List one vitamin and one mineral found in milk. Explain how to isolate these minerals from the rest of the milk ingredients.
Explain how evaporated milk is made.
Explain the differences in mineral content between regular milk and evaporated milk using the words “concentrated” and “dilute.”
List two methods of bringing colloid particles closer together into a large clump. Which one is used in Jell-O? Which method is used for making cheese? What is this clumping process called?
Explain how to make cheese. What is the purpose of adding bacteria? What is the purpose of sealing cheese in wax?
When making cheese, explain the difference between the curds and the whey. Which part is the part we eat?
Describe the recipe for applesauce. What two things prevent it from breaking down into apple juice? If you want to make apple juice, what needs to be added? What does this added substance do?
Describe an emulsion, explaining the role of an emulsifier. Give a common example of an emulsion.
What does immiscible mean? What two liquids are immiscible in mayonnaise? What is the purpose of adding egg when making mayonnaise?
Food (Acids & Bases) Unit List five properties of acids.
List five properties of bases.
What is an acid according to Arrhenius? Give an example by writing out a chemical reaction.
What is a base according to Arrhenius? Give an example by writing out a chemical reaction.
What is pH? What does the pH scale show? What is the range of the pH scale? What pH values indicate acids, neutral, and bases? If one acid has a pH of 2 and another acid has a pH of 5, how many times more acidic is pH 2 than pH 5?
What is an indicator? Give a common example of an indicator. What color does the indicator turn when placed in an acid? What color does it turn in a base?
Food (Acids & Bases) Continued What is the chemical name for aspirin? What chemical is the precursor to aspirin? Where did the ancient Romans and Greeks find it? Why did it have to be changed?
What else is in aspirin besides the medicine? Be specific. How can you tell when aspirin has gone bad? Why does this happen?
What is acid reflux disease (heartburn)? What kind of medication is taken to help relieve the side effects? Why does this medication work?
Explosions Unit What causes explosions?
Describe a laboratory test that will tell you if a gas is carbon dioxide or oxygen. What would the results of the test be if you performed it?
What does putting Alka Seltzer in water have in common with putting yeast into hydrogen peroxide? How are they different?
In one activity, we put yeast into hydrogen peroxide. What happened to the hydrogen peroxide? What role does the yeast play? What is the balanced chemical reaction for this experiment?
Compare and contrast explosions and implosions.
Explain how the “can crush” demonstration works.
Compare and contrast direct and inverse relationships.
What is pressure? What three factors influence pressure? Are these relationships direct or inverse?
What is a “magic” balloon? What is the science behind how it works? What is the relationship (direct or inverse) between volume and temperature?
Choose any ONE relationship on the PTV magic ruler, and describe what the particles are doing to make that relationship happen.
What is combustion? What are the three things needed for combustion? What else do you need to make a dust explosion?
What is the difference between a primary explosion and a secondary explosion? What happened at the sugar factory to cause a primary explosion and then secondary explosions?
What is elephant toothpaste? How does it work?
ESSAY OPTIONS Water exhibits hydrogen bonding between its molecules. Define hydrogen bonding and use it to describe why water has the following properties: high surface tension, ice floats on water, and water’s ability to dissolve salt.
When making cheese, bacteria is added to milk. Why is this step necessary? What do the bacteria do to the chemicals in the milk? After this chemical reaction, what happens to the milk physically? Which portion of the curds and whey is kept for eating? Why is the cheese sealed in wax?
Describe the history of how aspiring (as we know it today) came to be. Include details such as why it was changed from its original form, and how you can tell when it’s gone bad (and why).
Draw a graph of an inverse relationship and a direct relationship. Is pressure and volume direct or inverse? Is volume and temperature direct or inverse? Is pressure and temperature direct or inverse? For each set of variables, explain why each relationship is direct or inverse by describing what is happening on the molecular level as conditions are changed.