Classroom Assessment: Concepts and Applications
Date conversion 23.07.2017 Size 24,62 Kb.
Chapter 1: The Breadth of Classroom Assessment TEST Classroom assessment encompasses much more than tests and quizzes! Number all pages Number all pages Page 1: Title: First entry: What is Assessment?. . . . . . . . . . .Page 5 Page 5: Title: What is Assessment? Assessment: a broad and continuous process of collecting, synthesizing and interpreting information to aid in decision making. Table of Contents Table of Contents Second entry: Purposes of Assessment . . . . . . . Pages 6-10 PURPOSES OF ASSESSMENT 1. Establishing a classroom that supports learning Helping students learn well and maintaining rules for respect in the classroom 2. Planning and conducting instruction 3. Placing students Dividing students into groups, organizing students into cooperative learning groups, pairing or grouping students for class projects or recommending teachers for students 4. Providing feedback Observations and feedback intended to alter and improve students’ learning are called formative assessment. 5. Diagnosing student problems and disabilities To identify, understand, and address students’ misconceptions and learning difficulties. 6. Summarizing and grading academic progress Grading or making final decisions about students’ learning at the end of instruction—summative assessment. 1. Establishing a classroom that supports learning 1. Establishing a classroom that supports learning 2. Planning and conducting instruction 3. Placing students 5. Diagnosing student problems and disabilities 5. Diagnosing student problems and disabilities 6. Summarizing and grading academic progress
a. Assigned grades to her students’ science tests on the planets b. Referred Aaron to the Special Ed Department to be screened for poor gross motor skills c. Completed the monthly school progress report on each student in the class d. Moved Tamika from the middle to the high reading group e. Selected Rosa, not Sarah, to deliver a note to Mr. Brown, the principal f. Decided on topics to cover in next Monday’s math lesson g. Met with the special education teacher to review the accommodations Mauricio needed when taking a test h. Stopped the planned language lesson halfway through the period in order to review the previous day’s lesson i. Formed a reading group for 3 students who were progressing more slowly than their classmates j. Rearranged the class seating plan to separate Jamar and Ramon and to move Claudia to the front of the room so she could see the board better k. Called on Kim twice even though her hand was not raised. l. Studied the statewide writing standards to determine what topics to emphasize in instruction m. Switched social studies instruction from discussion to seatwork when the class became bored and unruly n. Encouraged Jing to redraft his English composition to correct spelling and grammar errors o. Decided to construct her own test for the social studies unit rather than using the textbook test. q. Paired Kim, a class isolate, with Aretha, a class leader, for the project in Social Studies r. Send Ralph to the principal because he swore at a teacher and threatened a classmate s. Held a parent-teacher conference with Ivan’s parents in which she told them that he was a capable student who could produce better work than he had thus far t. Consulted with last year’s standardized test scores to determine whether the class needed a review of the basic rules of capitalization Table of Contents Table of Contents Third entry: Domains of Assessment……..Page 12 Assessment in the Classroom Occurs for 3 Major Domains: Page 4 Cognitive Domain Intellectual activities such as memorizing, interpreting, critical thinking, etc. Affective Domain Feelings, attitudes, interests, and emotions Psychomotor Domain Physical activities and actions in which students must manipulate objects Three Phases of Classroom Assessment
Evidence-gathering method Type of evidence gathered Table of Contents Table of Contents Fourth entry: Assessment, Testing, Measurement, and Evaluation……..Page 12 The Process of Assessment: Page 9 Testing (information gathering) Testing is a formal, systematic procedure for gathering information. Testing methods include paper-and-pencil tests, portfolios, projects and . observations Measurement (grading) The process of quantifying or assigning a number to a performance or trait. Example: A numerical score on a quiz, such as “Jackie got 17 out of 20 items correct on the test.” Evaluation (rewarding) The process of judging the quality or value of a performance or a course of action, such as the quality of a student’s essay. An evaluation is the product of assessment that produces a decision. I hope I do well enough to move up to the Red Bird group! Three Ways to Collect Data Page 10 Table of Contents Table of Contents Fifth entry: Three Ways to Collect Data: Student Products……..Page 13 Three Forms of Student Products….Page 14 Three Ways to Collect Data: Observation Techniques….Page 15 Three Ways to Collect Data: Oral Questioning Techniques….Page 16 Involves students creating products or artifacts. Includes: Homework Worksheets Essays Book Reports Science Projects Lab Reports Artwork Tests & Quizzes 3 Forms of Student Products : multiple choice, true-false, matching Selection items : short answer, fill in the blank, essay Supply items : book reports, Performances journal entries, portfolios, science experiments, class projects 2nd: Observation Techniques Page 11 involves purposefully watching a particular set of student behaviors. Formal & planned in advance involves spontaneous observations of student behaviors & expressions. Informal & unplanned 3rd: Oral Questioning Techniques Page 12 Provides a great deal of formal and informal information about students. Used during and after instruction to: Monitor progress Review information Engage students 1/6 “Why do you think the author ended her story that way?” 2/6 “Explain to me in your own words what an improper fraction is.” 3rd: Oral Questioning Techniques Provides a great deal of formal and informal information about students. Used during and after instruction to: Monitor progress Review information Engage students 3/6 “Jack, did you call Ron a mean name?” 4/6 “Raise your hand if you can tell me why this answer is incorrect.” 3rd: Oral Questioning Techniques Provides a great deal of formal and informal information about students. Used during and after instruction to: Monitor progress Review information Engage students 5/6 “Who can summarize yesterday’s discussion about the water cycle?” 6/6 “Why don’t you have your homework today?” Review and Assign Chapter 1, Part 1, pgs. 1-12 Read pages 1 to 12. Answer: Activity #1, page 24. Article Notebook, Tab 4, pages 8-13 Feedback That Fits By Susan M. Brookhart Table of Contents Table of Contents Next entry: Standardized and Nonstandardized Assessments…..page 17 Assessment Procedures Page 12 Standardized or Nonstandardized? Read each item and write S if the items refers to standardized testing or N if it refers to nonstandardized testing. Use page 13 of your textbook to help you. 1.___a teacher constructs her own test for a science unit 2.___ACT 3.___scoring procedures and interpretations are the same for all students 4.___constructed for use in a single classroom with a single group of students 5.___the teacher observes his chemistry students during their lab experiments 6.___constructed for use in many different classrooms 7.___constructed in such a way that the administration is always under identical conditions 8.___important when information from the assessment is to be used for the same purpose across many different classrooms and locations 9.___weekly spelling test 10.__Cooperative group project Standardized or Nonstandardized? Read each item and write S if the items refers to standardized testing or N if it refers to nonstandardized testing. Use page 13 of your textbook to help you. 1.___a teacher constructs her own test for a science unit 2.___ACT 3.___scoring procedures and interpretations are the same for all students 4.___constructed for use in a single classroom with a single group of students 5.___the teacher observes his chemistry students during their lab experiments 6.___constructed for use in many different classrooms 7.___constructed in such a way that the administration is always under identical conditions 8.___important when information from the assessment is to be used for the same purpose across many different classrooms and locations 9.___weekly spelling test 10.__Cooperative group project Standardized Assessments Page 12 Intended to be administered, scored, and interpreted in the same way for all test takers. Aim to ensure fair comparisons among students in different schools and states. Stanford Achievement Test Nonstandardized Assessments Page 12 Teacher-made assessments that are developed for a single classroom with a single group of students and are not used for comparison with other groups. Include: Formal assessments such as pencil-and-paper tests Unplanned observations of students Class discussions Projects Table of Contents Table of Contents Next entry: Educational Standards…..page 18 Educational Standards: Page 14 To set common goals for instruction and criteria for performance to which all schools and students are held. Content (aka curriculum frameworks or standards of learning) Standards Define the knowledge & skills students are expected to develop in a given subject area and grade level Performance Standards Define how well students are expected to know and perform the skills included in the content knowledge Standards-Based Testing In most cases, performance standards are measured by standards-based tests administered by the state The federal No Child Left Behind Act of 2002 mandates that all states are expected to develop & meet educational standards Table of Contents Table of Contents Next entry: Validity and Reliability…..page 19 What is an Appropriate Assessment? Page 15 The assessment information that is collected must be appropriate for the decision being made. Appropriate assessments are: Mr. Farris Selects 10 items that represent his teaching Administers the test and scores the test on a scale of 0 to 100 Validity Validity is concerned with whether the information being gathered is relevant to the decision that needs to be made. Concerns about validity pertain to all classroom assessment, not just to those involving formal, paper-and-pencil techniques. Validity Example A teacher determines a student’s ability by observing his classroom work over a period of time. A teacher determines a student’s ability by the section of the city he comes from. Which teacher behavior is valid? Why? Why is the other teacher behavior invalid? Reliability Refers to the stability or consistency of assessment information, i.e., whether it is typical of a student’s behavior. Is not concerned with the appropriateness of the assessment information collected, only with its consistency, stability, or typicality. Appropriateness is a validity concern. Reliability Example A teacher includes two (2) long division questions on his math test. A teacher includes ten (10) long division questions on his math test. Which teacher obtains reliable information about his students’ achievement? Why? Table of Contents Table of Contents Next entry: Ethical Responsibilities…..page 20 Ethical Responsibilities Page 20 Make fair & impartial decisions. Construct fair & clear assessments. Motivate students. Teach students the types of assessment formats. Provide students opportunities to practice testing approaches. Make reasonable accommodations for students with disabilities. Self-Assessment 1/3 You are teaching your first course in fashion design and it starts next week. You want your students to be highly motivated and learn a lot from the course. In planning the course you begin by pulling together the most interesting content and interactive learning activities you can find to fill up a semester’s worth of instruction. WHAT IS MISSING? Self-Assessment 2/3 You have been teaching a unit on the Civil War for three weeks and things have been going well. It is time for the first test and you want to give it the first thing in the morning in class. It is now 5 pm and you have several errands to do on your way home, but you need to develop the test first. You quickly flip through the teachers manual that accompanies the textbook and pick out 30 test questions provided for the three chapters you have covered thus far. There, you have the test ready to go (and it only took 20 minutes!). WHAT IS MISSING? Self-Assessment 3/3 The instruction is half over in the unit you are teaching about art of the American Southwest. Your students have started complaining that they do not have a “big picture” of what they are supposed to be learning or how well or how poorly they are doing. WHAT IS MISSING? NO assessment technique NO assessment technique is 100% valid NO assessment technique is 100% reliable The score you put at the top of your student’s paper is NEVER the student’s true score! Homework: Review of Chapter 1 Activity: Interview a teacher about classroom decision making. Ask the teacher: how he or she learns about students at the start of the school year what characteristics are considered On what basis are decisions about students made Review Questions: What are the 3 main types of classroom assessment? How do they differ in purpose, timing, and the types of information most likely to be used in carrying them out? Explain the difference between standardized and nonstandard zed assessments: supply and selection test items: validity and reliability: How would you explain the concept of validly to a fellow teacher? What examples would you use to make your point? Why are validity and reliability important concerns in classroom assessment? Why is validity more important? What are three ethical responsibilities a teacher has to her or his students? Give an example of how each responsibility might occur in a classroom.
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