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Include: two to three explained terms theorist with his/her ideas explained In-text citations in APA format: Chapter Objectives 1. The school’s function as a socializing agent. 2. Macrosystem influences on the school affecting its function—educational policy, school choice, diversity, and equity. 3. Chronosystem influences on schools—societal change, technology, health, and safety. 4. Mesosystem influences on schools—linkages between school and child, school and family, school and media, school and community. 1) Discuss how teacher expectations influence students’ ability to learn. 2) Discuss educational goals and their importance. ~~You may include the following: (Ch-6: Self efficacy, goals; NCLB; and accountability) Two Minute Write: Section 1 (D and E) MACROSYSTEM INFLUENCES ON SCHOOLS School’s function in society is: universal, formal, and Prescriptive) School’s Purpose: transmit the culture; transmits values and beliefs; DEMOCRACY the basic political ideology of the U. S. requires citizens to be educated to discuss and compromise on issues pertaining to them MACROSYSTEM INFLUENCES School Values: “Philosophical” What ‘s important in Education? What should be taught? How? Why? What are the Expectations? What are the school Goals?........as discussed What is the schools function?...... ....as discussed What is the school purpose?........ ....as discussed (Think-pair-share-everyone writes) QUIZ School As A Socializing Agent: the Modern Approach GOALS FOR SCHOOLING in the U.S. by John Goodlad (1984). Academic goals (Cultural area will specify specific classes) Vocational goals Social, Civic, and Cultural Goals Personal Goals No Child Left Behind (NCLB) DSIB #1 Philosophy: Education for All/Expectations School Choice/Accountability Multicultural Education Disabilities: Terms: (IDEA, IEP, Inclusion) Federal Government Expectations TEACHER CHARACTERISTICS AND STUDENT LEARNING: (TEACHER EXPECTATIONS) Disabilities: (IDEA, IEP, Inclusion) Multicultural Education: (Native Language and culture) Influence….. teacher/child interactions Affects…….. children's performances Teacher-directed v Learner-directed Traditional/Teacher-directed Children sit quietly, follow directions, listen attentively, and talk only when called upon. Interactive/learner-directed listen to literature and nonfiction being read aloud. Children act out and discuss the readings. Children express their understanding of the readings through art. Classroom management arranging the room, planning the activities, observing behavior, and organizing groups for socialization in the classroom. Societies Expectations and Challenges How do we transmit the society’s diverse cultural heritage, as well as prepare individuals for the future? Schools have preventative programs: sex education to avoid unplanned pregnancies, health classes discussing the danger of substance abuse, conflict resolution, AIDS Note: Advising Insert Review checklist to see which classes you need and those you have already taken Go to: www.csi.edu/catalog/ Select CSI Course Schedule Adjust down arrow to Summer Review available classes Blind side ( In class: 2 min. write; think-pair-share) How has community resources help this child? Schooling? How has a new supportive family helped this child? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i1hG_mjQojw Yours, Mine, Ours: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K738GQnRh20 Influences on School Curriculum Schools have: computer literacy and technology due to the workforce, creating a change in the way we view curriculum. On-line class requirement for HS Our macrosystem (belief/value) has changed to accommodate indirectly ( exosystem) the child’s inevitable future. Economic Opportunity Act (EOA)of 1964 Economic Opportunity Act (EOA)of 1964 federal money for programs for preschool disadvantaged children The Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) of 1965 (Title1) reauthorized DSIB #1 by the NCLB provided federal aid to education for math and reading or full school programs The Education for (revised in 1990 to become the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act All Handicapped Children Act of 1975 : IDEA) mandated a Free Appropriate Public Education ( FAPE) for all children with disabilities. Influences on School Curriculum Bilingual Education was mandated in school districts with high population rates of children whose native language was not English. During the 1980’s federal aid education was reduced; public education was to be the responsibility of the states. ESL/ELL: A “Nation at Risk” report fosters reform A “Nation at Risk” report fosters reform Demand for change in the public schools “Have lost the sight of the basic of schooling.” “Mediocrity threatens our very future as a nation and a people.” More capable people must be motivated to train and stay in the teaching profession. Education goals were announced in 1990 and in 1999 via the “Educational Excellence for All Children Act” proposed by President Bill Clinton Educational Excellence for All Children Act Curriculum Goals By 2000 (Consensus on schooling goals/Expectations). 1. Ready to learn. ******* DSIB #1 2. Graduation (90%) and drop-out rates (10%) 3. Grades 4, 8, and 12th demonstrate competency. 4. American students will be first in the world in science and mathematics achievements. 5. Every adult American will be literate. 6. Free of drugs and violence. ..now have 10 goals School Philosophy Schools and students will rise to the expectations and standards set forth. Size, Organization, Attitude …affect the Learning Environment Supportive Family-school linkages enable children to understand the connection between school learning and the world of work, as well as discovering new role models to emulate. How families can help schools accomplish their goals and established Acts ?????? Predicting Success ©2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. What Makes a Difference:??? Does the organization of the school and the school organization, itself? Does size of class or school? Does student/teacher/parent attitudes?? Family attitudes and beliefs: School is NOT important Family does not believe that school is very significant does not take much interest in the child’s homework . Schools in poor communities extra challenges in educating children fewer economic resources lack of supportive attitudes toward the school. Mesosystem Influences: School is IMPORTANT Family tells children school is important, school will help them achieve in life, the teacher knows best. Parents see to it that children do their homework respond to teacher’s requests for behavioral change. How can parent be “involvement”? Decision making- determining school programs and policies; Participation- working in the classroom as paid and volunteering instructional assistants; Partnership-providing home guidance to their children to support learning. MESOSYSTEM FAMILY- SCHOOL LINKAGES INFLUENCES A Child’s Readiness to Learn School-Family Linkages The effectiveness of the school as a socializing agency depends to a major degree on the kinds of families its children come from - community. School are less effective, educating children from low-socioeconomic-status families. The school’s influence in the soc value placed on the schoolialization process differs according to the by the family. MESOSYSTEM INFLUENCES SCHOOL- CHILD LINKAGES Individual learning styles may determine which type of learning environment is optimal. Planning/delivery options: by watching? visual By listening? auditory By moving his or her body? Kinesthetic Does the child achieve more alone or in a group? Is the child motivated by: pleasing the teacher? concrete rewards? internalized interest? School- Peer Group Linkages School-peer group linkages – children’s about learning influenced attitudes by their peer group can become dependent on their peers for approval Cooperative learning settings can increase student-achievement more than a teacher-directed setting . Improves student self-esteem, social relations, and acceptance of students with disabilities who have been mainstreamed or included. Socialization Influences of Class Size School-Community Influences: Small classes, more learning activities greater interaction among students enables them to understand one another. Teachers more time to monitor students’ “on-task” behavior provide quicker and more thorough feedback. Students hold more leadership positions than those in large schools. More choices of activities in large schools. School-Community Linkages ©2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Large class (more than 25 students) Less interaction with teacher Less frequent interaction in discussion Small class (less than 20) More opportunities for interaction; Increase in cooperative behavior Teachers’ Characteristics Competent teacher Teachers who work closely with each child and who understand group dynamics are more likely to provide a successful and rewarding learning environment. Successful teachers communicate well and are responsive to students. Ineffective teachers are aloof, critical, and negative. Pygmalion in the Classroom (DSIB #1) Teachers receive data about students at the beginning of the school year, influence their expectations of students for achievement and behavior self-fulfilling prophecies GENDER Expectations do not by themselves have a direct impact on student behavior; it is only when selective reinforcement results in shaping their behavior Teacher-School Responses to Ethnic Diversity DSIB #3 Macrosystem ideology school is responsible for socializing the ethnically diverse; those who live and work here must learn good citizenship. Philosophies : (TERMS) Assimilation/ Melting Pot versus Salad Bowl cultural pluralism (micro-and macroculture coexist). Cultural Pluralism DSIB #3 This philosophy embraces the ideals of mutual appreciation understanding of various cultures in society; cooperation of diverse groups; coexistence of different languages, religious beliefs and life styles; autonomy for each group to work out its own social purposes and future without interfering with the rights of other groups. Ethnically diverse students who perform poorly in school do so for a number of possible reasons: (Good information for Essay Question) Ethnically diverse students who perform poorly in school do so for a number of possible reasons: (Good information for Essay Question) DSIB #3 1. Inappropriate curricula and instruction. 2. Differences between parental and school norms. 3. Lack of previous success in school. 4. Teaching difficulties. 5. Teacher perceptions and standards. 6. Segregation 7. Differences in teacher/student backgrounds.
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