Cheating in professional soccer generates heightened emotions and meanings…
“The Football Association of Ireland (FAI) lodged a formal complaint with FIFA and demanded that their controversial World Cup play-off defeat by France last night should be replayed. The FAI acted after Irish justice minister Dermot Ahern urged them to make an official protest following the 2-1 aggregate defeat.”
Stopping the opposition taking a quick free-kick by kicking ball away or holding on to it, or encroachment by defending side at a free kick or penalty kick.
A Typology of Cheating within Soccer
What we didn’t consider as cheating…
Rule violations that are definitely not ethos violations i.e. are part of the ethos though technically against the laws. Jostling, mutual shirt-pulling, defender climbing / forward backing in situations…“It’s a mans’ game!”
Intentional rule violations due to a player losing his temper i.e. where we judged there to be no apparent calculation of the cost or any intention to deceive.
Unintentional violations e.g. offside, mistimed tackles.
Passive cheating: not informing the officials of a mistake they have made e.g. ball crossing the line.
Playing position in match: GKs, Forwards, Wingers less likely to commit professional fouls than centre-backs / central midfielders. Opportunity/situational effect.
Caps: experienced international players less likely to commit professional fouls. Experience may mean better positioning hence less need top foul; greater ability leads to more caps, less need to foul.
Importance of match to team: frequency of offences increases when result of match has immediate importance to team.
Predictors of classic cheating:
Typical Playing position: Forward midfielders/’free-role’ most likely to commit classic cheating. Opportunity/situational effect.
National cultural dimensions: Nations with high power distance and high uncertainty avoidance - such nations are typically located in Latin America, Latin Europe, Eastern Europe - are most likely to commit classic cheating.
National cultural dimensions effect matches that found by Franke & Nadler (2008) in a business ethics scenario.
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