Chapter I introduction



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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

This chapter presents background of study, research problems, purposes of the study, significances of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of the key term, and organization of the study.



    1. Background of the Study

English is an important language to be learned because it is one of the international languages. In Indonesia, after the exchange of government official regulation about teaching English in the school, English is taught to the students at kindergarten, up to university level.

Teaching and learning English still faces some problems since most of the students are afraid of using English. Most of them think that English is very difficult to study. So, as an English teacher, we have to change their thought and guide them to be success.

Based on the competency standard for junior high school, the purpose of English teaching is that student are expected to be able to communicate with other fluently, accurately and acceptably. Students should increase their speaking skill in order to make the hearer understand what they mean. They also should catch what the addresee said to make the communication running well.

English subject that is taught in Indonesian’s schools consists of four skills namely Listening, Speaking, Writing, and Reading. The Speaking Skill is very important in the education field. Therefore, the students need to be exercised and trained in order to have a good speaking skill. Speaking is also something crucial and indispensable for the students because of their study depends on the greater part of their ability to speak. If their speaking skill is poor they are likely to fail in their communication or at least they will have difficulty in making progress. On the other hand, if they have a good ability in speaking, they will have a better chance to succeed in their communication.

Speaking mastery problems do not only come from the students ways in learning, but also the techniques that the teacher used in teaching and learning process. Because speaking is one of the skills that must be taught, the teacher has to care with the condition of the class by choosing the most suitable technique in teaching. In this case, the teacher has to be more creative and active to help the students in order to increase the student’s interest in speaking process.

Speaking is crucial part of a foreign skill. Because of its importance, for many years English teachers try to overcome students. In improving their speaking proficiency it is very common that the technique mostly used is a repetition of drills or memorization of dialogues. Kayi (2006:1) states that today’s world requires that the goal of teaching speaking should improve student’s communicative skills, because only in that way students can express themselves and learn how to follow the social and cultural rules appropriate to speak in the best way possible.

Speaking is the main priority in language learning. According to Allen (1985:97), speaking is a sound practice, particularly in the early stage of learning language, to give priority to the development of automatic speech habit. When learners begin to speak in another language, their speaking skill will need to be based on some focuses learning.

In speaking, the students usually reflect the language they use at home in social life, it can be seen they speak by using different intonation, vocabularies and structure. So to let the students practice in class, first, the teacher needs to adopt and vary of techniques of teaching. They include: free talk, retelling, guessing, describing, and so on. The second, teacher needs to get involvement in the class. Because it is very important to the teacher. The next, is how a teacher uses media in their teaching process.

Media has important function in a teaching learning process. By using media, may be the students will understand what a teacher explains. Meanwhile, from point of view of the teacher, he will be easier to transfer their knowledge to their students.

Beside that, available of teaching media gives opportunity to the English teacher to teach English to the students effectively. Therefore, it is necessary for the English teacher to presesnt the material in suitable ways. The use of an appropriate media can stimulate the students interest in involving themselves in to the new subject. Consequently, they can understand it easily. For example, by presenting the Art Postcards as the media of teaching speaking. It gives positive interest to the students.

Art Postcard provide a wealth of opportunity for language learning in the communicative language classroom, particularly those of portraits, social scenes, and the works of the surrealists. It is a good idea to organize them into themes (Hayes, 2007). The art postcard can serve as a useful aid in motivating students to communicate something meaningful in a practical context. The cultural content expands the imagination and the learner's perspective on the world, leading to the desire to offer comment and opinion and ask questions.

In keeping with the theory that authentic materials have an important role in the language classroom, the teacher bring postcards to class to provide raw material for the students to carry out a variety of tasks. The aim is to allow the students opportunities to develop speaking skill while listening and drawing or taking notes. These art based activities not only foster motivation but support creative approach to teaching. Furthemor, it is easy for teacher to adjust them to the students level in the target language, and ensure that their classes are successful, enjoyable and satisfying to the needs of the learners by giving them a real s3ense of purpose and achievement.

Based on the result of prelimary observation, the English teacher gave less intention of speaking skill. The focus is to pass the examination. As we know that in Indonesia, class examination even more national examination never touch speaking skill. Hence, speaking got less portion in the class. Unavoidably, the unseriously teaching learning influenced students’ mood. the writer found that many students faced some boredom, lazy, unmotivated, incurious, and effortless. It seemed that they join the speaking class cause duty to fall out prematurely. From those practical problems above, the researcher concluded that the problems is on the lack practice in speaking. Therefore, the students need an innovative instructional strategy to improve students’ speaking skill.

To overcome the problems, the writer conducts Classroom Action Research (CAR) by employing Art Postcard Strategy. Using art postcard is one of the techniques that can be applied in teaching speaking. Using art postcard should be considered as a strategy in teaching speaking because it can make the students be more active in their class. They have to use the art post given and use it to arrange some meaningful sentences to communicate with others students.

According to Ellison (2005), Art Postcards are an easy and fun way for increasing students’ participation in classroom activity and learning. They are a form of show-and-tell in which each student, or team of students, is provided with a card or cards that become the basis for research, oral presentation or a written report. But then, by using this technique, the researcher focus on the oral presentation only. The advanteges of using art postcard are to improve student’s speaking skill and increase students’ interest in practicing their speaking by the help of postcard.

Based on the background above, the researcher wants to be applied the technique in a research entitled USING THE MODIFIED ART POSTCARD TO IMPROVE STUDENTS’ SPEAKING PROFICIENCY AT SMPN 2 GONDANG”.



    1. Formulation of the Research Problem

Based on the background above reason, the formulation of the research problem is how can the modified art postcard develop speaking proficiency at eight grade of students’ of SMP N 02 Gondang ?

    1. Purpose of the study

  1. Ge­­­­neral Purpose

In general, the purpose of this research is searching for more information on students’ speaking skill in communication class at SMPN 2 Gondang known with certainty to what extent using art post is able to provide an improvement of students' speaking skill.

  1. Specific Objectives

The specific purpose of this study, as follows:

  1. To describe the 8th students’ speaking skill in communication class of SMPN 2 Gondang before learning using art postcard

  2. To know how far is the increase of 8th students’ speaking skill in communication class of SMPN 2 Gondang after learning using art postcard

  3. To identify the factors affecting the increase 8th students’ speaking skill in communication class of SMPN 2 Gondang.



    1. Objective of the Research

This study aims to know how the modified art postcards can increase speaking proficiency at eight grade students of SMP N 02 Gondang.

    1. Significant of the Study

The benefits of this research can be seen, both in terms of the benefits in terms of theoretical and practical benefits such as the following:

  1. Theoretically

Theoretically, this research is expected to contribute to the application of linguistic theory, particularly in learning English as a foreign language for students of Indonesian nationality. Given this research, it can be said that linguistic theory increasingly provides benefit in progress, especially in terms of language education.

  1. Practically

In practice, the results of this study are expected to provide benefits to students, teachers and other researchers are discussing the same thing. The gain is as follows:

  1. The students

The students can get the new way to solve their problem in speaking in communication class. They will feel enjoy in their speaking activity by using art post.

  1. The Teacher

It can be use by the teacher to improve the student’s ability by using this technique, so, it can increase their quality in teaching speaking.

  1. The future researcher

The finding of the research can be used by the future researcher as the reference to conduct their thesis.

1.7 Definition of Key Term

To avoid misunderstanding, some terms used in this study need to be defined as follows :



  1. Speaking Proficiency

Speaking proficiency is the ability to perform linguistic knowledge in actual communication. The ability to express our idea, feeling, thought and need orally. As speaking is to communicate, it generally becomes main goal of learning in language. People learning the language certainly wants to speak it. It means when someone wants to master a certain language being learned, the first language skill he wants to acquire is speaking, because it will make them able to practice it with other people. When we are talking about speaking, it is dealing with proficiency. According to Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English, proficiency is a good standard of ability and skill. In harmony with that, Oxford Advanced learner’s Dictionary says proficient means doing or able to do something in a skilled or an expert way because of training and practice. Based on wikipedia fluency and language competence are generally recognized as being related with speaking.

b. Communication

Communication is a continuous process of expression, interpretation, and negotiation. The opportunities for communications are infinite and include systems of signs and symbols (Savignon, 1982:8). Communication requires a sender, a receiver and a medium. It can be said that both hearers and speakers do interactions by giving responds to what they have heard and listened to. Generally, people who encounter others through this oral communication have a certain goal that they want to achieve, the goal that underlies people to do the communication.
c. Art postcard

According to Bruce Ellison (2005: 1), postcards are an easy and fun way for increased student participation in classroom activity and learning. They are a form of show-and-tell in which each student, or team of students, is provided with a card or cards that become the basis for research, oral presentation or a written report.



    1. Organization of the Study

To make the research easy to be studied, understood, and analyzed, the researcher organizes the research report as follow:

CHAPTER I

Introduction, including background of the study, formulation of the research problem, the purpose of the study, sinificance of the study, definition of key terms, and organization of the study.

CHAPTER II

Review of related literature, including (A) Concept of speaking, includes (1) Models of speaking, (2) Usefulness of oral work(2) Importance of oral work (B) Teaching Speaking, includes (1) Principle of teaching speaking, (2) Techniques of teaching speaking (C) Communication Class, includes (1) Types of classroom speaking performance, (2) The role of community in speaking activities (D) Art Postcard, includes (1) Definition of art postcard, (2) Set up and procedures for lesson (E) How to Test Speaking or Oral Test, includes (1) Identifying purpose, (2) Planning for assessment, (3) Developing rubrics or scoring procedures, (4) Setting standards

CHAPTER III

Research Method, consist of (A) Research design, (B) Subject and setting of the study, (C) Procedures of the study, includes (1) Preleminary Observation (Reconnaissance), (2) Planning, includes: (a) Socializing the research program, (b) Providing the strategy, (c) Designing the lesson plan, (d) Preparing the criteria of success, (e) Training the collaborator teacher. (3) Implementing, (4) Observing, (5) Reflecting

CHAPTER IV

Findings and Discussion, covers the result of the study and discussion toward the result of the study. This chapter report the following aspects (1) The results of reflection in the first cycle, (2) The criteria of success have been achieved, (3) The implementation of second cycle, (4) The result of the reflection second cycle

CHAPTER V

Conclusion and Suggestion, includes the conclusion of the study and the suggestion toward it.


CHAPTER II

REVIEWING RELATED LITERATURE

  1. Concept of Speaking

There are many definitions of speaking stated by some experts. Hornby (1990:1227) defines speaking is make use of words in an ordinary voice. In addition, Nunan in Kayi states speaking is “use the language quickly and confidently with few unnatural pauses, which is called as fluency.” (Kayi, 2006: 1)

Besides, Nunan adds, speaking is an interactive process of constructing meaning that involves producing, receiving and processing information. Its form and meaning are depending on the context in which it occurs, including the participants themselves, their experiences, the physical environment, and the purposes for speaking. It is often spontaneous, open-ended, and evolving. However, speech is not always unpredictable. Speaking requires that learners not only know how to produce specific points of language such as grammar, pronunciation, or vocabulary ("linguistic competence"), but also that they understand when, why, and in what ways to produce language ("sociolinguistic competence") (Nunan,1999:216)

From those definition of speaking above, it can be concluded that speaking is the way of producing, receiving, and prcessing some words in a certain sound and intonation for communicating and interact with others in order to share such information.


    1. Models of Speaking

According to Underhill (2004: 2) speech is normally a two-way system of communication: situation where only one person speaks and other only listen, such as an academic lecture or political address, are comparatively rare.

The models below is sometimes used to identify the different components inv ved in communication by speech. The arrow indicates the direction of speech. They point in both directions; at one moment, one person is listening to the other person speaking, and the next moment, the roles may be reversed. The speaker becomes the listener, and the listener becomes the speaker. These switches from one role to another often happen very fast in conversation. (Underhill, 2004: 2)



With one addition, the same model can be used to represent the oral test situation. As well as a person who speaks and the person who listens, i an oral test we need somebody to assess that speech. It is the process of assessment that turns it into a test.






ASSESSOR




    1. Usefulnes of Oral Work

Patel (2008: 102) classified the usefulness of oral work as follow:

    1. To suggest new ideas: When teacher wants to increase the vocabularies of students, he at first should introduse the new ideas to the students so that students could be able to increase his vocabularies. During this process, the teacher should not apply his own notion on students. He should put a topic before stdents so that there will be discuss or talking among them on the topic. Teacher should put topic according to experiences and interest of students.

    2. When teacher introduces new ideas, then new word also should be introduced to the students so that students could be acquainted of new words. With little efforts students can learn two or three words of English language. Thus students can be strong in remembering of words.

    3. When students learn new ideas and new words, then he should be given the knowledge of way of arranging words properly. There is much difference in order of words in english and Gujarati language. Teacher should tell about the two patterns of the languages. So that students could understand it very well so that they could apply them in their speech.

    4. When students learn how to arrange the words properly, then teacher should develop the habit of speaking among his students. He can develop it by asking question and receiving answer from students. Hecan organize debate or dicusssion. So that the habit of speaking could b developed in students.


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