this account.
  • Salient Feature of Annual Agricultural & Rural credit policy Of Bangladesh Bank
  • Besides the core agricultural sector, following sectors are encouraged by Bangladesh Bank:
  • Salt cultivators at 4% concessional rate of interest.
  • Tissue culture
  • Jute cultivation
  • Betel leaf cultivation
  • Apiculture
  • Mushroom cultivation
  • Palm oil
  • Cotton cultivation
  • Weaver’s loom industry
  • Silk industry

Salient Feature of Annual Agricultural & Rural credit policy Of Bangladesh Bank

  • Credit for Green Banking activities:
  • Solar irrigation pump
  • Bio-gas driven irrigation pump
  • Integrated cow rearing and Bio-gas plant
  • Bio-fertilizer
  • Solar Home System
  • Vermiposting: composting the earth worms

Effective use of Bank-MFI partnership

  • Foreign and Private commercial banks which have limited branch coverage in rural areas are advised to provide agricultural & rural credit in partnership with the micro-finance institutions (MFIs).
  • To ensure that the bank funds disbursed through MFI partnership goes in agriculture, it is considered as disbursement by bank only when the fund is disbursed to the actual borrowers and not the Micro-Finance Institutions (MFIs)

Low Interest Rate in Agricultural & rural Financing

  • Interest rate cap for agricultural & rural credit for banks is currently 13% on reducing balance method.

Achievement & Success of Bangladesh Bank

  • Disbursements of agricultural credit rises from Taka 92.84 to 131.37 billion respectively from FY09 to FY12.
  • A specialized department exercises oversight on hassle free credit disbursement and other customer interest protection issues.
  • Mobile phone based financial service delivery processes.
  • Facilitate cost effective agricultural credit delivery and recovery to and from farmers in remote areas.
  • More than 9.5 million accounts of farmers have been opened by the State-owned Banks with an initial deposit of Tk. 10/- only (<20 cents).
  • Target Achievement Trend in last 5 years
  • Sector-wise Agricultural and Rural Credit Disbursement in FY 2011-12
  • (Tk. 131.32 billion)

Banks’ Disbursement of Agri-loan in FY 2011-2012

Special Refinance Program of Tk.2000 million for Solar energy, Bio gas plant, ETP, HHK etc.

  • Special Refinance Program of Tk.2000 million for Solar energy, Bio gas plant, ETP, HHK etc.
  • Green Banking Activities in
  • Agriculture and Rural finance
  • Solar Irrigation Pump:
  • As of December2012, an amount of Tk. 2.39 crore disbursed for 8 solar energy driven irrigation pumps.
  • No. of beneficiary farmers are 618 and 920 Bighas of land will be cultivated with uninterrupted water flow in the land. 
  • Green Banking Activities in Agriculture and Rural finance
  • Integrated Cow Rearing and Bio-Gas Plant
  • As of December2012, an amount of Tk.133.20 million is re-financed in 820nos of Integrated cow rearing and Bio-gas plant.
  • Some features of these Bio-gas plants:
  • No. of Beneficiaries: 980 families
  • No. of cows in the project: 3550
  • No. of Chicken in the project: 14150
  • Volume of Bio Digester: 4089 cubic meter
  • Milk production per day: 25560 litre
  • Production of Bio-gas per day: 1635 cubic meter
  • Organic Manure per day: 21300 kg
  • Effluent Treatment Plant(ETP):
  • As of December 2012, an amount of Tk. 90.40 million disbursed for establishing 8 ETP which reduces environmental pollutions.
  • Green Banking Activities in Agriculture and Rural finance
  • Solar Home System(SHS):
  • As of December 2012, an amount of Tk. 87.80 million disbursed for 3763 Solar Home systems through which at-least 3714 families will be benefited and the production capacity is 164100kwp per day.
  • Solar Assembling Plant
  • As of Decemebr 2012, an amount of Tk. 248.80 million disbursed for establishing Solar PV module assembling plant.
  • Bio fertilizer
  • As of Decemebr2012, an amount of tk. 0.4 million has been disbursed through banks in Bio-fertilizer sector under a refinance program.

Vermiposting : composting the earthworms

  • Using worms in an indoor bin to break down scraps into compost, known as "vermiposting”, .
  • Bangladesh Bank has taken initiative and advised to the banks to promote this sector.
  • Nationalized banks already issued directive to provide credit to the farmers in this sector.

Special Refinance Scheme for providing finance to the share-croppers

  • Introduction of a special refinance program of taka 5 billion exclusively for the share-croppers/tenant farmers.
  • As of December 2012 an amount of TK. 6929.59 million agri. credit has been provided through BRAC (MFI) towards 5,52,047 sharecroppers (in 250 upazillas of 48 districts) .

Disbursement to the Sharecroppers through Banks

  • All scheduled banks are advised to disbursed agri-credit towards sharecroppers on individual or group basis.
  • Agricultural Credit towards sharecroppers has been increased (in no. of farmers and amount) gradually from 2009-10 to 2011-12.
  • No. of Sharecroppers in lac
  • Disbursement amount in billion taka

Credit at concessional interest rate promoting cultivation of spices, lentils, oilseeds, etc

  • Agricultural Credit for Pulse seed, oil seeds, Spices and Maize at 4% concessional rate has been increased due to media campaign (print and electronic) and weekly-basis monitoring from BB.
  • During FY2011-12, Private and Foreign Banks have participated in disbursing agri-credit at 4% concessional rate.
  • Out of Tk.816.30 million, PCBs and FCBs disbursed TK. 115 million .

Credit Disbursement at concessional Interest Rate (4%) for Salt production in coastal areas

  • Credit (against the interest loss subsidy provided by government) shall be made available on easy terms to the salt cultivators at a concessional rate (4%) from FY 2010-11 in the coastal belts of the country.
  • Financial Year
  • No. of Farmers
  • Disbursement
  • (amount in million taka)
  • 2010-11
  • 1153
  • 42.20
  • 2011-12
  • 1310
  • 108.70

Special Credit towards women

  • In financial year 2011-12 an amount of Tk. 5.31 billion were disbursed among 0.27 million women as agricultural and rural credit for crop production, running agro processing and agricultural related small business & activities, so that they can change their economic conditions.

Credit towards tribal farmers in Hill Tracts Areas

  • During FY 2011-12 around 273.90 million taka was disbursed only at 5% interest rate among about 13100 tribal farmers of Bangladesh.

Special Credit program in supporting of Agricultural and rural development

  • An ADB assisted crop diversification credit project is extending credit for growing of higher value crops (vegetables, fruits, flowers, spices, oilseeds) in the country’s poverty ridden North-Western region through whole selling of MFI (BRAC).

Agricultural assistance through CSR(Corporate Social Responsibility) Program

  • CSR actions aim at mitigate the diverse environmental impacts of the activities of the business and at reducing inequalities and alleviating deprivation and poverty in the communities across the country.
  • Bangladesh Bank (BB) issued a detailed directive titled "Mainstreaming Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in banks and financial institutions in Bangladesh“.
  • From the year 2009, 2010, 2011 & 2012 all banks disbursed an amount of Taka 550 million , 2330 million, 2190 million and 3046.69 million respectively in CSR program
  • Banks are advised to distribute free crops seed like oil pump, strawberry, baul kool, appel kool etc. to the farmers.
  • Some banks are disbursing interest free agricultural credit towards share croppers landless farmers in cyclone affected areas.

ADB fund for improving brick kiln efficiency

  • A refinance scheme (ADB funded) for 50 million USD is ongoing to improve the efficiency of existing brick kiln for reducing carbon emission.

Monitoring of agricultural credit

  • To ensure timely and hassle-free disbursement of agricultural Credit to real farmers BB has set up three-tier monitoring system. Such as:
  • Monitoring at disbursing bank level
  • Monitoring by Branch offices of BB
  • Monitoring by HO of BB
  • BB Head Office Monitoring Cell
  • (Under ACFID)
  • Commercial Banks
  • Head Office
  • BB Branches
  • Monitoring Cell
  • Divisional/Regional Level
  • Branch Level
  • Farmers
  • Farmers
  • Farmers

Monitoring at disbursing bank level

  • Participating banks will establish a separate monitoring system.
  • The branch Offices of the participating banks shall visit the farmers regularly, and arrange group discussion.
  • Head office of participating bank shall arrange fortnightly/monthly evaluation of the overall agricultural credit disbursement and recovery position and give necessary instruction to branches/regional offices.

Monitoring by Branch offices of BB

  • Every branch office of BB has a monitoring cell.
  • They collect & evaluate the comprehensive statement regarding agricultural and rural credit disbursement and give necessary instructions to the regional office of the banks.
  • BB officers from Branch office attend in the meeting with government representative.
  • Representative from BB branch visit the farmers and the branch office of participating bank.
  • Finally branch office of BB send their findings to HO.

Monitoring by Head offices of BB:

  • Off-Site Supervision
  • Collection of Basic Information of Loan disbursement & recovery of individual bank through prescribed Form.
  • Developing of broad Database for agricultural credit.
  • Review and analysis of Data.
  • Giving some instructions and decisions on the basis of review and analysis.
  • On site supervision:
  • Visit bank branches and their borrowers on sample basis.
  • Coordinate with BB branch office monitoring cell of BB branch offices.
  • Monitoring through District Agricultural Credit Committee.
  • Meeting with senior Officials of participating banks.
  • Success in agri & rural-credit will be awarded by:
  • giving permission of new branches
  • opening foreign exchange dealership license,
  • Liquidity support and
  • banks rating (CAMELS Rating).
  • Failure will punished by :
  • Depositing the shortfall amount of total target in BB for 1 year.
  • Reward & punitive measure for
  • Concluding remark
  • The developmental role played by BB indicate that this role of a central bank can be carried out without conflict with the primary role of preserving monetary and financial stability. Central bank’s developmental role, therefore, act as an in-built stabilizer of the financial system; helping avert situation like those creating the global financial crisis of 2008-2009.

The database is protected by copyright © 2016
send message

    Main page