Illavrita-varsha: At the bottom of Mount Meru is Illavrita-varsha, one of the residences of Lord Shiva. The scorching rays of the Sun do not reach here, and thus it remains always very cool and pleasant and surrounded by lush greenery. Naturally, the inhabitants of Illavrita-varsha are always very blissful and content.
Jambu-dvipa: In the illustration above there are another nine tracts of land on the main island of Jambu-dvipa divided by great mountains. These islands surrounding Mount Sumeru are circular in shape and form the middle of the lotus flower of Bhu-mandala or the Earthly plane. Bharata-varsha or the Earth as we know it today is located on the very southern side of Jambu-dvipa. For the sake of distinguishing their exact location, the continents have been drawn a bit exaggerated in size so the observer can distinguish their exact location. Today’s India is located in the exact middle of the Bharata-varsha region of Jambu-dvipa. Thus, by locating India we can easily obtain map projections of the upper celestial regions as well as to the lower regions of the Universe. Note that Jambu-dvipa is surrounded by ocean of salt water.
Plaksha-dvipa: The second island surrounding the ocean of salt is Plaksha-dvipa, which is named for the fig trees growing there. On this island there seven minor islands. In the illustration we see them as divided by mountains that start the formation of the petals of the analogous lotus flower of the Universe. The inhabitants of Plaksha-dvipa live one thousand years and they are in no way less than demigods. The climate of this region is quite hot in comparison to the atmosphere on Jambu-dvipa. For this reason the inhabitants worship the Sun god there as their main deity. The Sun is well visible on this island. Plaksha-dvipa is surrounded by an ocean of sugarcane juice that is darker in appearance than the salt water ocean. Sweet taste is produced due to the influence of Jupiter and his orbit is quite visible in this region.
Salmali-dvipa: The next island is Salmali-dvipa, the residence of Garuda. There are seven continents on Salmali-dvipa. Here the inhabitants worship Chandra the demi-god of the Moon as his orbit is prominent over this island. The island is surrounded by an ocean of liquor that is similar in appearance to the salt water ocean, but which has different characteristics or movements.
Kusha-dvipa: The fourth consecutive island has the ocean of liquor on one side and an ocean of liquid ghee on the other. This island is called Kusha-dvipa for the kusha grass that grows there. This island is very hot and from a distance it appears as though the whole island is red and as if the kusha grass is ablaze. The island of Kusha-dvipa is divided by seven continents. The inhabitants there worship Agni the demi-god of fire as they are always engaged in fire yagnas. The ocean of clarified butter is used to expand the offerings to Agni. Ghee remains in its liquid form only at higher temperatures which shows that the atmosphere here is not suitable for the bodies of the human inhabitants of Jambu-dvipa. Only with proper yogic practices can someone approach these planes that are situated nearer to the Sun.
Krauncha-dvipa: The next island, Krauncha-dvipa, is surrounded by an ocean of milk which is very pleasant in appearance. The island is named after the great mountain Krauncha that forms most of the surface of this island. We easily see the mountain in the distance on the illustration that forms a rim all around the other previously mentioned islands. This mountain is full of different gems since great pressure is needed for their creation. The inhabitants of the seven continents of this island worship the demigod of water Varunadeva. This island is very close to the Sun and is bathed in watery condensation that is the fuel of the Sun God.
Shaka-dvipa: The sixth consecutive island is called Shaka-dvipa, so-named for the fragrant oak trees that grow in abundance on the island. This island is surrounded by an ocean of churned yogurt which reflects the rays of the Sun. The inhabitants on Shaka-dvipa worship the demigod of air Vayu. They are aware of the rapid and incessant movements of the Sun whose great force is felt through the agent of touch or the element air as he races across the sky.
Pushkara-dvipa: The seventh island is called Pushkara-dvipa. The petals of the lotus of the Universe start here as testified to by the many lotus blossoms for which this island is famous. Although the seven islands of the previously mentioned dvipas only gave indications of the lotus petals, these petals actually become distinct here on the island of Pushkara-dvipa. The petals are one hundred million in number and they are beautifully stacked one on top of the other. We can observe the extensions of the petals at the upper portion of the illustration. The lotus flower is the sitting place of Lord Brahma. Thus the entire Bhu-mandala is his sitting place but his capital Brahma-pura is in the very center of the earthy plane on mount Sumeru. The demigods live in the region which is situated above Bhu-mandala called Svarga-loka. Many of the main demigods live atop high mountains like Sumeru and Manasottara.
Manasottara: In the middle of Pushkara-dvipa there is a mountain called Manasottara. The demi-god of the Sun travels on top of this mountain which he uses as a base for creating the seasons. Since Mount Sumeru is aligned with the height of the Sun’s orbit, when the Sun travels on the very top of the Manasottara Mountain his movement creates the day for the demigods. And when he slides down on the mountain’s slope it becomes their night. The alignment of the height of the Sun with Mount Meru along with the Moon and Rahu creates the eclipses.
Movements of the Sun: Surya Narayana in his chariot travels from east to west although in the illustration he seems to travel from west to east. This illusion is created due to the circular shape of Bhu-Mandal:
Although the Sun moves counterclockwise, facing the constellations, with Sumeru Mountain on its left, it also moves clockwise and appears to have the mountain on its right because it is influenced by the dakshinavarta wind. (SB 5.25.8-9)
We can observe that as he travels in his direction his light definitely travels from east to west thus creating day and night for the inhabitants of Bhu-Mandala. The size of the Moon is twice the size of the Sun. His orbit is higher than that of the Sun as seen in the illustration. Yet, the Moon’s orbit travels in an angle of 5 degrees. Thus, not on all amavashyas (moonless days) there is an eclipse but only on those amavashyas when the orbit of the Moon has the same height as the orbit of the Sun.
Movements of the Moon: The Moon moves at a slower speed in comparison to the speed of the Sun. But when the Moon’s speed is compared to the movement of the stars he is quicker than the Sun. This is because the Moon travels from west to east just like the nakshatras. The Moon is traveling quicker through the zodiac but his speed is minute when compared to the speed of the Sun. This difference in speed in comparison to the Sun is the cause for the Moon’s different phases. When he is in front of the Sun he is growing (shukla paksha) and when he is behind he is diminishing (krishna paksha). The refection of the Sun’s light on the surface of the Moon depending on the distance between the two creates the full, the crescent or the moonless nights. In our illustration, the Moon is waning. Although the Moon appears to be in front of the sunshine he is dimensionally closer to the viewer than the Sun. The illustration shows how the sunshine reflection on the Moon’s surface has created its tithis or phases. In the case of the illustration it is 8th day of the waning Moon, near the mid-point between purnima and amavashya.
The Celestial Ganga: Close to the Moon we observe streaks of light moving upwards. This is the Milky Way or the celestial Ganga. Known as the Mandakini in the upper regions, her sacred waters are carried in billions of golden pots through space by countless demigods in their spaceships. While descending down into this plane, Ganga first lands upon Mount Meru and is carried down to Jambu-dvipa by the mercy of Lord Shiva.
On the level of Mount Meru (and moving in the distance beyond the orbit of the Sun) is the ocean of sweet water. Still, even beyond that is an area which is as wide as middle portion of Bhu-mandala. It is inhibited by varieties of living entities that are not of a high order. There is a portion of land in that area that is of the same perimeter and is made of gold. Its purpose is to contain and distribute the sunshine throughout the universe. Whoever has gone there has not returned because the senses lose their abilities to perceive. In the illustration the golden tract of land is represented in a shape inverted upwards which clearly depicts how the Universe is shaped as a globe. As seen in the illustration we perceive the globe from inside.
Beyond this golden land is the Loka-loka Mountain. This mountain is as tall as the Universe. In the illustration we can see the Loka-loka Mountain representing the enormous lotus petals of the universe and extending beyond the nakshatras or the stars. The Loka-loka Mountain divides those areas that are illuminated by sunshine and those places that are not. The lands that are not illuminated by sunshine are not visible in the illustration. The planes beyond the nakshatras are also not visible and for this reason other planets like Mercury Mars, Venus, Jupiter and Saturn are not illustrated. The configuration of the stars visible is the sky in the sign of Pisces or Meena-rashi. On our plane we interact with Svarga-loka and the planes that are located under the Earth’s crust (which comprise altogether eight planes). The planes of the great rishis and yogis like Tapaloka, Maharloka and others, are not accessible to our senses.
From understanding the illustration above we can clearly see how the Universe is shaped like a lotus flower. Although at first the illustration may seem to be merely a technical drawing, it helps in contemplating the structure of the Universe as it was created by Lord Brahma through the inspiration the lotus-like Supreme Personality of Godhead Shri Krishna.
CLOCK MECHANISMS AND THE FLAT EARTH
Installed in 1410, the Orloj is Prague’s chief tourist attraction
Take Another Look at Your Clock
Ample proof that the Earth upon which we live and breathe is flat lies all around us. Take, for example, the clock. From ancient times people have used various forms of clocks to measure time. Let us examine the origin of the clock, and those elements of the heavens that have inspired the earliest development of an instrument we all take for granted. The hour hand was instigated by the movement of the universal timekeeper, Lord Surya the demigod of the Sun. Next the minute hand represents the movement of Lord Chandra, the Moon. The second hand complies with the changing ascendants or lagnas, the rising signs that are continually coming up in the East. Finally, the flat round body of the clock represents the Earth.
Now let us examine more closely the celestial origins of the common wall clock. Just as the Moon sometimes moves behind the Sun when it is waning and sometimes before the Sun when it is waxing, in the same way the minute hand moves behind or before the hour hand. From Aries to Pisces there are 12 signs or rashis of the zodiac just as there are 12 hours on the clock.
The Mystery of 60
The 24 hour format fits perfectly into the 12 signs of the zodiac since each one of these dwadasha rashis spends around 2 hours rising upon the Eastern horizon within each 24-hour period. As far as the ascendant is concerned, the relation between the 12 hour cycles to the 60 minutes of each hour and to the 60 seconds of each minute is based upon a 60-year astrological cycle of Jupiter. Astronomically, Jupiter has a very accurate 60-year cycle of movement through the zodiac. Each one of these years is named after this 60 year cycle of Jupiter, and—as per mundane astrology—each Jupiter year creates different effects for the world. Jupiter or Brihaspati travels through the 12 signs in around 12 years which he accomplishes in 5 different ways as denoted by the 5 elements. Thus the grand cycle of Jupiter is not 12 years (which is the length of time it takes Jupiter to circle the zodiac) but rather it is a 60 year cycle (5 elements X 12 = 60). It is because of these 5 elements (earth, water, fire, air and ether) that the clock is marked every 5 minutes. The place where the hands combine is the place of the observer. The clock is a simplified universal map whereupon from the relatively flat surface of the Earth the both Moon and Sun are seen as moving within their respective orbits.
An old example of the planetary movements upon the dial of a clock in the form of a clock can still be seen in Prague, Czech Republic. This marvelous clock was created by the astronomers Mikuláš of Kadaň and Jan Šindel and installed in 1410. Known as the Orloj it is on the south side of City Hall in the Old Town Square. It is Praha’s number one tourist attraction and is the oldest astronomical clock in the world still in working order. The Orloj has three main components. First, an astronomical dial represents the positions of the Sun and Moon and includes many other fine details of astrology and astronomy. Second, there is an hourly show of moving religious sculptures as well as the grim reminder striking the time in the form of a skeleton representing Death. Third, there is a calendar dial with medallions representing each of the months.
The following diagram gives some insight into this remarkable instrument.
Through a relatively simple mechanical device, the Orloj inspires wonder at the workings of the universe. Clearly visible on one hand is the Sun and on the other is the Moon. In the 1970’s then-new electronic clocks with LCD digit displays became so popular that it appeared the analog dial clock would become lost in the mists of time. In fact today the old fashioned dial clock far outsells the display variety which indicates the sense of reality that clocks with hands give the viewer. The clock is a subliminal reminder that there are forces that connect us to the mysteries of the Universe, to space and to the Supreme Lord in His form as time. The next time you glance at your watch or clock, take a moment to reflect that these devices we usually take for granted can connect us to Lord Shri Krishna.
Below is the lower part of the Orloj which clearly displays the zodiac. The symbols for the 12 signs of the zodiac are shown in the inner rim. The larger spheres along the outside depict the activities of mankind while the Sun moves through the signs. Beside Leo are two people engaged in harvesting their crops. Alongside Libra a man is sowing seeds for the next year’s crop. The very outer rim is like a clock that has stopped on the present season. There are tiny indications for every day of the year and its significance. The clock is made of fine materials and guarded by sculpted angels. The Orloj stirs the imagination, but only the enlightened devotees can recognize the obvious fact that the clock is a mechanical representation of the subtle energies of the Supreme Lord Shri Krishna.
The astrological calendar was added in 1870
INSIDE THE NORTH POLE
It is said that there are many unseen passages from Earth which lead to different regions of our universe. Some lead up and some lead down. There are fourteen planetary systems in our universe. At night we see Svargaloka as a chandelier of stars over our heads and if we are observant we can distinguish that the movement of this plane is similar to the twisting of a diving dolphin, the Shishumara:
This great machine, consisting of the stars and planets, resembles the form of a shishumara (dolphin) in the water. It is sometimes considered an incarnation of Krishna, Vasudeva. Great yogis meditate upon Vasudeva in this form because it is actually visible. (SB 5.23.4)
By turning our eyes skyward we recognize many of the constellations though our knowledge of of the very planet we live on remans scant. According to Puranic sources including Shrimad Bhagavatam, the Earth plane is flat as are all of the 14 planetary planes. Beneath the surface of the Earth there are other planetary systems of which the first one is of the subterranean heavenly region. Some who understand the existence of this loka may conclude that we can access this plane through openings in the crust of the Earth plane. Still not many believers have actually dared to venture into these unknown worlds. And it is conjectured that a few who have reportedly gone have not come back to report about their experience.
Here we can see an illustration of the popular so-called scientific theory about the structure of the Earth plane:
The validity of the above theory has never been factually ascertained and therefore the structure of the earth remains speculations. The Kola Superdeep Borehole (in Murmansk, Russia near Finland) is 12,262 m deep and the project has been abandoned. The Al Shaheen oil well in Qatar is 12,289 m deep while the the Sakhalin-I Odoptu OP-11 well on Sakhalin Island at 12,345 m deep are the deepest drilled holes in the world. Scientists encountered some surprises when drilling which they openly admit in their findings. They report finding water and unchanged rock structure in depths which, according to scientific theory, should have been changing from granite to basalt. According to scientists, the upper crust should be just about 25 kilometers thick and then a solid rock should continue down for another 2,900 km.
Earthquakes are another misunderstood phenomenon. Quakes usually appear at depths of 30 to 70 km. But earthquakes that originate at depths of 300 to 700 km remain unexplained by scientists who admit that they do not know why the lithosphere crust exhibits brittle behavior.
Space expeditions have likewise failed to confirm scientific theories in relationship to the actual nature of the earth and the cosmos. Even with their modern telescopes, empirical scientists are like bullfrogs croaking in a well. Their instruments cannot grant them the vast and multi-dimensional vision that is the gift of shastric knowledge. In Shrimad Bhagavatam there is an extensive description of the subterranean planetary systems. We give this excerpt from chapter 24 verses 7 through 15 of the 5th canto “The Subterranean Planetary Systems”:
Shrila Shukadeva Goswami said to Maharaja Parikshit: “My dear King, beneath this earth are seven other planets, known as Atala, Vitala, Sutala, Talatala, Mahatala, Rasatala and Patala. I have already explained the situation of the planetary systems of earth. The width and length of the seven lower planetary systems are calculated to be exactly the same as those of earth. (7)
In these seven planetary systems, which are also known as the subterranean heavens (bila-svarga), there are very beautiful houses, gardens and places of sense enjoyment, which are even more opulent than those in the higher planets because the demons have a very high standard of sensual pleasure, wealth and influence. Most of the residents of these planets, who are known as Daityas, Danavas and Nagas, live as householders. Their wives, children, friends and society are all fully engaged in illusory, material happiness. The sense enjoyment of the demigods is sometimes disturbed, but the residents of these planets enjoy life without disturbances. Thus they are understood to be very attached to illusory happiness. (8)
My dear King, in the imitation heavens known as bila-svarga there is a great demon named Maya Danava, who is an expert artist and architect. He has constructed many brilliantly decorated cities. There are many wonderful houses, walls, gates, assembly houses, temples, yards and temple compounds, as well as many hotels serving as residential quarters for foreigners. The houses for the leaders of these planets are constructed with the most valuable jewels, and they are always crowded with living entities known as Nagas and Asuras, as well as many pigeons, parrots and similar birds. All in all, these imitation heavenly cities are most beautifully situated and attractively decorated. (9)
The parks and gardens in the artificial heavens surpass in beauty those of the upper heavenly planets. The trees in those gardens, embraced by creepers, bend with a heavy burden of twigs with fruits and flowers, and therefore they appear extraordinarily beautiful. That beauty could attract anyone and make his mind fully blossom in the pleasure of sense gratification. There are many lakes and reservoirs with clear, transparent water, agitated by jumping fish and decorated with many flowers such as lilies, kuvalayas, kahlaras and blue and red lotuses. Pairs of chakravakas and many other water birds nest in the lakes and always enjoy in a happy mood, making sweet, pleasing vibrations that are very satisfying and conducive to enjoyment of the senses. (10)
Since there is no sunshine in those subterranean planets, time is not divided into days and nights, and consequently fear produced by time does not exist. (11)
Many great serpents reside there with gems on their hoods, and the effulgence of these gems dissipates the darkness in all directions. (12)
Since the residents of these planets drink and bathe in juices and elixirs made from wonderful herbs, they are freed from all anxieties and physical diseases. They have no experience of grey hair, wrinkles or invalidity, their bodily luster does not fade, their perspiration does not cause a bad smell, and they are not troubled by fatigue or by lack of energy or enthusiasm due to old age. (13)
They live very auspiciously and do not fear death from anything but death’s established time, which is the effulgence of the Sudarshana chakra of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. (14)
When the Sudarshana disc enters those provinces, the pregnant wives of the demons all have miscarriages due to fear of its effulgence. (15)
The subterranean heavens are inhabited mainly by demonic entities. The demons may appear somewhat pious in the sense that their society is organized and they understand how to apply Vedic knowledge for their own good. But because they are blinded by the prospect of material enjoyment they do not seek ultimate liberation from material existence, which is only obtained by worshiping the Supreme Personality of Godhead Shri Krishna. Shrimad Bhagavatam admonishes that the inhabitants of the subterranean regions, although very happy with their material opulence, also die in due course of time.
Today on Earth there are many adherents of the hollow earth theory who have never been exposed to shastra and whose ideas about other worlds come mostly from hearsay and guesswork. As a result, any mention of other worlds becomes an invitation for speculation that divine wisdom about whatever exists within the universe can be found in these regions. But from the Bhagavatam’s descriptions we can understand that the inhabitants of the lower regions are also conditioned souls who are ultimately subject to the same laws of Nature as ourselves.
Over the last few centuries an increasing interest has arisen in the Polar Regions as doorways to these mystical worlds and many adventurous souls have embarked on quests there in search of a doorway to the underworld. Here we present an excerpt from a conversation between the Russian artist, scientist, Himalayan explorer, philosopher and three-time Nobel Prize nominee Nicholas Roerich and a Tibetan Lama as recorded in his book Shambala, about a sacred hidden city in the Himalayas:
Roerich: Lama, tell me of Shambala.
Lama: You Westerners know nothing about Shambala—you wish to know nothing. Probably you ask out of curiosity; and you pronounce this sacred word in vain.
After some cajoling and studying his querist, the Lama said: Great Shambala is far beyond the ocean. How and why do you people take interest in it? Only in some places, in the far North, can you discern the resplendent rays of Shambala (aurora?)... The secrets of Shambala are well guarded.
Roerich: Lama, I have heard of the reality of this indescribable place. I've been told that some high lamas have visited Shambala. I’ve heard of the Buryat Lama and how he was taken through a narrow, secret passageway. So please don’t tell me of only the heavenly Shambala because I know that a real one exists on Earth ... How does it happen that Shambala on Earth is still undiscovered by travelers? On maps you may see so many routes of expeditions. It appears that all heights are already marked and all valleys and rivers explored.
Lama: But as yet ... people have not found all things so, let a man try to reach Shambala without a call! You have heard about the poisonous streams which encircle the uplands. Perhaps you have even seen people dying from these gasses when they come near them ... Many people try to reach Shambala, uncalled. Some of them disappear forever. Only a few of them reach the holy place and only if their karma is ready.”
Shambala—according to Shrimad Bhagavatam 12.2.18—is the place where Lord Kalki will take birth.
shambhala-grama-mukhyasya brahmanasya mahatmanah
bhavane vishnuyasha sahmkalkih mahatmanah
Lord Kalki will appear in the home of the most eminent brahmana of Shambala village, the great soul Vishnuyasha.
Many assume that Lord Kalki will appear in the mystical other-worldly city of Shambala, though others point to the town (grama) of Sambalpur in Orissa, India. Some who believe that Shambala is located in the subterranean regions assume that the coming Golden Age will soon be initiated from within the Earth. But according to Shrimad Bhagavatam, Kalki will come at the end of Kali Yuga or after another 427,000 years. However, it is a fact that a 10,000-year Golden Age that has been promised by Shri Krishna Himself will soon arise. This age offers the posibility for self realization withing the limits of Kali Yuga, or via widespread sankirtan, the chanting of the mahamantra.
It is obvious that some modern theories regarding a hollow earth are not based on scripture. Rather they appear to be a mixture of science fiction of novelists like Jules Verne, of hearsay or of Himalayan folklore. Thus Hollow Earth theories without the benefit of shastra are prone to mix fact with fiction. Indeed, most “Hollow Earthers” still think of the world as globe-shaped which contradicts shastra. Only through recourse to the Puranas via disciplic succession can the shape of the Earth be understood. As quoted above, Shrimad Bhagavatam clearly states that the seven planetary systems beneath the Earth are of the same shape and size as the Earth plane. Even so, for whatever its flaws, the Hollow Earth theory it is closer to truth than longstanding scientific theories of a earth globe circling the Sun in space.
Modern Voyages to Inner Worlds
There are narrations of Northern cap explorers who claim to have reached the heavenly regions within the Earth. In fact such descriptions do bear some resemblance to those from the shastras and for this reason we also accept them as valid. One of these is the curious case of the Norwegian Olaf Jansen.
While on a fishing expedition in the 1820’s, Olaf Jansen and his father stopped at the northern side of Spitsbergen Island to take on supplies. Then setting sail for points north, Olaf's father became possessed of a desire to head into far northern seas, to the warm lands described in the Norse legends. He assured the boy that they would be protected by gods Thor (Jupiter) and Odin. Somehow Olaf Jansen and his father strayed into an opening near the Northern polar region and found their way into an underground kingdom.
Olaf would recall years later that they met people who spoke what sounded like Sanskrit and who were friendly and very tall. They wore fine clothes and lots of gold. The society of these giants was organized and cheerful. They saw mammoth sized elephants and other huge animals. Grapes were the size of apples whiles apples grew to the size of pumpkins. The life span was up to 800 years and people were highly educated. The inner regions were illuminated by what appeared to be an inner Sun. It appears as though the reflections of this Sun are seen as Aurora Borealis around the North and South Poles where the main openings to the unexplored regions are concealed.
On their return journey the boy lost his father at sea. He was saved by a fishing boat and successfully returned to Norway. There he confided his adventures to his disbelieving uncle who treacherously had him imprisoned where he ramained for twenty years. Olaf Jansen would later recount his adventures to Californian Willis George Emerson who believed him and who wrote his amazing story down.
There is another curious instance from 1947 which comes from a most credible souce, that of US Navy Admiral Richard Byrd, who spent much of his life exploring the arctic regions. The contemporary map below (on which the inner Earth is called Agarta) is found on many Hollow Earth websites. Admiral Byrd’s flight is duly marked. This map shows the continents of the inner earth as well and indicates other places on the surface of the Earth from which Atala and the other sub-planes can be accessed. The map is somewhat confusing because it shows that the inner earth can be accessed also through several large caves. But Agarta and the cave regions are actually two different places. The caves lead to sub-planes located within the Earth, and which are inhabited by demoniac species, while the poles are the doorways to the missing islands (like Plakshadvipa) which are described in the 5th canto of Shrimad Bhagavatam. These islands are inhabited by godly living entities.
There are other curious maps that were used in centuries past wherein the region surrounding the North Pole is clearly presented as a track of land. In the center of the map Mouth Sumeru is visible and it leads to the celestial regions. You can see on the map below from 1569 that the Polar region is divided by four rivers.
By understanding all information in perspective we see that space curves not only when we look at the sky above but also when we look down on our earthly plane. The Poles are access points to the other islands of Bhu-mandala. Due to our round vision they appear concave and seem to be inside the Earth. The traveler who wishes to go there will have to adopt a different perception, one that is “un-curved.” What Olaf Jansen describes as an inner Sun is the same Sun we see from the Earth’s surface. He describes seeing the same stars in the “Inner Earth,” although they were larger. The North Pole in particular is part of Jambudvipa (as are the other continents shown on any modern-day map of Earth). Jambudvipa is located in the very center of the Earth plane (Bhu-mandala). The description of Jambudwipa is found in Shrimad Bhagavatam’s 5th canto, ch.19.
Presenting the Earth as spherical is a product of relatively recent speculation. Even post-Vedic scriptures like the Bible confirm the view of Bhagavatam’s concept of the Earth. The Bible clearly states: “He sits enthroned above the circle of the earth, and its people are like grasshoppers. He stretches out the heavens like a canopy, and spreads them out like a tent to live in.” (From the NIV Bible, Isaiah 40:22) It was only after Nicolaus Copernicus and Galileo Galilei that the world would adopt the concept of the Earth as a globe due to the invention of the telescope. It is ironic that prior to Copernicus any concept that contradicted a flat earth was condemned as heresy, and now the situation is quite reversed. But no matter how advanced modern instrumentation may be, it shares the limited perception of the round eye. By adhering to the limited perceptions caused by our round eyes we will never be able to understand other planes, neither of the Earth nor of heavens.