Confusing Words Who vs. Whom



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Confusing Words

Who vs. Whom

  • Who
  • Whom
    • Substitutes for objective pronouns (him, her)
    • Example: Whom did he question?
    • And serves as the object of a preposition
    • Example: Ask not for whom the bell tolls, it tolls for thee.

That vs. Which

  • That
    • Use with essential phrases
    • Example: Go to the door that reads, “Clinic 1.”
  • Which

Among vs. Between

  • Between
    • Use with two.
    • Example: He split the Calzone between Tim and Susan, because it was bigger than Tim’s head.
  • Among
    • Use with three or more.
    • Example: We divided the money among the five children.

Affect vs. effect

  • Affect
  • Effect
    • A noun that means result
    • Example: The medicine has unpleasant side
    • effects.

Compose vs. comprise

  • Compose
    • Means to make up
    • Example: The class is composed of 25 students.
  • Comprise
    • Means to include
    • Example: Our class comprises five women and six men.

Making sense of sentences

  • Avoid
    • Fragments
    • Run-on sentences
    • Faulty parallelism
    • Modifier misplacement

Fragments

  • He waited but.
  • The man in the plaid suit said.
  • A march for justice.

Run-ons

Faulty parallelism: Some more examples

  • He planned his story, wrote the article and turned in his paper on time.
  • He enjoys reading and to go skiing.
  • Our trip includes stops in:
    • London, England
    • A stop in Paris, France
    • Washington, D.C.

Misplaced modifiers

  • The tourists saw a herd of sheep on their way to their hotel.
  • On their way to their hotel, the tourists saw a herd of sheep.
  • Needing oil, the mechanic drove the car into the garage.
  • The car needed oil, so the mechanic drove it into the garage.

Confusing Words

  • To; Two; Too

What Each One Means:

  • ‘To’ : Shows movement towards: e.g. He is going to school.
  • ‘To’ also indicates the infinitive of a verb. E.g. She hopes to win a prize.
  • ‘Two’ : Is a number. E.g. The two boys are with two lovely girls.
  • ‘Too’ : Means ‘also’, ‘enough’ ‘more than enough’, ‘likewise’
  • Example: The inspector asked too many difficult questions.

Why not try writing the correct form of ‘to,too two’ in the following sentences.

  • David is ……….ill ……… go…………… the pop concert.
  • The last…….. days were………..wet……… play games.
  • The teacher told me…….. leave for home at….. o’clock.
  • My……… sisters travel………school by bus.
  • I am…….. young ………be admitted……the dance.
  • It is ……early ………retire …….bed.
  • The question was………… hard ………… answer.
  • If you are going…..the pop concert may I come…..?
  • It is ………soon after dinner……go swimming.
  • He showed us…….ways……..solve the problem.

Now Check Your Answers!

  • 1. Too, to, to.
  • 2. Two, too, to.
  • 3. To, two.
  • 4. Two, to.
  • 5. Too, to, to.
  • 6. Too, to, to.
  • 7. Too, to.
  • 8. To, too.
  • 9. Too. To
  • 10. Two, to.

The Writing Process

  • References
  • © 2001 by Ruth Luman
  • Pre-Writing
  • Drafting
  • Final Draft!

Writing an essay takes time. That’s why writing is often

  • Introduction
  • What is the writing process ?
  • Writing an essay takes time. That’s why writing is often
  • referred to as a process. In other words, there are several
  • steps to go through before you have a complete essay ready
  • to turn in for a grade. In this lesson we will talk about those
  • steps. They are:
  • Pre-Writing
  • Organizing
  • Drafting
  • Revising and Editing

Pre-writing literally means, “before writing.” Before you

  • Pre-Writing
  • Step One
  • Pre-writing literally means, “before writing.” Before you
  • actually begin writing your essay, you will need to do the
  • following things:
  • choose a topic to write on
  • focus in on central ideas

Making an outline can help you organize what you want to

  • Organizing
  • Step Two
  • Making an outline can help you organize what you want to
  • write. This is a rough plan for your essay and can help make
  • the process of writing much easier.
  • Essay Outline
  • Introduction Thesis: _____________________
  • Body 1. Topic Sentence: _____________
  • - supporting idea
  • - supporting idea 2. Topic Sentence: ____________
  • - supporting idea
  • - supporting idea
  • 3. Topic Sentence: ____________
  • - supporting idea
  • - supporting idea
  • Conclusion

After getting ideas and making an outline of your essay,

  • Drafting
  • Step Three
  • After getting ideas and making an outline of your essay,
  • it is time to start writing the essay. When you begin writing
  • your rough draft, try to remember the following guidelines.
  • Don’t worry about writing the ‘perfect’ paper
  • the first time.
  • Don’t focus on spelling and grammar as you
  • write your rough draft. You can check this later
  • in the writing process.

After you write your first draft, go back over it and look for

  • Revising and Editing
  • Step Four
  • After you write your first draft, go back over it and look for
  • ways to improve your essay in content and organization.
  • This step is called revision. After you revise for content and
  • organization, begin editing your draft for spelling, grammar,
  • punctuation, and sentence structure errors.
  • Content and
  • Organization
  • Spelling,
  • Grammar,
  • Punctuation,
  • etc.
  • Revision
  • Editing

The last step is turning in your essay to be graded. Look

  • The Final Copy
  • Step Five
  • The last step is turning in your essay to be graded. Look
  • at the guidelines below for turning in the final draft of your
  • essay.
  •  word-processed
  • all new paragraphs indented five spaces
  •  8 ½ by 11 inch white paper
  • one inch margins on all sides

Evaluation

  • Now, you are ready to review what you’ve learned. Click on the button
  • below to return to Unit A. Do the interactive exercise. Then click on
  • the essay rubric link to see how your essay will be evaluated.

References

  • PowerPoint Presentation by Ruth Luman: Modesto Junior College.
  • Reid, J. (1993). Teaching ESL Writing. New
  • Jersey: Prentice Hall Regents.
  • This project incorporates portions of copyrighted works. These items are included under the fair use exemption of the U.S. Copyright Law and have been prepared according to the educational fair use guidelines. They are restricted from further use.


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