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Revised bibliography for PSM 2002



Henry Hardy

Writings by Berlin

With the exception of his biography of Marx, his anthology of the philosophers of the Enlightenment, and his study of J. G. Hamann, the work Isaiah Berlin published in his lifetime took the form of essays, often originating in lectures, and often appearing in somewhat inaccessible places in the first instance. Fortunately most of these essays have now been collected, in a series of volumes published over thirty-five years (1969–2004). In the following list of all Berlin’s books, which is given in chronological order of their first publication, the essays’ titles appear under the titles of the collections that they comprise; an asterisk indicates inclusion in the present volume. Publication details are those of the editions that are in print at the time of writing (March 2013).

Karl Marx: His Life and Environment first appeared in 1939; further editions were published by Oxford University Press in 1948, 1963 and 1978, and the 1978 (fourth) edition was reissued, with a foreword by Alan Ryan and a revised guide to further reading by Terrell Carver, by Fontana in London in 1995, and by Oxford University Press in New York in 1996. After the Fontana edition went out of print, the OUP edition was made available world-wide. That edition is being superseded in 2013 by a fifth edition (without the original subtitle), edited by Henry Hardy and published in the US by Princeton University Press: this retains Ryan’s foreword and adds an afterword by Terrell Carver, who has once more updated his guide to further reading.
The Age of Enlightenment: The Eighteenth-Century Philosophers, 1956 (out of print), is a selection, with commentary, from these philosophers’ works.
Four Essays on Liberty, 1969: incorporated in Liberty (see p. 643 below).
Vico and Herder: Two Studies in the History of Ideas, 1976: now incorporated in Three Critics of the Enlightenment (see p. 642 below).
Russian Thinkers, 1978; 2nd ed. 2008 (Penguin Classics):

Introduction by Aileen Kelly

Russia and 1848

*The Hedgehog and the Fox

Herzen and Bakunin on Individual Liberty

A Remarkable Decade [1838–48]

I The Birth of the Russian Intelligentsia

II German Romanticism in Petersburg and Moscow

III Vissarion Belinsky

IV Alexander Herzen

Russian Populism

Tolstoy and Enlightenment

Fathers and Children: Turgenev and the Liberal Predicament
Concepts and Categories: Philosophical Essays, 1978 (Pimlico/Princeton University Press; 2nd US edition, Princeton, 2013):

†Foreword by Alasdair MacIntyre

Introduction by Bernard Williams

The Purpose of Philosophy


Empirical Propositions and Hypothetical Statements

Logical Translation


*The Concept of Scientific History

*Does Political Theory Still Exist?

*From Hope and Fear Set Free

†Appendix to the second edition

†Made of Wax after All

†My Philosophical Views

†Interview on Concepts and Categories

†Logical Positivism

†The Rationality of Value Judgements

†Is a Philosophy of History Possible?

†Pluralism and Liberalism (with Bernard Williams)

†The Philosophy of Charles Taylor

Against the Current: Essays in the History of Ideas, 1979 (Pimlico/Princeton University Press; 2nd US edition, Princeton, 2013; † = added in 2nd ed.):

†Foreword by Mark Lilla

Introduction by Roger Hausheer

*The Counter-Enlightenment

*The Originality of Machiavelli

*The Divorce between the Sciences and the Humanities

Vico’s Concept of Knowledge

Vico and the Ideal of the Enlightenment


Hume and the Sources of German Anti-Rationalism [Hume and Hamann]

*Herzen and his Memoirs

The Life and Opinions of Moses Hess

Benjamin Disraeli, Karl Marx and the Search for Identity

The ‘Naivetyof Verdi

Georges Sorel

*Nationalism: Past Neglect and Present Power

†Appendix to the second edition

†Letters from Berlin on the topics of the volume

Personal Impressions, 1980; 2nd ed. 1998 (Pimlico/Princeton University Press; † = added in 2nd ed.):

Introduction by Noel Annan

*Winston Churchill in 1940

*President Franklin Delano Roosevelt

Chaim Weizmann

Einstein and Israel

†Yitzhak Sadeh

L. B. Namier

Felix Frankfurter at Oxford

Richard Pares

Hubert Henderson at All Souls

J. L. Austin and the Early Beginnings of Oxford Philosophy

John Petrov Plamenatz

Maurice Bowra

†David Cecil

†Memories of Virginia Woolf

†Edmund Wilson at Oxford

Auberon Herbert

Aldous Huxley

Meetings with Russian Writers in 1945 and 1956

†Epilogue: The Three Strands in My Life
The Crooked Timber of Humanity: Chapters in the History of Ideas, 1990 (Pimlico/Princeton University Press; 2nd ed. 2013; † = added in 2nd ed.):

†Foreword by John Banville

*The Pursuit of the Ideal

The Decline of Utopian Ideas in the West

Giambattista Vico and Cultural History

Alleged Relativism in Eighteenth-Century European Thought

Joseph de Maistre and the Origins of Fascism

European Unity and its Vicissitudes

*The Apotheosis of the Romantic Will: The Revolt against the Myth of an Ideal World

The Bent Twig: On the Rise of Nationalism

†Appendix to the second edition

†Russell’s History of Philosophy

†Reply to Robert Kocis

†Reply to Ronald H. McKinney

†Letters from Berlin on the topics of the volume
The contents of the next two volumes were written during earlier decades, but (with one exception, an earlier version of ‘Socialism and Socialist Theories’) had not previously been published:
The Magus of the North: J. G. Hamann and the Origins of Modern Irrationalism, 1993: now incorporated in Three Critics of the Enlightenment (see below).
The Sense of Reality: Studies in Ideas and their History, 1996 (Pimlico):

Introduction by Patrick Gardiner

The Sense of Reality

Political Judgement

Philosophy and Government Repression

Socialism and Socialist Theories

Marxism and the International in the Nineteenth Century

The Romantic Revolution: A Crisis in the History of Modern Thought

Artistic Commitment: A Russian Legacy

Kant as an Unfamiliar Source of Nationalism

Rabindranath Tagore and the Consciousness of Nationality
Berlin died in 1997, less than a year after the present volume was first published. Since then nine further volumes of his work have been published, as follows:
The Roots of Romanticism (the A. W. Mellon Lectures in the Fine Arts, 1965), 1999 (Pimlico/Princeton University Press; 2nd US ed., Princeton, 2013; † = added in 2nd ed.).

†Foreword by John Gray

1 In Search of a Definition

2 The First Attack on Enlightenment

3 The True Fathers of Romanticism

4 The Restrained Romantics

5 Unbridled Romanticism

6 The Lasting Effects

†Appendix to the second edition

†Letters on the lectures

The Power of Ideas, 2000 (Pimlico/Princeton University Press):

My Intellectual Path

The Purpose of Philosophy

The Philosophers of the Enlightenment

One of the Boldest Innovators in the History of Human Thought

Russian Intellectual History

The Man Who Became a Myth

A Revolutionary without Fanaticism

The Role of the Intelligentsia


The Philosophy of Karl Marx

The Father of Russian Marxism

Realism in Politics

The Origins of Israel

Jewish Slavery and Emancipation

Chaim Weizmann’s Leadership

The Search for Status

The Essence of European Romanticism

Meinecke and Historicism

General Education

Three Critics of the Enlightenment: Vico, Hamann, Herder, 2000 (Pimlico/Princeton University Press), incorporating Vico and Herder and The Magus of the North:

Vico and Herder


The Philosophical Ideas of Giambattista Vico

Vico’s Theory of Knowledge and its Sources

*Herder and the Enlightenment

The Magus of the North

1 Introduction

2 Life

3 The central core

4 The Enlightenment

5 Knowledge

6 Language

7 Creative genius

8 Politics

9 Conclusion

Appendix: Excursus to chapter 6

Bibliographical note

Freedom and its Betrayal: Six Enemies of Human Liberty (1952), 2002 (Pimlico/Princeton University Press):







Liberty, 2002 (Oxford University Press):

The Editor’s Tale by Henry Hardy

Five Essays on Liberty (second edition of Four Essays on Liberty)


Political Ideas in the Twentieth Century

*Historical Inevitability

*Two Concepts of Liberty

John Stuart Mill and the Ends of Life

‘From Hope and Fear Set Free’


The Birth of Greek Individualism

Final Retrospect (excerpts from ‘My Intellectual Path’)

The Purpose Justifies the Ways

A Letter to George Kennan

Notes on Prejudice

Berlin and his Critics by Ian Harris
The Soviet Mind: Russian Culture under Communism, 2004 (Brookings University Press)

Foreword by Strobe Talbott

The Arts in Russia under Stalin

A Visit to Leningrad

A Great Russian Writer

*Conversations with Akhmatova and Pasternak

Boris Pasternak

Why the Soviet Union Chooses to Insulate Itself

The Artificial Dialectic: Generalissimo Stalin and the Art of Government

Four Weeks in the Soviet Union

Soviet Russian Culture

The Survival of the Russian Intelligentsia

Glossary of Names by Helen Rappaport
Flourishing: Letters 1928–1946, 2004 (Pimlico/Trafalgar Square Publishing; in the USA, initially published by Cambridge University Press as Letters 1928–1946)
Political Ideas in the Romantic Age: Their Rise and Influence on Modern Thought (1952), 2006 (Pimlico/Princeton University Press):

Introduction: Isaiah Berlin’s Political Ideas: From the Twentieth Century to the Romantic Age by Joshua L. Cherniss


1 Politics as a Descriptive Science

2 The Idea of Freedom

3 Two Concepts of Freedom: Romantic and Liberal

4 The March of History

Appendix: Subjective versus Objective Ethics

Summaries of the Flexner Lectures

Note from the editor to the author

Enlightening: Letters 1946–1960, 2009 (Chatto and Windus/Trafalgar Square Publishing)
Building: Letters 1960–1975, 2013 (Chatto and Windus/Trafalgar Square Publishing)
Readers who wish to explore the many pieces not (yet) collected in volume form should consult the complete bibliography of Berlin’s writings by Henry Hardy, who has compiled and edited all the volumes published from 1978 onwards (jointly, for Russian Thinkers, with Aileen Kelly, for the present volume with Roger Hausheer, for Enlightening with Jennifer Holmes, for Building with Mark Pottle). This bibliography appears in continuously updated form in Henry Hardy (ed.), The Isaiah Berlin Virtual Library (IBVL), the official website of the Isaiah Berlin Literary Trust, .

The experience of listening to Berlin speaking is highly recommended. There are several recordings of his lectures and broadcasts, including his 1965 Mellon Lectures on romanticism, at the British Library’s Sound Archive in London. A selection of recordings is also being made available online: details and links are available in the IBVL, where edited transcripts of unpublished items are also being provided.

Writings about Berlin

The list of publications stimulated by Berlin’s work is growing steadily, in many languages. Here I confine myself to books published in English.

Nine books have so far appeared that address Berlin’s thought or take it as their starting-point:

Robert Kocis, A Critical Appraisal of Sir Isaiah Berlin’s Political Philosophy (Lewiston, NY, etc., 1989: Edwin Mellen Press)

Claude J. Galipeau, Isaiah Berlin’s Liberalism (Oxford, 1994: Clarendon Press), with a specially valuable bibliography

Dinesh Singh, Isaiah Berlin and the Idea of Freedom (New Delhi, 1994: Classical Publishing)

John Gray, Isaiah Berlin (London, 1995: HarperCollins; New York, 1996: Princeton University Press; paperback, retitled Berlin, London, 1995: Fontana Modern Masters; 2nd ed., Isaiah Berlin: An Interpretation of His Thought, with a new introduction by the author, Princeton, 2013)

Norman Coles, Human Nature and Human Values: Interpreting Isaiah Berlin (Bexhill on Sea, 2004: Egerton House)

George Crowder, Isaiah Berlin: Liberty and Pluralism (Cambridge, 2004: Polity)

Michael Jinkins, Christianity, Tolerance and Pluralism: A Theological Engagement with Isaiah Berlin’s Social Theory (London/New York, 2004: Routledge)

Andrzej Walicki, Encounters with Isaiah Berlin: Story of an Intellectual Friendship (Frankfurt am Main etc., 2011: Peter Lang)

Joshua L. Cherniss, A Mind and Its Time: The Development of Isaiah Berlin’s Political Thought (Oxford, 2013: Oxford University Press)

There are seven collections about or inspired by his personality and ideas:

Alan Ryan (ed.), The Idea of Freedom: Essays in Honour of Isaiah Berlin (Oxford and New York, 1979: Oxford University Press)

Avishai Margalit and others, On the Thought of Isaiah Berlin: Papers Presented in Honour of Professor Sir Isaiah Berlin on the Occasion of his Eightieth Birthday (Jerusalem, 1990: Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities) (a 45-page pamphlet)

Edna and Avishai Margalit (eds), Isaiah Berlin: A Celebration (London, 1991: Hogarth Press; Chicago, 1991: University of Chicago Press)

Mark Lilla, Ronald Dworkin and Robert B. Silvers (eds), The Legacy of Isaiah Berlin (New York, 2001: New York Review of Books; London, 2001, Granta)

Joseph Mali and Robert Wokler (eds), Isaiah Berlin’s Counter-Enlightenment [Transactions of the American Philosophical Society 93 No 3] (Philadelphia, 2003: American Philosophical Society)

George Crowder and Henry Hardy (eds), The One and the Many: Reading Isaiah Berlin (Amherst, NY, 2007: Prometheus)

Henry Hardy (ed.), The Book of Isaiah: Personal Impressions of Isaiah Berlin (Woodbridge, 2009: Boydell Press in association with Wolfson College, Oxford)

Mention should also be made in this context of George Crowder’s Liberalism and Value Pluralism (London and New York, 2002: Continuum), a really excellent and thorough synthesis of the arguments about the relationship between pluralism and liberalism which also makes numerous original contributions. And much light is thrown on Berlin’s ideas in Michael Ignatieff’s authorised biography, Isaiah Berlin: A Life (London, 1998: Chatto and Windus; New York, 1998: Metropolitan; New York, 1999: Holt Paperbacks; London, 2000: Vintage).

The number of publications on Berlin, or on topics treated by him, is now so large, and increasing at such a rate, that it is impossible to make a useful selection here. Fortunately there is an excellent review of this literature by Ian Harris, ‘Berlin and his Critics’, in Liberty. In addition, lists of relevant publications are maintained on the website already mentioned. Many of the articles critical of ‘Historical Inevitability’ and ‘Two Concepts of Liberty’ are discussed in Berlin’s introduction to ‘Five Essays on Liberty’ (included in Liberty).
Finally, there is an invaluable book of interviews with Berlin:

Ramin Jahanbegloo, Conversations with Isaiah Berlin (London, 1992: Halban Publishers)

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