Super assumed that an individual’s career choice was not merely the result of matching his or her abilities and interests to the world of work, but that it was an expression of his or her self-concept.
Primary Life Roles
Life role relates to behaviors, motives, and sentiments more than merely position
Life roles are exercised in four arenas. One role can be played out in several theaters.
Recycling of stages throughout life, “minicycles,” or a cycling through stages across the lifespan “maxicyle.”
The constellation of life roles played out by individuals in life stages. Life-spaces differ between individuals because of personal factors (e.g., interests, needs, values,) and situational factors (e.g., family, culture, gender, societal forces).
Life Role Salience
The importance of a role. Awareness of which life roles are more or less important.
The simultaneous combination of life roles.
Sequence of life roles.
The course of life or “maxicycle” of stages.
The “career pattern” that results from role salience and structuring of various life roles.
Social Learning Theory of Career Decision Making (SLTCDM)
Learning Theory of Career Counseling (LTCC)
Krumboltz’ Social Cognitive Career Theory
This theory recognized the importance of cognitive processes and behavior in career decision making, and explicitly addressed the influence of reinforcement and learning on the career development and choice processes.
Social Cognitive Career Theory
(Gender, race, physical characteristics, specific talents)
(Social, cultural, political, economic, geographic, and climate)
The CIP approach to decision making and to career problem solving is designed to “help persons make an appropriate current career choice and, while doing so, to learn improved problem-solving and decision-making skills that they will need for future choices”
self-efficacy beliefs and outcome expectations, and are influenced by factors such as educational opportunity and family context.
Self-efficacy beliefs influence choice, actual performance, and persistence.
Self-efficacy beliefs act as moderators between experience and career interests.
Goal aspirations, and ultimately goal choices, are influenced by interests and by relevant self-efficacy and outcome expectation beliefs.
Theories of Embedded Career
Blustein’s concept of the embedded self (Blustein, 1994) or the self in relationship with others and the environment, career, and career development can be viewed as embedded in the larger context of social and environmental interchange and relationship.
Psychodynamic theories of career development focus on issues of ego identity, life scripts, and life themes and are often extensions of the theories of Adler (life themes) and Erikson (ego identity development).
Blustein, D. L. (1994). Who am I?: The question of self and identify in career development. In M. L. Savickas & R. W. Lent (Eds.), Convergence in career development theories: Implications for science and practice (pp. 139-154). Palo Alto, CA: CPP Books.
Krumboltz, J. D. (1994). Improving career development theory from a social learning perspective. In M. L. Savickas & R. W. Lent (Eds.), Convergence in career development theories: Implications for science and practice (pp. 9-31). Palo Alto, CA: CPP Books.
Sampson, J. P., Jr., Reardon, R. C., Peterson, G. W., & Lenz, J. G. (2004). Career counseling and services: A cognitive information processing approach. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.