Chapter 8 Section 1



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Chapter 8 Section 1

  • Religion Sparks Reform A renewal of religious sentiment—known as the Second Great Awakening—inspires a host of reform movements.

Expanding Democracy

  • Early 1800s – Most White males could vote
  • Sates passed laws allowing voters more control over government
  • 1830s and 1840s – Laws were changed to allow voters to choose state governors in a direct election
  • - Previously chosen by state legislatures
  • 1831 & 1832 – Major political parties held national conventions to choose candidates
  • - Each state sent delegates to represent them
  • - Candidates were previously selected in a closed caucus (Meeting of important party members)
  • Conventions gave common people an stronger voice in the party’s nomination

Second Great Awakening

  • A revival of religious faith in the early 1800s
  • Preachers delivered the message that every person could be saved and that Jesus Christ would come again
  • American were told they must cast out evil and create a heaven on Earth
  • Revival- gathering to awaken religious faith; lasts 4 to 5 days
  • - Revivalism greatly increases church membership
  • - Churches set up Sunday Schools

Second Great Awakening

  • The African-American Church
  • - Camp meetings, Baptist, Methodist churches open to blacks and whites
  • - Southern slaves interpreted Christian message as promise of freedom
  • 1830s and 1840s – Women became leaders in reform movements

Americans Form Ideal Communities

  • Utopian communities - experimental groups, try to create perfect place
  • Most utopias last only a few years

The Shakers

  • Most reform movements were attempts to improve society
  • Some reformers believed it was necessary to start from scratch and build a new society
  • - Tried to establish Utopias -Ideal communities
  • - Religious beliefs were the basis for some utopias
  • Shakers - founded by Ann Lee in 1774
  • - Preached that people were equal and should share in all aspects of life

The Shakers

  • Shakers established communities in New York, New England, and the Frontier
  • - Men and women to lived apart
  • - Farmed and made furniture
  • Worshipped on Sunday’s and displayed deep religious emotion
  • - Called Shakers because their services were filed with shaking, dancing, and singing
  • Shakers didn’t have Children
  • - Relied on gaining converts and adoption to grow
  • - Reached it peak in the 1840s (6,000 members)

Changes in Education

  • Workers wanted to educate their children
  • Americans had long valued education
  • - Believed it was necessary for democracy
  • - Few Children were able to obtain an education
  • 1830s – Americans demanded change
  • 1834 - Pennsylvania established tax-supported public school system
  • Massachusetts established a state board of education
  • Horace Mann called for free public education (great equalizer)
  • - Established teacher training, curriculum reforms
  • 1850 – Many northern states had elementary schools paid for by public taxes
  • - More young people gained the chance to attend high school and college

Changes in Education

  • New colleges were established by churches (Northwestern and Notre Dame)
  • Young women could not attend public high school and most colleges
  • - 1836 – Wesleyan College opened in Georgia (1st women’s college)
  • African- American children weren’t allowed to attend public schools (Paid Taxes)
  • - A few African-American schools were opened in northern cities and Washington D.C.
  • - Slave states made it illegal to teach salves to read or write after Turner’s Rebellion
  • - Only a few colleges would accept African -Americans

Newspapers and Magazines

  • Increased literacy rate created a demand for reading materials
  • 1830s – Cheaper print and the creation of a steam driven printing press made lowered the price of newspapers to one penny
  • Penny papers made news available to the average American
  • Hundreds of new magazines began
  • - Godey’s Lady Book – Advised American women on how they should dress and behave

Caring for the Needy

  • 1841 – Dorothea Dix discovered that mentally ill people were not being cared for properly
  • - Chained to beds
  • - Beaten
  • - Kept in cages in unheated part of prisons
  • Asked states to improve care for the mentally ill
  • Her work led to the building of 32 new hospitals

Caring for the Needy

  • Dix also called for prison reforms
  • Everyone was housed together (Long time criminals and children)
  • Reformers demanded jails be established for children
  • Also called for better treatment of adult prisoners
  • - New prisons were built with the goal of rehabilitating prisoners

Caring for the Needy

  • Reformers worked to improve conditions for the disabled
  • 1817 – Thomas H. Gallaudet started 1st American school for deaf children
  • 1830s – Samuel Howe founded the Perkins school for the blind

Chapter 8 Section 2

  • Slavery and Abolition Slavery becomes an explosive issue, as more Americans join reformers working to put an end to it.

Abolitionists Speak Out

  • Many Americans began feeling that slavery was wrong
  • - Believed it went against Christianity and the principles the nation was founded upon on
  • Abolitionist – Group of reformers who wanted to abolish slavery
  • - 1820s - over 100 antislavery societies advocated resettlement in Africa
  • - Most free blacks considered themselves American only a few emigrated

Abolitionists Speak Out

  • Whites joined blacks calling for abolition- outlawing of slavery
  • William Lloyd Garrison – Started his own paper to urge the abolition of slavery (The Liberator)
  • - The Liberator called for immediate emancipation— freeing of slaves

Abolitionists Speak Out

  • Fredrick Douglass – Former slave who escaped to Massachusetts
  • - Lectured about his experience as a slave
  • - started newspaper North Star
  • - Later served as a U.S. representative to Haiti
  • Abolitionist movement was strongest in the North

The Underground Railroad

  • People joined local antislavery societies
  • 1840 – over 2000 societies existed
  • Many people took action to help slaves escape to freedom along the Underground Railroad
  • Former slaves traveled at night and stayed during the day at hiding places called stations

The Underground Railroad

  • People who led the runaway slaves to freedom were called conductors
  • - Harriett Tubman was the most famous conductor
  • - Helped over 300 slaves gain freedom

Slavery

  • Only 25% of the people could afford slaves
  • Only 10 thousand out of 5 million people owned more than 50 slaves
  • The Slave Population increases from 1810 (1.2 million) to 1830 (2 million)
  • 18th century, most slaves recent arrivals, work on small farms
  • By 1830, majority are American, work on plantations or large farms
  • Rural Slavery
  • - plantations, men, women, children work dawn to dusk in fields
  • - Slaves are whipped, have little time for food, no breaks for rest

Slavery

  • Urban Slavery
  • - Demand in southern cities for skilled black slaves
  • - Enslaved blacks can hire themselves out as artisans
  • - Slave owners hire out their workers to factory owners
  • Treatment of slaves in cities less cruel than on plantations
  • Slave resistance
  • - Wrecked farm equipment
  • - Ran away
  • - Acted like they didn’t understand direction

Nat Turner’s Rebellion

  • 1831 -Nat Turner was a slave who led a rebellion in Virginia
  • They attacked several plantations and killed about 60 whites
  • Turner was tried and hung
  • Followers and innocent slaves were captured; 200 killed in retaliation
  • Rebellion caused state legislatures to pass harsh laws
  • - Slaves were required to have a pass to run errands
  • - Whites were forbidden to teach slaves to read or write
  • - Slaves were prevented from holding religious meetings
  • Rebellion ended any hope that the south would end slavery
  • - Virginia legislature had thought of ending slavery before the rebellion

Chapter 8 Section 3

  • Women and Reform Women reformers expand their efforts from movements such as abolition and temperance to include women’s rights.

Women’s Roles in the Mid-1800s

  • Cultural and Legal Limits on Women
  • Cult of domesticity—only housework, child care for married women
  • Single white women earned half of men’s pay for doing same job
  • Women had fewer legal rights
  • - Couldn’t vote
  • - Sit on juries
  • - Didn’t have guardianship of own children
  • A married woman’s property, earnings belonged to her husband
  • - He could also punish his wife as long as he didn’t seriously hurt her

Women Mobilize for Reform

  • Middle-class white women were inspired by religion to join reform movements
  • Sarah and Angelina Grimké - work for abolition
  • Raised on a South Carolina plantation
  • Moved North and became Quakers
  • Won over a 100 converts to the abolitionist movement

Women Mobilize for Reform

  • 1848 – Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton organized a meeting at Seneca Falls, New York
  • - Wanted equality at work, school, church, and before the law
  • - Wanted Women’s Suffrage- Right to vote
  • Sojourner Truth – One of the first African-American women to speak out against slavery
  • - Gained her freedom when New York abolished slavery in 1827
  • - Changed name from Isabella to reflect her life’s work

Women Mobilize for Reform

  • Susan B. Anthony joined the women’s movement
  • - Built it into a national organization
  • - Several states in the Northwest and Midwest passed laws to give married women rights to their own property
  • Women didn’t gain the right to vote
  • - Susan B. Anthony was arrested and fined for trying to vote in the Presidential election of 1872

The Temperance Movement

  • Early 1800s – Heavy drinking was commonly accepted in America
  • - Some people spent most of their money on rum and beer
  • - Families had to do without
  • - Children could buy alcohol as easily as adults
  • Reformers began blaming alcohol for the misery of the poor
  • - Called for temperance – Giving up the drinking of alcoholic beverages

The Temperance Movement

  • Many women in temperance movement - prohibit drinking alcohol
  • American Temperance Union founded in 1826
  • - Had 6,000 local groups by 1833
  • Movement was well organized
  • - Urged people to sign pledges to stop drinking (500,000 signed)
  • - Twelve states passed laws banning the sale of alcohol
  • Laws were repelled due to opposition

Chapter 8 Section 4

  • The Changing Workplace A growing industrial work force faces problems arising from manufacturing under the factory system.

Early Factories

  • Early 1800s, artisans produced items people couldn’t make themselves:
  • - master—highly experienced artisan
  • - journeyman -skilled worker employed by master
  • - apprentice - young worker learning craft
  • Factories revolutionized industry
  • Mass production cost the price of household items to drop
  • Factory system changed the way people worked
  • - Unskilled workers replaced artisans
  • - Factory work was boring, noisy, and unsafe

Workers Seek Better Conditions

  • Workers Unionized
  • Artisans formed unions& begin to ally themselves with unskilled workers
  • 1830s & 1840s - 1 to 2% of workers organized & conducted dozens of strikes
  • - Employers used immigrants as strikebreakers
  • European immigration to the U.S. increased between 1830 & 1860
  • The Push-Pull of Immigration
  • - Overpopulation, unemployment and persecution pushed people out of Europe
  • - Economic opportunity pulled people towards America (Jobs & Land)

Workers Seek Better Conditions

  • 1830s - unions for same trade united to standardize wages, conditions
  • 1834 - organizations from 6 industries formed National Trades’ Union
  • Bankers & factory owners formed associations & courts declared strikes illegal
  • 1842 - Massachusetts Supreme Court upheld the right to strike
  • Panic of 1837 caused the labor movement to crumble
  • Movement was able to achieve a few of its goals
  • - Some health and safety laws were passed to protect workers
  • - 1840 – President Martin Van Buren put in place a 10 hour workday for all public workers
  • - 1850s – private businesses followed the government’s example

Irish Immigration

  • 1800s – Irish suffered under British rule
  • Catholics weren’t allowed to Practice Faith
  • - Vote, Hold office, Buy or inherit land, or Attend School
  • Relied on Potatoes for Food
  • 1848 – Disease attacked the potato crop (Potato Famine)
  • 1854 – 1.25 million Irish had migrated to America
  • - Journey was paid for by relatives who had previously migrated
  • Irish stayed in the great port cities of Boston, New York, Philadelphia, and Baltimore
  • - 1850 – Irish made up ¼ of these cities populations
  • - 1900 – There were more Irish in America than in Ireland
  • Irish Immigrants survived by doing unskilled work
  • - Construction Gangs (Roads, Canals, and Railroads)
  • - Women washed and sewed

Anti-Immigrant Feelings

  • Irish immigration caused anger and prejudice
  • - Unfair opinion formed wormed without facts
  • Protestants feared that Catholics would place loyalty to the Pope above all else
  • Native-born Americans feared that Irish politicians would take over cities
  • Nativists – People who wanted to restrict the influence of foreign born people
  • - Refused to hire immigrants
  • - Formed Secret Societies (Promised not to support Catholics who ran for office)
  • - When asked about secret groups members would reply “I know nothing”

Anti-Immigrant Feelings

  • Know-Nothing Party – Formed in the 1850s
  • - Wanted to limit the power of Irish immigrants
  • - Wanted to ban Catholics and the foreign born from holding office
  • - Called or a cut in immigration and a 21 year wait to become an American citizen
  • - Party lasted less than a decade
  • Hostility lessoned as children and grandchildren of immigrants became part of American life

The Germans

  • Largest immigrant group in the 1800s
  • Settled in both cities and on farms
  • - Had both artisan and farming skills
  • Large number moved to Midwestern states of Ohio, Illinois, Wisconsin, and Missouri
  • German immigrants often built new industries
  • - Bausch and Lomb – Eyeglasses
  • - Heinz – Processed foods
  • German culture became part of the American culture
  • - Christmas tree
  • - Kindergarten
  • - Marching Bands
  • - Hamburgers

The Germans

  • Many of the Germans immigrants were Jews
  • - Moved west as peddlers and store keepers
  • - Levi Strauss – Came to U.S. in 1847 and opened a store in San Francisco
  • (His company was the 1st to make blue denim workpants)

Early American Literature

  • Mid 1800s – American writers began developing their own style
  • (1823 -1841) James Fenimore Cooper wrote Last of the Mohicans, The path Finder and The Deerslayer

Early American Literature

Early American Literature

  • Ralph Waldo Emerson – Urged American writers to free themselves from their European roots and develop their own way of thinking

Early American Literature

  • Nathaniel Hawthorne – wrote the Scarlet Letter

Early American Literature

  • Henry David Thoreau – Believed in living simply and in harmony with nature
  • - Wrote essay “Civil Disobedience” that said people should not obey unjust laws
  • - Went to jail for refusing to pay taxes to support Mexican war
  • - His practice of passive resistance later influenced Gandhi and Martin Luther King Jr.


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