“Political” : State Building , Expansion, & Conflict:
structures & forms of governance
Type of system
Indus/Harappan: (Approx. 2800-1800 B.C.E.) Little is known, but city construction points to well-organized government.
Aryans: (1500-500 B.C.E.) Warriors, Politically, fragmented, separate kinship groups, independent groups, fought native Dravidians, Had a Chief called “Raja” military/religious structure.
P: State Building , Expansion, & Conflict cont….
Mauryan: (322-185 B.C.E.) Chandragupta Maurya united most of India because of Alexander the Great’s invasion. He was a monarch who ruled with help of a large imperial army, grandfather of Ashoka who conquered more and turned to Buddhism. Had a centralized government
Gupta Empire: (320-480 C.E.) Samudraguptra (ruled 335-375) and his son Chandragupta II (375-415) Monarchy, but less centralized, smaller regional government than Mauryan.
The Indus/Harappan Civilization
2800 BCE - 1800 BCE
pastoral depended on their cattle.
warriors horse-drawn chariots.
The Mauryan Empire
321 BCE – 185 BCE
Gupta Empire 320-480 C.E.
Creation, expansion, and interaction of “Economic” systems
Agricultural & pastoral production
Indus/Harappan: Advanced system of wheat, rye, peas, (rice?)
Cotton was cultivated, domesticated animals: chickens, cattle, goats, sheep
Indus/Harappan: Polytheism, Priests (ruling class) meditation btwn people & dods. Little known about gods, but one of the gods is depicted on seals naked with a horned head, in a posturing position (yoga) a mother goddess also
Aryans: (Vedic and Epic ages) brought to India distinctive religious ideas of early Brahman, which became Hinduism/Buddhism/Jainism
Mauryan: Buddhism became the main religion in India temporarily when Ashoka was king. Missionaries sent to other countries.
Gupta: Brought back Hinduism as the country’s ‘religion’ bought tolerated all faiths.
Science & Key Technologies- Indus/Harappan: sophisticated sewage system with canals,
Development & Interaction of Cultures cont…
Science & Key Technologies- Indus/Harappan: sophisticated sewage system with canals, house plumbing
Aryans: Fast 2-wheeled chariots, bronze swords & spears, later iron too defeat enemies,
Mauryan: Ashoka’s building of roads, with trees, and watering holes/wells for humans and animals alike.
Gupta- Arabic numerals were actually from India; “place-value” notation based on 10 system (Eurasia)
Architecture/Buildings- Indus/Harappan: 34 foot wide streets! Huge Baths, well organized cities & Fortified granaries, bricks throughout region 4x2x1.
Mauryan: Pillar Edicts w/ 3 Lions (Now the national symbol of India), 84, 000 stupas, huge rock edicts (billboards) along roads/trade routes
Art -Indus/Harappan: Little art except for carved figurines of people & animals (fertility)
Aryans: Mostly Religious items
Mauryan : Pillar Edicts & Lions- 1st examples of Indian Art to survive since Indus Civilization.
Gupta- Kings were patrons of the arts, Sanskrit preserved, Famous Poet Kalidasa (380-459), Wrote poems in verse, best works: ShakuntalaandThe Cloud Messenger.
1200 BCE-600 BCE.
written in SANSKRIT.
Hindu core of beliefs:
hymns and poems.
lists of the gods and goddesses.
Rig Veda oldest work
Religion in India Today
Development & transformation of social structures “Culture”
Gender Roles and relations (Women’s roles, status of Elite, non elites)
Dravidian: Appeared to have a Matrilineal society
Aryans: A lot to do with social status, (early tribes shared leadership), seemed to have been treated favorably than later Indian society. When line of succession started to go throw the male line, women began losing their status.
Mauryan: Government controlled prostitution
Family & kinship (Clans) & Racial & Ethic constructions/Ethnic classes
Later Code of Manu & Hindu Caste system
Social & Economics classes
Indus/Harappan: Evidence points to the existence of social classes (Houses different sizes, stories, larger had brick ovens, courtyard & a well)
A priestly class ruled cities,
Development & transformation of social structures “Culture” cont..
Social & Economics classes
Aryans: 1st came – 1) Raja, 2) Priest, 3) warrior nobility, 4) common tribesman, then 5) non-aryans worked like slaves
2nd came the (Caste system, hereditary, unchangeable) “Varna” (color) describes classes (See diagram) “Jati” further division in groups
Purpose: to enforce rules about social behavior.
Mauryan : Under Buddhism, caste system wavered, King and some officials, but after Mauryan failed- Code of Manu: laid down Family Caste system (150 CE)
Gupta: Caste System returned with Hinduism & Code of Manu