Claim: The overall argument the writer will argue for. It should be debatable. Data/Grounds

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Name: _________________________

Subject, Period: _________________

Date: __________________________

Argumentative Techniques: How can I effectively present my argument?

Claim: The overall argument the writer will argue for. It should be debatable.

Data/Grounds: Evidence gathered to support the claim.

Warrant (also referred to as a rule): Explanation of why or how the data supports the claim; the assumption that connects your evidence to your claim.

Counterclaim: A claim that disagrees with the claim.

Rebuttal: Evidence that disagrees with the counterclaim
The basic format for an argument (the Toulmin Model) is:

  • A well-thought-out warrant or rule is essential to writing a good argumentative essay or paper.

  • If you present evidence without explaining how it supports your claim, your readers may not make a connection between the two or they may draw different conclusions.


  • Don't avoid the opposing side of an argument!

  • Instead, include the opposing side as a counterclaim.

  • Find out what the other side is saying and respond to it within your own argument.

  • This is important so that the audience is not influenced by weak, but unrefuted, arguments.

  • Including counterclaims allows you to find common ground with more of your readers.

  • It also makes you look more trustworthy because you appear to be knowledgeable about the entirety of the debate rather than being interested in one side of the story only.

Example 1: Cinderella

Claim: Cinderella’s patience certainly makes her dreams come true.

Evidence: Cinderella places the needs of others, like her stepsisters,

before her own needs and is rewarded.

Rule: Patience is rewarded in a positive way when people place

others’ needs above their own.

Counterclaim: Rewards and dreams can also be won through

kindness and determination, not just through patience.

Rebuttal: While kindness and determination are qualities that help people

achieve their dreams, patience is a strong quality that leads to positive results.

Cinderella married the man of her dreams by being patient above anything else.

Example 2: School Uniforms: Identify & mark the parts of the argument.

(C=claim, E=evidence, R=rule, CO=counterclaim, RE=rebuttal)

The case for high school uniforms

By Patriot-News Op-Ed
What should I wear? ... No, I just wore that. How about ... No, that doesn't even match. Ugh! I have nothing to wear!"
Sound familiar? Having uniforms would cure this morning indecisiveness and have many other positive effects.
It has been argued that uniforms force conformity, yet many uniform-wearing students like the fact that everyone looks the same.
In schools without uniforms, students are often judged by what they wear.
With uniforms, students can see past superficial appearances and get to know personalities. A study done by "The New York Times" shows that uniforms decrease peer pressure while increasing student discipline and academic concentration.
Uniforms not only knock down barriers but also unite the student body.
Contrary to popular belief, uniforms do not stop students from being themselves. Uniforms do not silence voices. Students can wear a variety of expressive items, such as buttons or jewlery.
Also, uniforms are more practical than regular clothes.
Some believe that uniforms do not prepare students for the real world in which people wear whatever they want. However, most workplaces have uniforms or dress codes.

  • Is this argument effective? Why or why not?


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