Chapter 9 Presenting Your



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Chapter 9

  • Presenting Your
  • Best Work

Purpose of This Chapter

    • To help you acquire and strengthen presentation skills in writing and in speeches.
    •  Is there anyone out there that has a fear or concern about writing or giving speeches?
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Our College’s Goal is:

  • . . . to help you develop & improve your written & oral presentation skills in a variety of classes so that when you graduate, you’ll feel ready to use these skills on the job.
  •  Our goal for this class is to get you off to a good start with some tips & painless strategies.
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Learning Outcomes

  • Use the basic steps to effective writing.
  • Recognize & understand the steps for writing a research paper.
  • Recognize & understand the fundamentals for producing quality memos, letters, & reports for work.
  • Overcome the fear of public speaking.
  • Make interesting, well-organized oral presentations.
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“The faster I write, the better my output. If I’m going slow, I’m in trouble. It means I’m pushing the words instead of being pulled by them.” —Raymond Chandler  Reflect on this.

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Basic Steps to Effective Writing

  • Choosing a Topic for a Writing Assignment
  • Prewriting
  • Organizing
  • Writing a Rough Draft
  • Revising to Produce Your Final Copy
  •  Now let’s experience it!
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- time for another quote - “The act of writing is the act of discovering what you believe.” —David Hare  Reflect on this.

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Step 1. Let’s Find a Topic to Write About

  • Class Share  What topic ideas come to mind related to each of the following?
  • A hobby or activity you really enjoy
  • An issue of great concern to you
  • How to go “green” & save money
  • The importance of the golden rule
  • What other ideas are on your mind?
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Let’s determine the top 3–5 topics from the preceding activity.

  • . . . and divide into groups
  • according to your preferred topic.
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Step 2. Prewriting—What is it?

  • The text mentioned the following prewriting strategies:
  • Brainstorming  Let’s try this one  next slide
  •  Explain the next 3 prewriting strategies.
  • Freewriting
  • Questioning
  • Branching
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We now have several groups divided by topic.

  • Each person should now engage in independent brainstorming on the topic.
  •  So, how do we brainstorm?
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Brainstorm

  • For 2 minutes, let’s brainstorm independently (on paper) the ideas or details that relate to your topic which you could include in your paper.
  • Share your ideas with your group & develop one list of possible ideas for your paper.
  • Now independently try experimenting with branching your list.
  • Now share your branching with the group. (See Figure 9-1 in your book for an example)
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Step 3. Organizing

  • Independently  Use your prewriting list & cross off items you don’t want to include in your paper.
  • Put an ! by ideas that are great.
  • Create an outline to create a logical sequence.
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An Outline

  • Lists the major points of your paper in the order they should appear.
  • Lists a few notes about what you’ll say about each point.
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Your outline should also include

  • . . . the 3 main parts of a paper:
  • Introduction
  • Body
  • Conclusion
  • What is involved in each of the above?
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Step 4. Write a Rough Draft

  • Use your outline as a guide to write a rough draft.
  • Write a topic sentence for each idea in the outline.
  • Use that sentence to lead off the paragraph.
  • Each paragraph should have only one main idea.
  • It’s a draft! Don’t worry about spelling & grammar.
  • Write with energy & reckless abandon.
  •  Revising & polishing will be the next step.
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Step 5. Revising

  • Revise your rough draft & fine-tune it until it’s ready to submit for grading.
  • Check the logic & clarity of your arguments.
  • Make sure that the thesis or argument is clearly stated in the introduction,
  • Make sure each section contains evidence to back up your argument.
  • Make sure each paragraph has a topic sentence & following sentences that support it.
  • Cut out any unnecessary words or sentences.
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Revising continued

  • Evaluate your essay for grammar, sentence structure, & clarity of thought.
  • Correct errors & reword sentences that don’t sound right.
  • Get a proofreader that has good writing skills to proof your paper.
  • Considering reading it to a friend for their reaction. Is it persuasive & interesting?
  • When it looks “perfect,” you're ready to submit it.
  • (Ask your instructor about submitting a cover sheet—what information is expected on the cover sheet?)
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Research Papers—Oh no!

  • Research Papers are also easier to write when you have a step-by-step process.
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Research Paper Steps

  • Research Paper Steps
    • Know the ropes:
    • What are the assignment requirements?
    • Follow them precisely.
    • Choose a topic
    • Are you assigned a topic?
    • If not, refer to earlier section: Choosing a Topic for a Writing Assignment
    • Gather information—How & where will you do this?
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Research Paper Steps continued

    • Select information from your resources
    • Construct an outline  covered on next slides
    • Write a rough draft  refer to earlier section: Write a Rough Draft
    • Revise & polish  covered on slides after outline
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Basic Elements of a Research Paper Outline

  • Introduction
  • Thesis statement—the main point of your paper
  • Points that will back up your statement
  • First point
  • Second point
  • Third point
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Basic Elements of a Research Paper Outline continued

  • Body
  • First (strongest point)—topic sentence
  • Supporting detail
  • Supporting detail
  • Supporting detail
  • Second (next strongest point)—topic sentence
  • Supporting detail
  • Supporting detail
  • Supporting detail
  • Third point—topic sentence
  • Supporting detail
  • Supporting detail
  • Supporting detail
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Basic Elements of a Research Paper Outline continued

  • Conclusion
  • Restate thesis & summarize evidence.
  • Concluding statement.
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Revise & Polish

  • Evaluate paper for grammar, sentence structure, spelling, & clarity.
  • Reword passages that sound awkward or unclear.
  • Use your computer thesaurus to create more precise wording.
  • Make sure you have placed quotation marks around quotes, or set off any quoted material that’s five lines or more, & footnoted each quote or referenced item with the required style.
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Revise & Polish continued

  • Double space your paper & leave at least 1” margins unless otherwise specified.
  • Create a title page with paper title, your name, course name & section number, instructor’s name, & date. Then turn it in on time.
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Think about your future job.

  •  How much & what type of writing do you anticipate?
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The basics for producing quality memos, letters, & reports for work.

  • Writing concisely is one of the most important work writing skills.
  • How would you define it?
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6 Tips for Writing Concisely

  • Stay on the message (be focused)
  • Say it clearly & only once. Omit unnecessary words:
  • Many uneducated citizens (who have never attended school) continue to vote for better schools.
  • Use plain language
  • Keep it simple
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Tips for Writing Concisely continued

  • Show it  if you have a picture or diagram.
  • “A picture is worth a 1,000 words.”
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Tips for Writing Concisely continued

  • Write in the active voice.
  •  What does this mean?
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Active Voice  emphasizes the doer & it’s shorter.

  • This active voice sentence below is 6 words:
  • Writing the same sentence in the passive voice (as below) uses 8 words:
  • The cake was delivered to Patrick by Jen.
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The Paramedic Method: A Lesson in Writing Concisely (from the Owl at Purdue University) https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/635/01/

  • Circle the prepositions (of, in, about, for, onto, into)
  • Draw a box around the “is” verb forms
  • Ask, “Where’s the action?”
  • Change the “action” into a simple verb
  • Move the doer into the subject (Who’s kicking whom?)
  • Eliminate any unnecessary slow wind-ups
  • Eliminate any redundancies Example 
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The Paramedic Method: A Lesson in Writing Concisely From the Owl at Purdue University http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/635/01/

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Little Wordy?  Let’s write it more concisely.

  • It is most likely a true fact that in spite of the fact that the educational atmosphere that surrounds our colleges is a very significant and a very important factor to each and every one of our citizens in terms of their personal and individual future development and growth, various different groups and people do not at all support certain tax assessments or tax increases at a reasonable and fair rate that are required for the one and only purpose and express intention of providing an excellent educational context at a decent level of quality.  next slide
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Concise

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Beat Procrastination

  • How does using a step-by-step writing process help you beat procrastination?
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Writing for Business

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  • Writing for Business

—Writing for Business—

  • Tell me everything you know about writing an effective:
  • Memo
  • Business letter
    • How does this resemble writing an essay?
  • Report
    • How does this resemble writing an essay and a memo?
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The Memo is the Most Common Work Document

  • Memo Writing Tips
  • Get to the point quickly—your reader already knows the subject—it’s on the subject line.
  • Be interesting, conversational, & natural.
  • Highlight or underline key ideas .
  • Use bullets for quick reading.
  • Keep each sentence short & simple.
  • Be specific, clear, & concise.
  • Keep your reader(s) in mind.
  • Keep it to one page.
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Tips for Writing a Business Letter

  • Use the following 3 parts in a business letter
    • Introduction
    • Body
    • Conclusion
  • Use transitions to help your letter flow
    • “Additionally” or “furthermore”
    • Or a phrase  “Now that we’ve examined the possibilities, let’s select the route that’s best for you.”
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Tips for Writing Reports

  • Structure it with an introduction, body, & conclusion.
  • Be clear, specific, & concise.
  • Use language appropriate to the reader & keep it simple.
  • Use bulleted or numbered lists to highlight key ideas you want to bring to your reader’s attention.
  • Make sure you make needed actions clear.
  • Use both writing & organization that is easily & quickly understood.
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Improve Your Writing

  • with
  • Journaling
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Keeping a Journal may seem like a lot of work, but consider:

  • Choosing a positive Journal Theme
  • Writing your:
  • Goals
  • Clever ideas
  • Good thoughts
  • Positive self-talk for the day
  • Good things that happened to anyone
  • Other????
  • Journaling gives you practice in writing.  Reflect on this.
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Oral Presentations

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  • Oral Presentations

Preparing for Your Presentation Will Give You More Confidence

  • Use positive self-talk to direct your preparation, practice, & delivery.
  • Create an outline to keep you organized.
  • Try the essay outline:
    • Introduction
    • Body
    • Conclusion
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Preparing for Your Presentation Will Give You More Confidence continued

  • Use your outline for practice.
  • If allowed, use a minimal outline for your speech.
  • Use visualization & see yourself:
    • Energized
    • Excited about your topic
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Preparing for Your Presentation Will Give You More Confidence continued

  • Use visualization & see your audience:
    • As attentive & interested
    • Laughing at your jokes
    • Responding to your questions
    • Applauding when you’re finished
  • Practice & enjoy your practice
    • Practice grabbing your audience’s attention.
    • Practice each part of your outline with enthusiasm.
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28 Tips for Making Oral Presentations

  • Introduce yourself.
  • Try to be yourself. It’s OK to be nervous. (You’ll be more relaxed with practice & organization).
  • Add energy & enthusiasm. (Practice it.)
  • Learn about your audience—chat a little.
  • Capture the audience’s interest.
    • Tell them your purpose.
    • Tell them what you plan to do—build their anticipation.
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Tips for Making Oral Presentations continued

  • Make eye contact with the audience.
  • Use your whole body. (Walk toward the audience as you speak).
  • Use your natural gestures.
  • Avoid distracting dress & mannerisms, unless that is what your speech is about.
  • Use the pitch & volume of your voice effectively.
  • Speak at a pace that is appropriate for your audience & the material.
  • Deliver material in a clear, energetic way.
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Tips for Making Oral Presentations continued

  • Use pauses.
  • Use humor.
  • Show the audience something rather than just telling them about it.
  • Use audiovisuals effectively.
  • Ask questions & give your audience a chance to respond.
  • Encourage participation in other ways—try getting them to brainstorm.
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Tips for Making Oral Presentations continued

  • Bring the topic to life (e.g., through role playing or conducting a survey).
  • Respond to the audience’s nonverbal messages (e.g., puzzlement, fatigue).
  • Vary.
  • Monitor your time.
  • Avoid introducing new points in the last few minutes of the session.
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Tips for Making Oral Presentations continued

  • Summarize.
  • Determine if there are any lingering questions or concerns.
  • End the session with good energy.
  • Invite feedback, either at the end of the session or sometime following the session.
  • Use active listening to demonstrate understanding of the audience’s comments.
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Key Chapter Points

  • Practice with writing assignments & oral presentations & you will build your confidence to use these skills on the job.
  • Create outlines for writing assignments & speeches & you will get high marks for organization.
  • Keeping a journal is a great way to improve your writing skills because you put thoughts on paper.
  • Strong writing & oral presentation skills are important for both college & career success.
  • Make your presentations lively, fun, & informative, & you will enjoy it.
  • Copyright © 2016 by Tapestry Press, Ltd.


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