Claim: a writer’s position on a problem or an issue. A claim is also known as a: Thesis statement Reason



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Argumentative Writing Notes
An argument is: A claim or position supported by reasons and evidence

What’s the point of learning how to write an argument?



To help you become a logical communicator.

What are the elements (parts) of an argument?



Claim: A writer’s position on a problem or an issue.

A claim is also known as a: Thesis statement



Reason: This explains WHY you made your claim or why you believe the way you do.

Counterargument: An argument made against your claim. This is the opposing point of view.

Support: Reasons and evidence that are used to prove your point.

How do I know the argument is strong?

The reasons: Make sense

The reasons are also: Presented in a logical and effective order.

The claim and all of the reasons: Are adequately supported by sound evidence.

The evidence is: Adequate, accurate and appropriate.

The logic is: Sound, because there are no instances of faulty reasoning.

The argument: Anticipates counterclaims and reader concerns with counterarguments.

What are some ways to support an argument? (p.R41)

Statistics

Facts that are stated in numbers

Examples

Specific instances that explain points

Observations

Events or situations you yourself have seen

Anecdotes

Brief stories that illustrate points

Quotations

Direct statements from authorities

Support your opinion! Why do you feel the way you do about the issue? What facts, statistics, examples, quotations, anecdotes, or expert opinions support your view? What reasons will convince your readers? What evidence can answer their objections?


How will an argumentative paper look when I’m done with it?



Introduction

States the issue and your position on it.

Counterargument

States the opposing viewpoint on the issue.

Reason 1

The 1st reason why you believe the way you do and the evidence to support your belief.

Reason 2

The 2nd reason why you believe the way you do and the evidence to support your belief.

Reason 3

The 3rd reason why you believe the way you do and the evidence to support your belief.

Conclusion

Explain why we should care by answering “so what?” End with a call to action.

What things will make my argument weak?



Type of Fallacy

Definition

Example

Circular Reasoning

Supporting a statement by:

Simply repeating it in different words




I’m tired because I don’t have any energy.

Overgeneralization

Making a claim that is too broad with use of words such as:

All, everyone, every time, anything, no one, none, etc.




You never get me anything I want

Hasty Generalization

A conclusion drawn from:

Too little evidence or from evidence that is biased




She left after 15 minutes. She must not like us.

Stereotyping

Statements about people based on their:

Gender, ethnicity, race, social group, etc.




All rock stars are self-centered

Traits of Strong Writing:

Ideas

Writing that is: Logical and focused

A position that is Clear and easy to understand

Ideas that: connect and are supported by evidence

Organization


The ideas are easy to follow and don’t jump around


Synonyms:

I can find them in a:
The writer uses strong transitions and Structure

Conventions

The language and tone are consistent

Sentences are detailed and writer uses variation in word choice

There are few grammatical errors

Content and Understanding



Content that demonstrates in-depth understanding of the prompt and topic


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