Contents Ecology. Introduction



Download 1,8 Mb.
Page1/8
Date conversion01.12.2017
Size1,8 Mb.
  1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8
Contents

Ecology. Introduction………………………………………………………..5
Unit I. Ecological problems. Pollution………………………………………13
Unit II. Air Pollution…………………………………………………………18
Unit III. Water Pollution……………………………………………………..26
Unit IV Chemicals in the Environment……………………………………..35
Unit V. Radioactivity………………………………………………………....37
Unit VI Overpopulation………………………………………………………46
Unit VII Noise pollution………………………………………………………49
Unit VIII. Rubbish……………………………………………………………51
Unit IX.Indoor Pollution……………………………………………………..64
Unit X. Wildlife and animals protection…………………………………….68
Unit XI. Environmental Protection………………………………………....78
Unit XII. Industrial Ecology………………………………………………..102
Texts for supplementary reading…………………………………………..108

Check yourself……………………………………………………………….121

Cliches for resume and annotation…………………………………………136

Resume Example…………………………………………………………….142

English-Russian Environmental Dictionary……………………………….145

Bibliography………………………………………………………………….156

Введение

ECOLOGY. INTRODUCTION.

I. THE TERMS “ENVIRONMRNT, ECOLOGY, ECOSYSTEM”




1. Enrich your vocabulary:


1 environment, n

2 ecology, n

3 ecosystem, n

(ecological system)

4 pollute, v

5 pollution, n

6 air pollution

7 water pollution

8 pollutant, n

9 survival, n

10 survive, v

11 alteration, n (change)

12 relationship, n


окружающая среда

экология
экосистема

загрязнять, засорять

загрязнение

загрязнение воздуха

загрязнение воды

загрязняющее вещество

выживание

выжить, уцелеть

изменение

отношение




2. Read and translate the text :

Ecology was, until recently, a term used by only a few of our more sophisticated citizens. Then, with the dawning awareness that air pollution, water pollution, chemical pollutants, and overpopulation may be even more menacing to survival than racial conflict, riots, or even war, the word ECOLOGY crept into everyone’s lexicon. Conservation and the quality of environment became important political issues. The year 1970 marked the beginning of a decade that may well determine whether we survive or not.

The mass media – radio, television, and the press – are now giving much greater coverage to conservation news. People turned a concerned eye on the ENVIRONMENT. “What’s it all about?”, they asked themselves. “And what can I do about it?” But what are we really talking about when we use words like ENVIRONMENT, ECOLOGY, or ECOSYSTEM?

In the broadest sense, our ENVIRONMENT can be defined as our surroundings; it is made up of all the physical, social, and cultural aspects of our world that effects our growth, our being, and our way of living. Humans share environment with plants and animals. Just as humans interact with their environment, so do the other animals and plants. The organized body of knowledge which deals with the interrelationships between living organisms, whether animal or plant, and their environment is a relatively new science which we call ECOLOGY.

The term is derived from two Greek words meaning a “study of the homes”, and it has been in use only since the 19th century, though the observation of plants and animals in their natural “homes” has been going on during thousands of years.

ECOSYSTEM is a contraction of ECOLOGICAL SYSTEM. An ecosystem refers to a community of organisms and the relationships of those organisms to their environment. An ecosystem is dynamic in that its various parts are always in flux. Since each member of the ecosystem belongs to the environment of every other part of that system, any change in one alters the environment for all the others.

And as those components react to the alteration, they in turn continue to transform the environment for the others.

For example, a change in the atmosphere from sunshine to rain affects plants, soils and plant nutrients, so the plants may not be able to grow as well and the animals then may not be able to eat as much. On the other hand, the addition of moisture to the soil may help some plants grow, increasing the amount of shade beneath them and thus keeping other plants from growing.

The concept of an ecosystem can be applied at almost any scale, in a wide variety of geographic locations, and under all environmental conditions where life is possible. Hence, a farm pond, a grass-covered field, a march, a forest, or a portion of a desert can be viewed as an ecosystem. Even the earth itself may be considered one large ecosystem.

Ecosystems are found wherever there is an exchange of materials among living organisms and functional relationships between the organisms and their natural environment. Ecosystems are open systems with movement of energy and material across their boundaries. Although some ecosystems, such as a small lake or a desert oasis, have clear cut boundaries, the limits of many others are not as precisely defined. Often the transition from one ecosystem to another is obscure and occurs slowly over distance.
3. COMPREHENSION


  1. Answer the following questions:

    1. When did people become conscious of their environment?

    2. How can the word “environment” be defined?

    3. What do the terms “ecology” and “ ecosystem” mean?

    4. What natural objects may be called ecosystems?

    5. Can the Earth be considered one of them? Prove it.

  2. Write the summary of the text in Russian.



2. MY FUTURE PROFESSION IS AN ECOLOGIST



1. Warm up.


1.1Read and learn the following new words:

1.the environmental impact

2.to decouple

3.Life cycle assessments

4.Material flow analysis

5.Cost benefit analysis cost-efficiency analysis

6.completion

7.hinder


8.foresters, n

9.wildlife, n

10.subset, n, здесь:

11. seek, v (look for)

12. wild habitats

13. the extinction of endangered species

14.wildlife preservation

воздействие на окружающую среду

уменьшить

Теория жизненного цикла

Материаловедение

Анализ экономической эффективности капитальных вложений

завершение

мешать


лесничие, лесники

животный мир, природа

предмет изучения

искать


живая природа, животный мир

вымирание редких видов (растений и животных)

охрана, сохранение животного мира



1.2. Read the text and translate it into Russian:
1.My future profession is an ecologist. This profession is vеrу actually today. Nowadays people understand how important is to solve the environmental problems that endanger people's lives. The range of environmental problems is wide: pollution of atmosphere, climate changes, and depletion of ozone layer, freshwater resources, oceans and coastal areas, deforestation and desertification, the extinction of some animals’ species, biological diversity, biotechnology, health and chemical safety. Taking into account of these problems the activity of an ecologist includes the ecological and economical issues:

  • the calculation of using energy, water, earth;

  • the description of factory and its products;

  • the characterization of industrial and household waste;

  • the controlling emission of industrial waste;

  • the definition of measures to protect the environment;

  • the choice of a convenient place for industrial and residential buildings according to the ecological and economical issues;

  • the measuring of pollution levels in water, soil and air.

2.An ecologist must need good knowledge of Ecology, Chemistry, Economics, mathematics, Industrial Ecology etc.

People who call themselves “ecologists” are generally involved in research, usually in the academic arena. Workers who apply ecological principles to environmental needs are foresters, soil scientists, wildlife biologists, and others.

3.As a study of living things, ecology is a subset of biology (see “Biologist”). It differs in that it 19s the study of systems of living things – an ecosystem. This is one of the more critical technical needs in the environmental field these days, as nature groups, industrialists, and wildlife lovers seek to preserve wild habitats and slow the extinction of endangered species.

In academic research, the trend is usually toward specializing in the ecology of one system (or even one organism in a system), whereas in the working world of wildlife preservation the need is usually for ecologists who can deal with varieties of systems.

4.The future ecologist should know a systems analytic perspective on our societies’ supply, transformation and use of energy and materials. The students should have knowledge, skills and tools which are necessary for work on the complex environmental issues. Therefore, the students should know how to analyze the environmental impact on the use of natural resources. This includes technological aspects of how to decouple the environmental impact on economic growth. It also include economic and management aspects of industrial systems, including the energy system.

5.On the completion of the programme the student should be a competent industrial ecologist; ready to have a position in industry or in a governmental office. More specifically, on completion of the programme the student should:



  • understand environmental and resource issues,

  • be able to perform Life cycle assessments (LCA), Material flow analysis (MFA), Energy analysis, Cost benefit analysis cost-efficiency analysis;

  • have skills in analysis and environmental management;

  • have insights into social and industrial energy and material use, processes that drive and hinder technical development, and management techniques and policy instruments and etc...

If you want to contribute to the protection of the environment of a town or city, choose this profession and enter the Tyumen State Academy of Architecture and Civil Engineering.

COMPREHENSION
2.1 Answer the following questions.

1) What environmental problems endanger people's lives today?

2) What ecological and economical issues do the activity of an ecologist include?

3)What skills does a future ecologist need have?


    1. What are the key problems discussed in the text?

    2. Answer the questions and translate the sentences containing the necessary information:

  1. What is ecologist?

  2. What are practical workers of ecology?

  3. Why is ecology a subset of biology?

  4. How much are the salaries of ecologists?

  5. What is the difference between academic research and wildlife preservation?



2.2 Fill in the table and translate.

3 Join the words to combination and enumerate environmental problems.

Noun

Verb

calculation

description

characterization

controlling

definition

choice

measuring

pollution

emission

knowledge

completion

analysis

management

development





2.3 Join the words to combination and enumerate environmental problems.


  1. pollution of

  2. climate,

  3. depletion of,

  4. freshwater

  5. oceans and coastal

  6. deforestation and,

  7. the extinction of,

  8. biological

  9. health and chemical.

    1. diversity

    2. ozone layer

    3. areas

    4. desertification

    5. safety

    6. resources

    7. changes

    8. atmosphere

    9. some animals’ species


2.4 Explain the meaning of the following:
1) IE

2) LCA


3) MFA
2.5 Find the word expressions with the word environmental in the text.
2.6 Аrе you аn environmentally-minded person?

Mark eaсh ecological topic out of 5 depending оn how strongly you feel about it.

5-very strongly, 3- moderately strongly, 1- not bothered at аll.

1) Water pollution (dirty lakes, rivers, seas)

2) Air pollution (bу factories, plants, vehicles оn the road)

3) Land pollution (sewage, chemical fertilizers, litter, garbage disposal)

4) Atmospheric fall-outs (radioactive, acid rain)

5) Noise pollution (aircraft, traffic, blasters)

6) Contaminated food

7) Visual contamination (ugly architecture, posters)

8) Mental contamination (TV, radio ads, soap operas)

9) Global warming (Greenhouse effect)

10) Holes in the ozone layer

Now add up yоur total, score out of 50.

1.А score of 45-50 suggests you worry too much;

2. 30-45 suggests you won't die of worry, but уоu'rе certainly not indifferent;

3. 15-30 suggests either that уоu don't read the papers оr don't believe а word they say;

0-15 suggests уоu live оп some idyllic island.

When уоu finish соmраrе уоur notes with а partner.
2.7 Retell the text.

3. Risk Assessment
WARM UP
What do you know about your speciality? Is it important?

  1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8


The database is protected by copyright ©sckool.org 2016
send message

    Main page