Confusing Words Who vs. Whom
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Confusing Words Who vs. Whom Who Whom Substitutes for objective pronouns (him, her) Example: Whom did he question? And serves as the object of a preposition Example: Ask not for whom the bell tolls, it tolls for thee. That vs. Which That Use with essential phrases Example: Go to the door that reads, “Clinic 1.” Which Among vs. Between Between Use with two. Example: He split the Calzone between Tim and Susan, because it was bigger than Tim’s head. Among Use with three or more. Example: We divided the money among the five children. Affect vs. effect Affect Effect A noun that means result Example: The medicine has unpleasant side effects. Compose vs. comprise Compose Means to make up Example: The class is composed of 25 students. Comprise Means to include Example: Our class comprises five women and six men. Making sense of sentences Avoid Fragments Run-on sentences Faulty parallelism Modifier misplacement Fragments He waited but. The man in the plaid suit said. A march for justice. Run-ons Faulty parallelism: Some more examples He planned his story, wrote the article and turned in his paper on time. He enjoys reading and to go skiing. Our trip includes stops in: London, England A stop in Paris, France Washington, D.C. Misplaced modifiers The tourists saw a herd of sheep on their way to their hotel. On their way to their hotel, the tourists saw a herd of sheep. Needing oil, the mechanic drove the car into the garage. The car needed oil, so the mechanic drove it into the garage. Confusing Words What Each One Means: ‘To’ : Shows movement towards: e.g. He is going to school. ‘To’ also indicates the infinitive of a verb. E.g. She hopes to win a prize. ‘Two’ : Is a number. E.g. The two boys are with two lovely girls. ‘Too’ : Means ‘also’, ‘enough’ ‘more than enough’, ‘likewise’ Example: The inspector asked too many difficult questions. Why not try writing the correct form of ‘to,too two’ in the following sentences. David is ……….ill ……… go…………… the pop concert. The last…….. days were………..wet……… play games. The teacher told me…….. leave for home at….. o’clock. My……… sisters travel………school by bus. I am…….. young ………be admitted……the dance. It is ……early ………retire …….bed. The question was………… hard ………… answer. If you are going…..the pop concert may I come…..? It is ………soon after dinner……go swimming. He showed us…….ways……..solve the problem. Now Check Your Answers! 1. Too, to, to. 2. Two, too, to. 3. To, two. 4. Two, to. 5. Too, to, to. 6. Too, to, to. 7. Too, to. 8. To, too. 9. Too. To 10. Two, to. The Writing Process Writing an essay takes time. That’s why writing is often What is the writing process ? Writing an essay takes time. That’s why writing is often referred to as a . process In other words, there are several steps to go through before you have a complete essay ready to turn in for a grade. In this lesson we will talk about those steps. They are: Pre-writing literally means, “before writing.” Before you actually begin writing your essay, you will need to do the following things: choose a topic to write on focus in on central ideas Making an outline can help you organize what you want to Making an outline can help you organize what you want to write. This is a rough plan for your essay and can help make the process of writing much easier. Essay Outline Introduction Thesis: _____________________ Body 1. Topic Sentence: _____________ - supporting idea - supporting idea 2. Topic Sentence: ____________ - supporting idea - supporting idea 3. Topic Sentence: ____________ - supporting idea - supporting idea Conclusion After getting ideas and making an outline of your essay, After getting ideas and making an outline of your essay, it is time to start writing the essay. When you begin writing your rough draft, try to remember the following guidelines. Don’t worry about writing the ‘perfect’ paper the first time. Don’t focus on spelling and grammar as you write your rough draft. You can check this later in the writing process. After you write your first draft, go back over it and look for After you write your first draft, go back over it and look for ways to improve your essay in content and organization. This step is called revision. After you revise for content and organization, begin editing your draft for spelling, grammar, punctuation, and sentence structure errors. Spelling, Grammar, Punctuation, etc. The last step is turning in your essay to be graded. Look The last step is turning in your essay to be graded. Look at the guidelines below for turning in the final draft of your essay. all new paragraphs indented five spaces 8 ½ by 11 inch white paper one inch margins on all sides Evaluation Now, you are ready to review what you’ve learned. Click on the button below to return to Unit A. Do the interactive exercise. Then click on the essay rubric link to see how your essay will be evaluated. References PowerPoint Presentation by Ruth Luman: Modesto Junior College. Reid, J. (1993). Teaching ESL Writing. New Jersey: Prentice Hall Regents. This project incorporates portions of copyrighted works. These items are included under the fair use exemption of the U.S. Copyright Law and have been prepared according to the educational fair use guidelines. They are restricted from further use.
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