Cln4u exam Review Guide Terminology: Please make sure you understand the vocabulary terms below

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CLN4U Exam Review Guide
Terminology: Please make sure you understand the vocabulary terms below.

  • Absolute liability

  • Acquitted

  • Actus reus

  • Ad hoc organization

  • Administrative law

  • Autonomy

  • Aggravating circumstances (mitigating circumstances)

  • Ambit of the offence

  • Amending formula

  • Apartheid

  • Appeal

  • Appelant

  • Attorney General (of Canada)

  • Balance of probabilities (beyond reasonable doubt)

  • Bona fide

  • Case law/common law

  • Civil disobedience

  • Code

  • Constitutional law

  • Contributory negligence

  • Convention

  • Criminal law

  • Cross-examination

  • Crown attorney

  • Culpability

  • Custom

  • Dangerous offender

  • Decriminalization

  • Defendant

  • Dialectic

  • Discretion

  • Domestic law

  • Entrenched in constitution

  • Estate law

  • Exculpating (factor)

  • Family law

  • Federalism

  • Feminist jurisprudence

  • Garnisheeing wages

  • Inalienable

  • Incarceration

  • Indictable offence

  • Injunction

  • International law

  • Internment

  • Intra vires

  • Interpretive presumption/statutory interpretation

  • Judiciary

  • Judicial activism

  • Judicial discretion

  • Judicial independence

  • Jurisprudence

  • Jurisdiction

  • Legal realism

  • Leave (to appeal)

  • Lobby group

  • Mandate

  • Marxism

  • Mens rea

  • Metis

  • Natural law

  • NCR acquittee

  • Negligence

  • Notwithstanding clause

  • Objective

  • Parliamentary supremacy

  • Patriate

  • Pith and Substance

  • Plaintiff

  • Plea bargain

  • Positive law

  • Precedent

  • Private law

  • Primary sources of law

  • Procedural law

  • Property law

  • Public law

  • Ratify

  • Read down

  • Respondant

  • Reasonable limits

  • Royal commission

  • Requisite intention (mens rea)

  • Rule of law

  • Sanctions

  • Search incidental to arrest

  • Secondary sources of law

  • Separation

  • Sovereignty association

  • Specific intent offence

  • Stare decisis

  • Status Quo

  • Statute law

  • Strict liability

  • Strike down

  • Subjective

  • Substantive law

  • Summary conviction offence

  • Tort law

  • Ultra vires

  • Unanimous

  • Utilitarianism

  • Vitiated by fraud

  • Warrant

Anything on the following pages may appear on the exam.

Anything not in bold may not appear in the exam

Anything bold will be on the exam

Ya tozhe tebya lyublyu
Cases: [When reviewing cases also see pg.611 for Legal citation Reference]

p.256 Canadian Foundation for Children, Youth and The law v. Canada (Attorney general) (2002)

p.60 Chae v. Min, 2001 ABQB
p.234 R v. Cuerrier [1998] SCR
p.46,171 Re Drummond Wren [1945]
p.52 Jantunen v. Ross (1991)
p.137 R v. Keegstra [1990] SCR
p.25,232,310 R v. Lavallee [1990] SCR
p.251 R v. MacMillan Bloedel, 2002 BCCA
p.134 R v. Oakes [1986] SCR
p.29 Ontario Human Rights Commission and Harbhajan Singh Pandori v. Peel Board of Education (1991)
p.305 R v. Parks [1991] SCR (Supplemental)
p.91 Reference re Anti-inflation Act [1976] SCR
p.125 Reference re Firearms Act (Can.), 2000 SCC
p.117 RJR-MacDonald Inc. v. Canada (Attorney General) (1995) SCR
p.155 R v. Tessling (2003-01-27) ONCA
p.64 R v. Tutton [1989] SCR
p.16 Sue Rodriguez, Henry Morgentaler, Richard Sauve
p.36 R v. Big M Drug Mart
p.44 Re Resolution to Amend the Constitution of Canada, [1981] SCR

Comprehensive Review:
Chapter 1:

  • Factors driving change in the law

  • Rule of Law

  • What constitutes ‘democracy’?

  • Judicial Independence

  • Parliamentary Supremacy

  • Jucdicial Activism

  • Methods of effecting change in the law (individually or as a collective)

  • Assisted Suicide (Sue Rodriguez, Richard Sauvé, Henry Morgentaler

  • Anti-terrorism legislation

  • Lobby groups, Royal Commissions, Legal Scholarship, Political demonstrations

Chapter 2:
Law is made up of historical influences/components and current documents/principles

  • Religion, morality

  • Historical influences (Ancient, Greeks, Romans, French, British) what did we inherit?

  • Development over the last century (Industrial revolution, war, social political philosophy)


  • The Constitution

  • Statute Law

  • Case law

  • How is a statute passed?

  • The structure of the Federal and Provincial Governments (Majority/minority governments)

  • Statutory interpretation

  • Case citation (difference between a criminal and a civil)

  • Categories of law:

    • Substantive/procedural

    • Domestic/International

    • Public/private:

      • Public: Criminal, Constitutional, Administrative

      • Private (civil law): Tort, Contract, Family, Wills, Property,…

Chapter 3:

  • Natural Law Philosophy

  • Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, St.Thomas Acquinas

  • Positive law Philosophy

  • Thomas Hobbes

  • John Locke

  • Jeremy Bentham/John Austin

  • Karl Marx, Marxism

  • Feminist Jurisprudence

Chapter 4:

  • Canada’s Constitution (composed of ):

    • BNA 1867

    • Unwritten customs and conventions

    • Court decisions (case law regarding the constitution)

  • Division of powers (federal/provincial)

  • Education

  • Municipal level of government

  • Role of the courts/ Structure of the courts (Ministry of Justice booklet)

  • Persons case

  • Significance of the Statute of Westminster

  • Patriation

  • Meech lake Accord/ Charlottetown Accord/ Quebec separation

Chapter 5:

  • Canadian Bill of Rights (basics)

  • The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms (useful notes in margins on pg604-607)

    • Section 1 (what is it? How does it apply? Oakes test)

    • Fundamental freedoms (s.2)

    • Democratic rights (ss.3-5)

    • Mobility rights (s.6)

    • Legal Rights (ss.7-14)

    • Equality Rights (s.15)

    • Official languages Rights (16-22)

    • Minority education rights (s.23)

  • Limits on the Charter:

    • Notwithstanding clause

    • Section 1 (reasonable limits clause)

    • Section 32 (restricts application to Public sphere Fed and Prov (not between citizens)

  • Section 24: Admissibility of evidence & Remedies Judges can use.

Chapter 8, 9, 10: (same as previously handed out)
Chapter 8:

  • Definitions of crime

  • Understanding of the general contents of the Criminal Code

  • Judge made criminal law (case law precedents)

  • R v. Ssenyonga

  • R v. Ceurrier (HIV, Silence, and Sex)

  • Main purposes of Criminal law

  • Understanding of the significance of how much power the state has over our lives in terms of Criminal law.

  • Private/public harm principles, legal paternalism, legal moralism.

  • Elements of the offence (actus reus, mens rea) pg.246-249 important.

  • Subjective/objective

  • Understand standard of a ‘reasonable person’

  • Absolute liability vs. Strict liability

  • Case: R v. MacMillan Bloedel (pg.251) understand the dissenting opinion.

  • Case: Re British Columbia Motor Vehicle Act, [1985] 2 SCR 486

(understand relevance of s.7)

  • Understand power imbalance between accused and state and possibility of human rights violations in criminal law process.

Chapter 9:

  • General understanding of physical evidence

  • Understand the impact of the Charter on police powers.

  • Arrest power

  • Case R v. Brown (Young, Black, Male, and Affluent?...)

  • R v. Caslake (What is the purpose of a search?)

  • Crown Disclosure

Offences against the person:

-Culpable / non-culpable homicide

-Culpable homicides (1st degree, 2nd degree, manslaughter/provocation (test))

-Assault & Sexual Assault.
Chapter 10:

  • Defences: negativing/affirmative

  • Mistake of Fact

  • Mental Disorder

  • Automatism (video & Case: R v. Parks)

  • Intoxication (General intent offences vs. Specific intent offences)

  • Self-defence

  • Compulsion

Essay Question:
The final essay will have to the with the UN and International Law. Consider the following…

  1. What are the sources of international law? How is global governance achieved legally?

    • Westphalia

    • treaties

    • customary practices

    • natural law

    • compliance and violation

    • human rights

    • IOs such as the UN

    • International Criminal Court, International Court of Justice

  2. How are human rights protected in the international system?

    • natural law

    • positive law

    • UN

    • 1948 declaration

    • 1966 covenants

    • International Criminal Court, with application to individuals

  3. Do states comply with international law? Why or why not?

    • states frequently violate international law (realism).

    • compliance with international law is more common than not (liberalism).

    • moral imperative to obey international law

    • framework for the conduct of global affairs

    • states fear reprisals, sanctions.

    • reciprocity

  4. How has international law addressed war and aggression?

    • rights of belligerents

    • rights of neutral states during war

    • UN charter allows for self-defense.

    • conventions seek to limit the means of warfare.

  5. Discuss the evolution of an IGO for collective security. How did the international community create the United Nations?

    • define collective security

    • Concert of Europe: why started, why failed

    • League of Nations: why started, why failed

    • UN: how different

    • functions, organs

  6. Discuss the roles of IGOs and NGOs in the international system. How does their participation impact state sovereignty?

    • define IGO; role of state

    • examples

    • define NGO; role of state

    • examples

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